Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation. Wikisource is the name of the project as a whole and the name for each instance of that project, the projects aims are to host all forms of free text, in many languages, and translations. Originally conceived as an archive to store useful or important historical texts, the project officially began in November 24,2003 under the name Project Sourceberg. The name Wikisource was adopted that year and it received its own domain name seven months later, the project has come under criticism for lack of reliability but it is cited by organisations such as the National Archives and Records Administration. The project holds works that are either in the domain or freely licensed, professionally published works or historical source documents, not vanity products. Verification was initially made offline, or by trusting the reliability of digital libraries. Now works are supported by online scans via the ProofreadPage extension, some individual Wikisources, each representing a specific language, now only allow works backed up with scans.
While the bulk of its collection are texts, Wikisource as a whole hosts other media, some Wikisources allow user-generated annotations, subject to the specific policies of the Wikisource in question. Wikisources early history included several changes of name and location, the original concept for Wikisource was as storage for useful or important historical texts. These texts were intended to support Wikipedia articles, by providing evidence and original source texts. The collection was focused on important historical and cultural material. The project was originally called Project Sourceberg during its planning stages, in 2001, there was a dispute on Wikipedia regarding the addition of primary source material, leading to edit wars over their inclusion or deletion. Project Sourceberg was suggested as a solution to this, perhaps Project Sourceberg can mainly work as an interface for easily linking from Wikipedia to a Project Gutenberg file, and as an interface for people to easily submit new work to PG.
Wed want to complement Project Gutenberg--how and Jimmy Wales adding like Larry, Im interested that we think it over to see what we can add to Project Gutenberg. It seems unlikely that primary sources should in general be editable by anyone -- I mean, Shakespeare is Shakespeare, unlike our commentary on his work, the project began its activity at ps. wikipedia. org. The contributors understood the PS subdomain to mean either primary sources or Project Sourceberg, this resulted in Project Sourceberg occupying the subdomain of the Pashto Wikipedia. A vote on the name changed it to Wikisource on December 6,2003. Despite the change in name, the project did not move to its permanent URL until July 23,2004, since Wikisource was initially called Project Sourceberg, its first logo was a picture of an iceberg
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Comic Art is a magazine, edited by Todd Hignite, which surveys newspaper comic strips, magazine cartoon panels and comic book art, both historical and contemporary. Comic Art was established in 2002, the first seven issues featured articles on Art Spiegelman, Daniel Clowes, Harvey Kurtzman, Crockett Johnson and Frank King. According to critic Tom Spurgeon, Comic Art is a publication that. Has chosen to investigate the good and interesting no matter when its been done, Daniel Zimmer is the publications graphic design and art director. It is not connected with the original fanzine Comic Art, which was published by Maggie, in 2003 the magazine was nominated for both the Eisner Awards and Harvey Awards. Since August 2006, Comic Art has been published annually in book form by Buenaventura Press, in 2006, Yale University Press published a collection of Hignites In The Studio columns in an expanded 320-page hardback, In the Studio, Visits with Contemporary Cartoonists, ISBN 0-300-11016-2. Allan Holtz Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum The Comics Journal Dave Strickler Hogans Alley Nemo, the Classic Comics Library Comic Art site
Histoire de M. Vieux Bois
The format consists of sequential pictures with captions, aka text comics, rather than utilizing the staple of word-balloons, a convention that would be developed in newspaper comic strips. In Understanding Comics, comics theorist Scott McCloud says Töpffers work is in ways the father of the modern comic. McCloud emphasizes Töpffers use of cartooning and panel borders along with the first interdependent combination of words, töpffer described comics as a medium appealing particularly to children and the lower classes, and this is evident in the style of the work. Töpffer used a method called autography, in which the pen draws on specially prepared paper. Autography lithographs did not require the drawings to be flipped horizontally, Mr. Vieux Bois encounters a seemingly overweight young woman and instantly falls in love. His initial attempts at courting are ignored, followed by periods of his desperation. He attempts suicide by falling on his own sword and by hanging himself and he discovers a rival suitor and challenges him to a duel.
He is better with his sword and his rival has to flee. Vieux Bois contacts the parents of his girlfriend, seeking her hand in marriage and he returns home and starts to celebrate loudly. His celebration ends with his arrest for disturbing the neighbours, the marriage is called off and he feels suicidal. He asks for hemlock but is given herb soup instead and he goes traveling but falls prey to highwaymen. Seeking refuge in a lair, he meets a hermit who persuades him to join the local cloister, after two weeks he escapes the cloister dressed in drag. He loses his eye on his way home and starts wearing an eyepatch. At home he finds a letter from his love interest, finally returning his affection, nightly he serenades her with a large but unspecified string instrument. They flee on his horse which struggles to support her weight, but Vieux Bois is apprehended by monks and returned to prison. He throws himself out of a window in his unsuccessful suicide attempt. Released he flees again with his fiancee, returning to his home by way of the local river they are discovered by a little hermit.
