click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport

Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport is a public-use airport located in Broomfield, United States. The airport is owned and operated by Jefferson County and is situated midway between Denver and Boulder on U. S. Highway 36, it is located sixteen miles northwest of the central business district of Denver, is the closest airport to downtown Denver. The airport has three runways. Known as Jefferson County Airport or Jeffco Airport, the airport was renamed Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport on October 10, 2006 although it is sometimes referred to as Rocky Mountain Regional Airport, e.g. 2007-2012 county planning documents. This airport is included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems for 2011–2015, which categorized it as a reliever airport, it is home to a large general aviation population including a fair amount of corporate traffic and several flight schools. The airport's proximity to the nearby Interlocken business district contributes to its business traveler clientele, it has a control tower on 118.6 and 121.7, open from 0600 to 2200 local time.

ATIS/AWOS broadcasts on 126.25. There are three runways - 12/30 Left and Right and 3/21; the runway numbers were changed in November 2014 to reflect a change in magnetic variation. One fixed-base operator offers other services. Two restaurants, E's Just Good Eats and Blue Sky Bistro, are on the field, along with a pilot's lounge in the Signature FBO and a passenger terminal lobby; the Hilltop Inn, a bed & breakfast, its companion restaurant, Wildflowers, is located on the property. On February 7, 2012 the Federal Aviation Administration dedicated a new $23.7 million, state-of-the-art airport traffic control tower, located south of the airport runways. The new facility includes a 124-foot-tall control tower topped by a 525-square-foot tower cab with four air traffic controller positions and one supervisor position. A 6,000 square-foot, single-story base building houses administrative offices, training rooms, equipment rooms. Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport covers an area of 1,700 acres at an elevation of 5,673 feet above mean sea level.

It has three asphalt paved runways: 12L/30R is 9,000 by 100 feet. The airport's three runways 11L/29R, 11R/29L, 2/20, were renumbered in November 2014 in order to align them with magnetic directions. At the same time, the primary runway underwent an $8.83 million renovation. For the 12-month period ending September 30, 2018, the airport had 175,759 aircraft operations, an average of 482 per day: 92% general aviation, 4% air taxi, 3% military and <1% air carrier. At that time there were 360 aircraft based at this airport: 70% single-engine, 17% multi-engine, 9% jet, 4% helicopter. Two Fixed Based Operators s operate at the airport: Signature Flight Support and Sheltair; the United States Forest Service maintains its Jefferson County Tanker Base at the airport, on July 13, 2016, Pilatus Aircraft broke ground on a new 188,000 sq. ft. North American completion center for the new PC-24 business jet; the facility became operational in June 2018. The airport has no scheduled airline flights; the airport was a hub for Pet Airways before ceasing all flights in early 2013.

Denver Air Connection operated by Key Lime Air operated from RMMA to Grand Junction before consolidating their operations for the Denver-Grand Junction route to Centennial Airport in May 2017. In the summer of 2018, Pilatus Aircraft launched operations out of their newly constructed hangar located on the southwest corner of the airfield. In the spring of 2018, the airport signed a lease agreement with a second FBO, SheltAir, to act as their "gateway to the west". SheltAir commenced operations in February 2019 with a temporary modular building located at the East Ramp area. Construction for the permanent building and hangar is expected to commence Spring 2019. There exists a vacant tract of airport-owned land just southwest of the runways; the airport is in the planning stages to develop this area, known as "The Verve", for various aviation and non-aviation related uses. List of airports in the Denver area Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport Rocky Mountain Metropolitan Airport at Colorado DOT airport directory USDA Forest Service Jefferson County Tanker Base Ten-Hi Flyers flying club Rocky Mountain Airshow Classic Airport Tower A Memory Blue Sky Bistro Hilltop Inn/Wildflowers Restaurant FAA Airport Diagram, effective February 27, 2020 FAA Terminal Procedures for BJC, effective February 27, 2020 AC-U-KWIK information for KBJC Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for BJC AirNav airport information for KBJC ASN accident history for BJC FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker NOAA/NWS weather observations: current, past three days SkyVector aeronautical chart, Terminal Procedures

