SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Rodinia

Rodinia was a Neoproterozoic supercontinent that assembled 1.1–0.9 billion years ago and broke up 750–633 million years ago. Valentine & Moores 1970 were the first to recognise a Precambrian supercontinent, which they named'Pangaea I', it was renamed'Rodinia' by McMenamin & McMenamin 1990 who were the first to produce a reconstruction and propose a temporal framework for the supercontinent. Rodinia formed at c. 1.23 Ga by accretion and collision of fragments produced by breakup of an older supercontinent, assembled by global-scale 2.0–1.8 Ga collisional events. Rodinia broke up in the Neoproterozoic with its continental fragments reassembled to form Pannotia 633–573 million years ago. In contrast with Pannotia, little is known yet about the exact configuration and geodynamic history of Rodinia. Paleomagnetic evidence provides some clues to the paleolatitude of individual pieces of the Earth's crust, but not to their longitude, which geologists have pieced together by comparing similar geologic features now dispersed.

The extreme cooling of the global climate around 717–635 million years ago and the rapid evolution of primitive life during the subsequent Ediacaran and Cambrian periods are thought to have been triggered by the breaking up of Rodinia or to a slowing down of tectonic processes. The idea that a supercontinent existed in the early Neoproterozoic arose in the 1970s, when geologists determined that orogens of this age exist on all cratons. Examples are the Dalslandian orogeny in Europe. Since many alternative reconstructions have been proposed for the configuration of the cratons in this supercontinent. Most of these reconstructions are based on the correlation of the orogens on different cratons. Though the configuration of the core cratons in Rodinia is now reasonably well known, recent reconstructions still differ in many details. Geologists try to decrease the uncertainties by collecting paleomagnetical data. Most reconstructions show Rodinia's core formed by the North American craton, surrounded in the southeast with the East European craton, the Amazonian craton and the West African craton.

The positions of Siberia and North and South China north of the North American craton differ depending on the reconstruction: SWEAT-Configuration: Antarctica is on the Southwest of Laurentia and Australia is at the North of Antarctica. AUSWUS-Configuration: Australia is at the West of Laurentia. AUSMEX-Configuration: Australia is at the location of current day Mexico relative to Laurentia; the "Missing-link" model by Li et al. 2008 which has South China between Australia and the west coast of Laurentia. A revised "Missing-link" model is proposed in which Tarim Block serves as an extended or alternative missing-link between Australia and Laurentia. Siberia attached to the western US, as in Sears & Price 2000. Rodinia of Scotese. Little is known about the paleogeography before the formation of Rodinia. Paleomagnetic and geologic data are only definite enough to form reconstructions from the breakup of Rodinia onwards. Rodinia is considered to have formed between 1.3 and 1.23 billion years ago and broke up again before 750 million years ago.

Rodinia was surrounded by the superocean. According to J. D. A. Piper, Rodinia is one of two models for the configuration and history of the continental crust in the latter part of Precambrian times; the other is Piper's own concept. Piper proposes an alternative hypothesis for the previous ones; this idea rejects that Rodinia existed as a transient supercontinent subject to progressive break-up in the latter part of Proterozoic times and instead that this time and earlier times were dominated by a single, persistent "Paleopangaea" supercontinent. As evidence, he suggests an observation that the palaeomagnetic poles from the continental crust assigned to this time conform to a single path between 825 and 633 million years ago and latterly to a near-static position between 750 and 633 million years; this latter solution predicts that break-up was confined to the Ediacaran Period and produced the dramatic environmental changes that characterised the transition between Precambrian and Phanerozoic times.

In 2009 UNESCO's IGCP project 440, named'Rodinia Assembly and Breakup', concluded that Rodinia broke up in four stages between 825–550 Ma: The break up was initiated by a superplume around 825–800 Ma whose influence—such as crustal arching, intense bimodal magmatism, accumulation of thick rift-type sedimentary successions—have been recorded in South Australia, South China, Kalahari and the Arabian-Nubian Craton. Rifting progressed in the same cratons 800–750 Ma and spread into Laurentia and Siberia. India and the Congo-Säo Francisco Craton were either detached from Rodinia during this period or never were part of the supercontinent; as the central part of Rodinia reached the Equator around 750–700 Ma, a new pulse of magmatism and rifting continued the disassembly in western Kalahari, West Australia, South China and most margins of Laurentia. 650–550 Ma several events coincided: the opening of the Iapetus Ocean.

List of Maltese football transfers summer 2018

This is a list of Maltese football transfers for the 2018–19 summer transfer window by club. Only transfers of clubs in the Maltese Premier League and Maltese First Division are included; the summer transfer window will open on 1 July 2018, although a few transfers may take place prior to that date. The window will close at midnight on 31 August 2018. Players without a club may join one during or in between transfer windows. Manager: Marko Micovic Manager: Paul Zammit Manager: Nicolas Hernan Chiesa Manager: Darren Abdilla Manager: Giovanni Tedesco Manager: Stefano Sanderra Manager: Johann Scicluna Manager: Ramon Zammit Manager: Brian Spiteri Manager: Steve D'Amato Manager: John Buttigieg Manager: Michael Woods Manager: Jose Borg Manager: Danilo Dončić Manager: Manager: Manager: Manager: Manager: Manager: Manager: Vince Carbonaro Manager: Manager: Manager: Official Website

Foam hand

A foam hand known as a foam finger, is a sports paraphernalia item worn on the hand to show support for a particular team. The most common version resembles an oversized hand with an extended index finger, slits in their bases allow them to be worn over the hands; the surface displays a silk-screened team name, logo, or other graphic or slogan, such as "We Are #1." Foam hands are made of open-celled foam. The first prototype foam finger was created in 1971 by Ottumwa High School student Steve Chmelar, who constructed a giant hand out of hardware cloth and papier-mâché for the 1971 Iowa High School Athletic Association Boy's State Basketball Finals, between the Ottumwa Bulldogs and the Davenport West Falcons. A senior in high school, Steve's photo was taken by the Associated Press and published in the Des Moines Tribune and the 1971 Ottumwa High School class yearbook, the Argus, in Ottumwa, Iowa. In 1976, Texas high school teacher Geral Fauss created foam fingers to show support for the team at the high school where he taught, to raise funds for the industrial arts club, as a project that his industrial arts class could produce themselves.

His first prototype foam finger was made out of plywood and had a painting of a "number one" done in the school's colors. Fauss first sold his foam fingers at the 1978 Cotton Bowl in Dallas, he went on to found Spirit Industries for the large scale manufacturing of foam fingers. In 1979, the first polyurethane foam version of the product was produced by Spirit Industries. Instead of a human hand, the foam finger is in the shape of a talon, paw, or other hand-analog to resemble that of the team mascot; the index finger and pinky are extended in the American Sign Language sign for love. This version is captioned, "Gotta Love Those." The index finger and pinky are extended to represent gestures such as University of South Florida's "Go Bulls" or University of Texas' "Hook'em Horns." The middle finger is extended in the obscene hand gesture the finger. Besides being sold at all manner of sporting events and venues as souvenirs, foam fingers are used as fund-raisers for schools and booster clubs as well as corporate promotions.

To date, the majority of "foam hands" have been produced in a planar-like form. However, in early 2009, a product that more-closely replicates the dimensional form of a human hand was introduced and marketed under the trade name Radhand until 2010 when it was renamed UltimateHand, produced by a new company called BrettHand. Foam tomahawk Media related to Foam hands at Wikimedia Commons