Vieux Bois keeps the head under the water until he dies from drowning
In popular usage, eccentricity refers to unusual or odd behavior on the part of an individual. This behavior would typically be perceived as unusual or unnecessary, without being demonstrably maladaptive, eccentricity is contrasted with normal behavior, the nearly universal means by which individuals in society solve given problems and pursue certain priorities in everyday life. People who consistently display benignly eccentric behavior are labeled as eccentrics, from Medieval Latin eccentricus, derived from Greek ekkentros, out of the center, from ek-, ex- out of + kentron, center. Eccentric first appeared in English essays as a neologism in 1551 as a term meaning a circle in which the earth, sun. Five years later, in 1556, a form of the word was used. In 1685, the definition evolved from the literal to the figurative, a noun form of the word – a person who possesses and exhibits these unconventional or odd qualities and behaviors – appeared by 1832. Eccentricity is often associated with genius, intellectual giftedness, or creativity, people may perceive the individuals eccentric behavior as the outward expression of their unique intelligence or creative impulse.
Eccentricity is associated with great wealth, what would be considered signs of insanity in a poor person, some may accept as eccentricity in these people. Eccentrics may or may not comprehend the standards for behavior in their culture. They are simply unconcerned by societys disapproval of their habits or beliefs, many of historys most brilliant minds have displayed some unusual behaviors and habits. Some eccentrics are pejoratively considered cranks, rather than geniuses, eccentric behavior is often considered whimsical or quirky, although it can be strange and disturbing. Many individuals previously considered merely eccentric, such as aviation magnate Howard Hughes, have recently been diagnosed as actually having suffered from mental disorders. Other people may have eccentric taste in clothes, or have eccentric hobbies or collections they pursue with great vigor and they may have a pedantic and precise manner of speaking, intermingled with inventive wordplay. However, this is not always successful as individuals are not necessarily charismatic.
Extravagance is a kind of eccentricity, related to abundance and wastefulness, psychologist David Weeks believes people with a mental illness suffer from their behavior while eccentrics are quite happy. He even states eccentrics are less prone to illness than everyone else. According to Weeks study, there are several characteristics that often differentiate a healthy eccentric person from a regular person or someone who has a mental illness
Brother Jonathan (newspaper)
Brother Jonathan was a weekly publication operated by Benjamin Day from 1842 to 1862, and was the first weekly illustrated publication in the United States. Benjamin Day founded the first penny newspaper in the United States, The New York Sun and he sold the paper to his brother-in-law, Moses Yale Beach, in 1838. After trying a few other publishing ventures, in 1842 Day formed a partnership with James G. Wilson to publish the weekly Brother Jonathan, the January 1,1842 edition of Brother Jonathan is still listed as Volume 1, No. Brother Jonathan became popular throughout the United States, and reportedly grew to a circulation of between 60-70,000, the name of the publication was a reference to Brother Jonathan, a common cultural reference to a fictional character personifying New England, similar in appearance to Uncle Sam. Brother Jonathan, Volume I Brother Jonathan, Volume II
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information. A journalists work is called journalism, a journalist can work with general issues or specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, and by cooperating with other journalists, for example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, and make reports. The information-gathering part of a job is sometimes called reporting. Reporters may split their time working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a beat or area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers, Journalism has developed a variety of ethics and standards.
While objectivity and a lack of bias are of concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism. This has become prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions. These platforms often project extreme bias, as sources are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, nor did they often directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights. These limitations were made worse by a media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was really important. ”Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger. Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom, as of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment.
The ten deadliest countries for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1st 2010,145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. The ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Ethiopia, apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically. This applies especially to war reporters, but their offices at home often do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger
Routledge is a British multinational publisher. The company publishes approximately 1,800 journals &5,000 new books each year, Routledge is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences. Following the merger of Informa and T&F in 2004, Routledge become a publishing unit, the firm originated in 1836, when Camden bookseller George Routledge published an unsuccessful guidebook, The Beauties of Gilsand with his brother-in-law W H Warne as assistant. The company was restyled in 1858 as Routledge, Warne & Routledge when George Routledges son, Robert Warne Routledge, Frederick Warne eventually left the company after the death of his brother W. H. Warne in May 1859. Gaining rights to titles, he founded Frederick Warne & Co in 1865. In July 1865, his son Edmund Routledge became a partner, by 1902 the company was running close to bankruptcy. Following a successful restructuring, however, it was able to recover and began to acquire and merge with other publishing companies including J. C.