1973 Can-Am season

The 1973 Canadian-American Challenge Cup was the eighth season of the Can-Am auto racing series. It consisted of FIA Group 7 racing cars running two-hour sprint events, it began June 10, 1973, ended October 28, 1973, after eight rounds. The season came amid the Oil Crisis, which ended interest in performance cars after an already-declining market over a several-year period; the golden age of the Trans Am Series ended after the 1972 season, leaving Can Am and Formula 5000 as the frontrunners of the SCCA. The season was the penultimate season of the series, which would fold after 1974 before being revived in an reworked series based on F5000 a few years later. 1973 was the penultimate season of the SCCA's golden age. For 1973, the schedule was altered; the first race ran in a single race format. Rounds two through four ran with the results being determined by combined results. Rounds five through eight ran a Sprint qualifying heat first to determine the starting order for the Cup event; the results of the Sprint and Cup were not combined.

Points are awarded to the top ten finishers in the order of 20-15-12-10-8-6-4-3-2-1

E. A. Couturier

Ernst Albert Couturier was best known as a cornet player who toured as a "virtuoso" performer on the concert programs of bands of the day. He promoted the Holton Band Instrument Company for a decade in that capacity before applying his own unique inventions to the production of his own line of brass band instruments between 1918 and 1923. E. A. Couturier was born September 30, 1869 in Poughkeepsie, New York to a family with three other children. At the age of fourteen, he began playing the cornet, he entered the New England Conservatory of Music in 1885, but withdrew and took a job repairing watches in his uncle’s shop. He began playing professionally in 1890 began composing for band. In 1892, he became director of his first band and, in 1907, took a job at Frank Holton Company as a promoter of their instruments, he received his first patent on September 1913 for a more conical bore cornet. In 1916 he opened his own manufacturing concern with two other partners to produce brass band instruments.

That firm failed after Couturier lost his eyesight in 1923, was bought by Lyon and Healy, ceased operations in 1929. Couturier suffered a mental breakdown and died on February 28, 1950 in the Harlem Valley Psychiatric Center in Wingdale, New York. Couturier began as a student of piano and violin, choosing cornet in 1883. By 1885, he was playing well enough to be accepted to the New England Conservatory, he was a student of Theodor Hoch, a proponent of placing all pressure on the lower lip, for four years. In the 1880s he began playing professionally in bands such as the Twenty-first Regiment Band, the Eastman Business College Band, Innes Band, the Gilmore band. At age 17, he was able to play Herbert L. Clarke's Variations on Carnival of Venice, noted as a virtuoso piece with insurmountable technical difficulties, developed a six octave range. In 1902, he made his first tour as a feature act soloist playing a Conn Wonder cornet across several Midwestern states. In 1906, he toured Europe where he demonstrated multiphonics, the production of more than one note at the same time on an airophone, which according to The American History and Encyclopedia of Music is not possible on cornet.

The Frank Holton Company hired Couturier to perform on, consult in the development of, promote Holton cornets. The Holton New Model cornet was sold under the name "Couturier New Model" in the 1910s. Business matters distracted from Couturier's playing for several years, but after the loss of his own company in 1923, he began playing again in Los Angeles until 1929 when he returned to Mt. Vernon New York. Couturier did author several works. Among these are The Maine's Avenger March, The First Commander March, The Van der Veer Two Step. In 1882, he directed a band of his own, he stepped in as director of the Gilmore Band in 1898. After resigning from Holton in 1913, achieving his first patent, seeing that patent built by the J. W. York company as the Couturier Wizard Model, Ernst Albert Couturier bought the derelict William Seidel Band Instrument Company and renamed it, he did so with Melvin G. Lathrop and William N. Barlow, his company built a full line of brass band instruments in the conical bore style as well as a saxophone.

In 1918 the firm moved from New York City to La Porte, Indiana where the bulk of the instruments bearing the company name were made. In 1923 Couturier's eyesight failed and shortly after the company went into receivership and was sold to Lyon & Healy. In 1928 Lyon & Healy sold the band instruments division to the Frank Holton Company which halted production of Couturier instruments in 1929. Instruments built under Couturier's control between 1918 and 1923 can be identified by serial numbers ranging from 1000 to 9500. Couturier was known to say, "After training for breath control and technical perfection, why must we remain at the mercy of inferior instruments?” Couturier turned to instrument design to address that problem, as did Vincent Bach, Elden Benge, Renold Schilke and Jerome Callet. The continuous conical bore. E. A. Couturier company was known for the unique shape of the valve tubing, which, in its original and purest form did not support any tuning slide for fine pitch adjustment; this design was to support the most continuously conical bore possible and offered less resistance to air flow through the horn.

Slides, when present, continued a conical progression by varying the wall thickness in order to achieve a movable cylindrical exterior. Those instruments built without valve slides tasked the players to bend some notes using their lips and to rotate the horn to free the instrument of condensation during rests; the Couturier cornet was available in a Bb/A model with a rotary valve for selecting the key of the horn while other makers of the era such as H. N. White used. Couturier and the company received numerous patents for conical bore instruments, a phonograph, the A/B-flat "quick change valve", a mute design. Albert Couturier, Neglected Cornet Virtuoso: A Study in Musical Americana D. M. A. Dissertation by Michael Galloway, University of Hartford, 1985 The Heritage Encyclopedia of Band Music, Rehrig 1991 Scott, Kenton. Horn-u-copia Public Forum Discussing Antique and Out of Production Brass Instruments The New Langwill Index, A Dictionary of Musical Wind-Instrument Makers and Inventors, by William Waterhouse, Tony Bingham, London,1993 Schwartz, Richard I.

The Cornet Compendium "Well Known Soloists: Ernst Albert Couturier" Galloway, Michael. "Ernst Albert Couturier, American Trump

Proline oxidase

Proline dehydrogenase, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRODH gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a mitochondrial proline dehydrogenase which catalyzes the first step in proline catabolism. Deletion of this gene has been associated with type I hyperprolinemia; the gene is located on chromosome 22q11.21, a region, associated with the contiguous gene deletion syndromes: DiGeorge syndrome and CATCH22 syndrome. Proline oxidase, or proline dehydrogenase, functions as the initiator of the proline cycle. Proline metabolism is important in nutrient stress because proline is available from the breakdown of extracellular matrix, the degradation of proline through the proline cycle initiated by proline oxidase, a mitochondrial inner membrane enzyme, can generate ATP; this degradative pathway generates glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate, products that can play an anaplerotic role for the TCA cycle. The proline cycle is in a metabolic interlock with the pentose phosphate pathway providing another bioenergetic mechanism.

The induction of stress either by glucose withdrawal or by treatment with rapamycin, stimulated degradation of proline and increased PRODH catalytic activity. Under these conditions PRODH was responsible, at least in part, for maintenance of ATP levels. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, the cellular energy sensor, by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside markedly upregulated PRODH and increased PRODH-dependent ATP levels, further supporting its role during stress. Glucose deprivation increased intracellular proline levels, expression of PRODH activated the pentose phosphate pathway. Therefore, the induction of the proline cycle under conditions of nutrient stress may be a mechanism by which cells switch to a catabolic mode for maintaining cellular energy levels. Mutations in the PRODH gene are associated with Proline Dehydrogenase deficiency. Many case studies have reported on this genetic disorder. In one such case study, 4 unrelated patients with HPI and a severe neurologic phenotype were shown to have the following common features: psychomotor delay from birth associated with hypotonia, severe language delay, autistic features, behavioral problems, seizures.