In 1912 the company merged with Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. the descendant of companies founded by Charles Kegan Paul, Alexander Chenevix Trench, Nicholas Trübner and it was soon particularly known for its titles in the social sciences. In 1985, Routledge & Kegan Paul joined with Associated Book Publishers, just two year later and Routledges directors accepted a deal for Routledges acquisition by Taylor & Francis Group, with the Routledge name being retained as an imprint and subdivision. In 2004, T&F became a division within Informa plc after a merger, Routledge has grown considerably as a result of organic growth and acquisitions of other publishing companies and other publishers titles by its parent company. Humanities and social sciences acquired by T&F from other publishers are rebranded under the Routledge imprint. The famous English publisher Fredric Warburg was an editor at Routledge during the early 20th century. Novelist Nina Stibbe author of Love, Nina worked at the company as a Commissioning Editor in the 1990s, the republished works of these authors have appeared as part of the Routledge Classics and Routledge Great Minds series.
Competitors to the series are Verso Books Radical Thinkers, Penguin Classics and Francis closed down the Routledge print encyclopaedia division in 2006. Some of its publications were, Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Edward Craig, in 10 volumes, Encyclopedia of Ethics, by Lawrence C. Reference Works by Europa Publications, published by Routledge, Europa World Year Book, many of Routledges reference works are published in print and electronic formats as Routledge Handbooks and have their own dedicated Web site, Routledge Handbooks Online. Records of Routledge & Kegan Paul - Correspondence files covering the period 1935 to 1990, as well as review files 1950s-1990s, Special Collections, archives of George Routledge & Company 1853-1902, Chadwyck-Healey Ltd,1973. 6 reels of microfilm and printed index, archives of Kegan Paul, Trench and Henry S. King 1858-1912, Chadwyck-Healey Ltd,1973
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was a German writer and statesman. In addition, numerous literary and scientific fragments, more than 10,000 letters and he was an early participant in the Sturm und Drang literary movement. He contributed to the planning of Weimars botanical park and the rebuilding of its Ducal Palace and his first major scientific work, the Metamorphosis of Plants, was published after he returned from a 1788 tour of Italy. During this period, Goethe published his novel, Wilhelm Meisters Apprenticeship, the verse epic Hermann and Dorothea, and, in 1808. Goethes comments and observations form the basis of several biographical works, Goethes father, Johann Caspar Goethe, lived with his family in a large house in Frankfurt, an Imperial Free City of the Holy Roman Empire. Though he had studied law in Leipzig and had been appointed Imperial Councillor, Johann Caspar married Goethes mother, Catharina Elizabeth Textor at Frankfurt on 20 August 1748, when he was 38 and she was 17. All their children, with the exception of Johann Wolfgang and his sister, Cornelia Friederica Christiana and his father and private tutors gave Goethe lessons in all the common subjects of their time, especially languages.
Goethe received lessons in dancing and fencing, Johann Caspar, feeling frustrated in his own ambitions, was determined that his children should have all those advantages that he had not. Although Goethes great passion was drawing, he became interested in literature, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock. He took pleasure in reading works on history and religion. He writes about this period, Goethe became acquainted with Frankfurt actors, among early literary attempts, he was infatuated with Gretchen, who would reappear in his Faust and the adventures with whom he would concisely describe in Dichtung und Wahrheit. He adored Caritas Meixner, a wealthy Worms traders daughter and friend of his sister, Goethe studied law at Leipzig University from 1765 to 1768. He detested learning age-old judicial rules by heart, preferring instead to attend the lessons of Christian Fürchtegott Gellert. In Leipzig, Goethe fell in love with Anna Katharina Schönkopf, in 1770, he anonymously released Annette, his first collection of poems.
His uncritical admiration for many contemporary poets vanished as he became interested in Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, already at this time, Goethe wrote a good deal, but he threw away nearly all of these works, except for the comedy Die Mitschuldigen. The restaurant Auerbachs Keller and its legend of Fausts 1525 barrel ride impressed him so much that Auerbachs Keller became the real place in his closet drama Faust Part One. As his studies did not progress, Goethe was forced to return to Frankfurt at the close of August 1768, Goethe became severely ill in Frankfurt. During the year and a half that followed, because of several relapses, during convalescence, Goethe was nursed by his mother and sister