One patient, heterozygous for a 22q11 microdeletion had dysmorphic features. Four reported patients with HPI and neurologic involvement had a similar phenotype; this case study showed that Hyperprolinemia, Type I may not always be a benign condition, that the severity of the clinical phenotype appears to correlate with the serum proline level. Still, in another case study, clinical features from 4 unrelated patients included early motor and cognitive developmental delay, speech delay, autistic features, stereotypic behaviors, seizures. All patients had increased urine proline levels. All patients had biallelic mutations in the PRODH gene with several variants on the same allele. Residual enzyme activity ranged from null in the most affected patient to 25 to 30% in those with a milder phenotype. Proline+oxidase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings

Battle of Nanshan

The Battle of Nanshan was one of many vicious land battles of the Russo-Japanese War. It took place on 24–26 May 1904 across a two-mile-wide defense line across the narrowest part of the Liáodōng Peninsula, covering the approaches to Port Arthur and on the 116-meter high Nanshan Hill, the present-day Jinzhou District, north of the city center of Dalian, China. After the Japanese victory at the Yalu River, the Japanese Second Army commanded by General Yasukata Oku landed on the Liaotung peninsula, only some 60 miles from Port Arthur; the Second Army was 38,500 strong and consisted of three divisions: the First Division, Third Division and Fourth Division. Landing was completed by 5 May 1904; the Japanese intention was to break through this Russian defensive position, capture the port of Dalny, lay siege to Port Arthur. Russian Viceroy Yevgeni Alekseyev had been recalled to Moscow for consultations with Tsar Nicholas II, he had left Major-General Baron Anatoly Stoessel in command of Russian ground forces in the Kwantung Peninsula, Admiral Wilgelm Vitgeft in control of the Russian fleet at Port Arthur.

Since no direct orders had been left, the indecisive and incompetent Admiral Vitgeft allowed the Japanese landing to proceed unopposed. General Stoessel had 17,000 men and the 4th, 5th, 13th, 14th and 15th East Siberian Rifles, from which about 3,000 men of the 5th East Siberian Rifles under Colonel Nikolai Tretyakov were dug into fortified positions on Nanshan hill, where they planned to hold out despite knowing they would be outnumbered; the reserve divisions were under command of Lieutenant-General Alexander Fok, a former police officer who had risen to his position through political patronage rather than experience or ability. The Russian forces had 114 pieces of field artillery, machine guns, had dug a network of trenches and barbed wire; the Japanese were well aware of the fortifications, as a Colonel Doi of Japanese intelligence was one of the thousands of "Chinese laborers" recruited by the Russians to work on the project in 1903. On 24 May 1904, during a heavy thunderstorm, the Japanese Fourth Division under the command of Lieutenant General Ogawa Mataji attacked the walled town of Chinchou, just north of Nanzan hill.

Despite being defended by no more than 400 men with antiquated artillery, the Fourth Division failed on two attempts to breach its gates. Two battalions from the First Division attacked independently at 05:30 on 25 May 1904 breaching the defenses and taking the town. With his flank thus secure, General Oku could commence the main assault on the entrenched Russian forces on Nanshan Hill; the assault was postponed a day due to the weather. On 26 May 1904, Oku began with prolonged artillery barrage from Japanese gunboats offshore, followed by infantry assaults by all three of his divisions; the Russians, with mines, Maxim machine guns and barbed wire obstacles, inflicted heavy losses on the Japanese during repeated assaults. By 18:00, after nine attempts, the Japanese had failed to overrun the entrenched Russian positions. Oku had committed all of his reserves, both sides had used up most of their artillery ammunition. Finding his calls for reinforcement unanswered, Colonel Tretyakov was amazed to find that the uncommitted reserve regiments were in full retreat and that his remaining ammunition reserves had been blown up under orders of General Fok.

Fok, paranoid of a possible Japanese landing between his position and the safety of Port Arthur, was panicked by a flanking attack by the decimated Japanese Fourth Division along the west coast. In his rush to flee the battle, Fok had neglected to tell Tretyakov of the order to retreat, Tretyakov thus found himself in the precarious position of being encircled, with no ammunition and no reserve force available for a counter-attack. Tretyakov had no choice. By 19:20, the Japanese flag flew from the summit of Nanshan Hill. Tretyakov, who had fought well and who had lost only 400 men during the battle, lost 650 more men in his unsupported retreat back to the main defensive lines around Port Arthur; the Russians lost a total of about 1,400 killed and missing during the battle. Although the Japanese did not win having at least 6,198 casualties, they could claim victory. Among the 739 dead was the eldest son of General Nogi Maresuke; the Japanese had fired 34,000 artillery shells during the battle – more than had been expended during the entire First Sino-Japanese War.

The Japanese had fired 2.19 million rifle and machine gun rounds in one day of fighting- more than the number fired by the Prussians during the entire Austro-Prussian War. Due to lack of ammunition, the Japanese could not move from Nanshan until 30 May 1904. To their amazement, they found that the Russians had made no effort to hold the strategically valuable and defendable port of Dalny, but had retreated all the way back to Port Arthur. Although the town had been looted by the local civilians, the harbor equipment and railway yards were all left intact. After Japan occupied Dalny, a memorial tower was erected on top of Nanshan Hill with a poem by General Oku; the tower was demolished after the Pacific War, only the foundation is left. A portion of a stone tablet with the poem is now displayed in the Lushun Dalian. Connaughton, Richard. Rising Sun and Tumbling Bear. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-36657-9 Jukes, Geoffrey; the Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905. Osprey Essential Histories.. ISBN 978-1-84176-446-7. Kowner, Rotem.

Historical Dictionary of the Russo-Japanese War. The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-4927-5. Nish, Ian; the Origins of the Russo-Japanese War. Longma

Mamuli

Mamuli are precious metal ornaments of the Sumba people, Indonesia. They are found in the megalithic society of the western Sumba people, e.g. the Anakalang society. The mamuli ornaments have a shape which represents the female genitalia, symbolizing the woman as the giver of life. Mamuli are the most important Sumbanese precious metal valuables and are seen as heirloom objects which served in important exchange rituals; the mamuli can be plain or decorated. The basic lobu mamuli have the shape of a diamond with a concave center. There is a round hole and a slit in the middle which represents the female genitalia, a symbol of woman's sexuality and reproductive power; the decorated karagat mamuli (also known as ma pawisi have additional finials at the bottom of the diamond-shaped center which gives it the shape of the letter omega. Additional figures are added on these finials; these additional figures can be of roosters, horsemen, goats, headhunting skull trees, or warriors. Thus the most decorated karagat mamuli are seen as male, while the simple undecorated lobu mamuli are seen as female.

During the colonial period, Baroque versions of mamuli are carved, which included complex battle scenes and movable parts. Mamuli are always a precious metal valuables made of gold or silver. In Sumbanese mythology, precious metals are believed to be of celestial origin: the gold are deposited on earth when the sun sets, while the silver came from the setting of the moon or from the shooting of the stars. Mamuli are ear ornaments worn on elongated earlobes of females and sometimes male. A large mamuli are worn around the neck as pendants or hanged on the headdress. A mamuli can be worn as a brooch on jacket; as a brooch, a mamuli is worn with other Sumbanese metal ornaments e.g. the flat twisted maraga, the crescent-shaped tabelu, the circular wula. Mamuli play an essential role in the elaborate ceremonial gift exchanges practiced by the west Sumba people; the giving of a woman in marriage by one group to another is seen as the most intimate expression of the gift of life. The group from which she originates is regarded as the'life-giving' group to whomever she marries.

Because of this concept, marriage relationship is seen as key to the organization of Sumbanese society. Thus the society is divided into wife-takers. Mamuli are given by the wife-taking group to their wife-givers in a marriage, they become the heirloom of the family, traded family to family and generation to generation. The exchange of mamuli can happen in a household and not through marriage. For example, the pig is seen as the most valuable animal recognized as the property of a woman. A man who wishes to use a pig must obtain the permission of the woman who raised it and compensate her with the exchange of the mamuli to "cool the trough". Mamuli are seen as sacred relics which are found kept in the clan leader's treasuries, they are seen as a powerful relic to communicate with the spirits of the ancestors. Mamulis are removed from their container, because their power are believed to kill onlookers or cause natural disasters; as grave goods, mamuli accompany the soul to the land of the dead. Marangga Madaka