Dillingen an der Donau
Dillingen, or Dillingen an der Donau is a town in Swabia, Germany. It is the administrative center of the district of Dillingen. Besides the town of Dillingen proper, the municipality encompasses the villages of Donaualtheim, Hausen, Kicklingen and Steinheim. Schretzheim is notable for its 6th to 7th century Alemannic cemetery, 630 row graves in an area of 100 by 140 metres; the counts of Dillingen ruled from the 10th to the 13th century. After the Reformation, the prince-bishops of Augsburg moved to the Catholic city of Dillingen and made it one of the centers of the Counter-Reformation. In 1800, during the War of the Second Coalition, the armies of the French First Republic, under command of Jean Victor Moreau, fought Habsburg regulars and Württemberg contingents, under the general command of Pál Kray. Kray had taken refuge in the fortress at Ulm. At this battle, the culmination of the Danube Campaign of 1800, Moreau forced Kray to abandon Ulm and withdraw into eastern Bavaria. A university was established in 1549, but was closed by Napoleon in 1804.
The philosophical and theological faculties still existed in the 20th century. In 1971, however, it became a part of the Bavarian Center for the Education and Training of Teachers and Personnel Management. One of the largest employers in the city is Bosch and Siemens Household Appliances, producer of household applicances; the elections in March 2014 showed the following results: Leonhard Wiedemann, abbot in Ottobeuren Heinrich Vogtherr, painter Walpurga Hausmännin, victim of Dillingen witchcraft process Johann Alois Jehle, country Defension colonel and commander of Braunau during Bavarian National Uprising in 1705. On 18 December In 1705 he called for 21 December, the Braunau Parliamenta Sebastian Franz von Braunn Bavarian Lieutenant General Clemens von Raglovich for Rosenhof, Bavarian General and Reichsrat Georg Wilhelm Ritter von Manz, Lieutenant General, Bavarian Minister of War Sister Theresia Haselmayr, Generaloberin, co-founder of Regens Wagner Stiftungen Wilhelm Bauer, the inventor of the submarine Max Joseph Oertel, university professor and pioneer of medical science Friedrich Rittelmeyer Protestant theologian and co-founder of the Christian Community Georg Philipp Wörlen and graphic artist Josef Becker-Dillingen and horticultural scientist Ingeborg Geisendörfer, German politician Matthias Klostermayr, leader of a gang of robbers, convicted in Dillingen and strangled smashed and quartered.
Johann Michael Sailer, a Catholic theologian, professor of ethics and pastoral theology in Dillingen 1821 Domkapitular and 1822 auxiliary bishop with right of succession, in 1829 Bishop of Regensburg Christoph von Schmid, Catholic theologian Sebastian Kneipp, Catholic priest and hydrotherapeut, began in 1848 his studies of theology in Dillingen. Heinz Piontek, writer Basilica of Sts. Peter and Paul, Dillingen Oberliezheim Bondeno, Italy Brand-Erbisdorf, Germany Naas, Ireland The town's official website Photos of works of art in Dillingen, in the Warburg Institute Iconographic Database
Alexander Hegius von Heek
Alexander Hegius von Heek was a German humanist, so called from his birthplace Heek. In his youth he was a pupil of Thomas à Kempis. Thomas à Kempis was at that time canon of the convent of St. Agnes at Zwolle. In 1474 he settled down at Deventer in the Netherlands, where he either founded or succeeded to the headship of a school, which became famous for the number of its distinguished alumni. First and foremost of these was Erasmus, his writings, consisting of short poems, philosophical essays, grammatical notes and letters, were published after his death by his pupil Jacobus Faber. They display considerable knowledge of Latin, but less of Greek, on the value of which he insisted. Hegius's chief claim to be remembered rests not upon his published works, but upon his services in the cause of humanism, he succeeded in abolishing the old-fashioned medieval textbooks and methods of instruction, led his pupils to the study of the classical authors themselves. His generosity in assisting poor students exhausted a considerable fortune, at his death he left nothing but his books and clothes
House of Este
The House of Este is a European princely dynasty. The elder, German branch of the House of Este, known as the Younger House of Welf, included dukes of Bavaria and Brunswick-Lüneburg and produced Britain's Hanoverian monarchs, as well as one Emperor of Russia and one Holy Roman Emperor; the younger, Italian branch of the House of Este included rulers of Ferrara, of Modena and Reggio. According to Edward Gibbon, the family originated from the Roman Attii family, which migrated from Rome to Este to defend Italy against the Ostrogoths. However, there is little evidence to support this hypothesis; the names of the early members of the family indicate. The first known member of the house was Margrave Adalbert of Mainz, known only as the father of Oberto I, Count palatine of Italy, who died around 975. Oberto's grandson, Albert Azzo II, Margrave of Milan built a castle at Este, near Padua, named himself after the location, he had three sons from two marriages, two of whom became the ancestors of the two branches of the family: Welf IV, the eldest, was the son of Kunigunde, the last of the Elder Welfs.
He inherited the property of his maternal uncle, Duke of Carinthia, became duke of Bavaria in 1070, is the ancestor of the elder branch, the House of Welf. Hugh, issue of Azzo's second marriage to Garsend of Maine, inherited the French County of Maine, a legacy of his mother's dowry, but sold it one year and died without heirs. Fulco I, Margrave of Milan, the third son, is the ancestor of the younger Italian line of Este; the two surviving branches, with Duke Henry the Lion of Saxony and Bavaria on the German side, concluded an agreement in 1154 which allocated the family's Italian possessions to the younger line, the Fulc-Este, who in the course of time acquired Ferrara and Reggio. Este itself was taken over in 1275 by Padua, in 1405 by Venice; the elder branch of the House of Este, the House of Welf rendered as "Guelf" or "Guelph" in English, produced dukes of Bavaria, dukes of Saxony, a German King, the dukes of Brunswick and Lüneburg when the two branches of the family recombined in 1705.
The senior branch of the House of Welf continued to be ruled by the princes of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, as undisputed until the death of the ruling duke of Brunswick Prince William VIII, in 1884. Prior to his death, his brother Karl II from Geneva Switzerland, as exiled de jure ruler of the house, had declared the Prussian annexation of the crown and the earlier Hanoverian usurpation illegal acts of usurpation inside of the German House. At his death, his grandson continued internationally recognized appeals. Hanover formed the Guelph Party to continue political appeals against the Prussian and German annexations of the crown. After the peace ending the Napoleonic wars reshaped Europe, ushering in the Modern era, the Electorate of Hanover was dissolved by treaty, its lands were enlarged and the state was promoted to a kingdom. The new kingdom existed from 1815 to 1866, but upon the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837, it passed to her uncle, Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, thus ceased to be in personal union with the British Crown.
The House of Este gave Great Britain and the United Kingdom the "Hanoverian monarchs". All generations of the Italian branch are descendants of Fulco d'Este. From 1171 on, his descendants were titled Margraves of Este. Obizzo I, the first margrave, battled against Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, his nephew Azzo d'Este VI became podestà of Verona. As the dowry of his niece the Marchesella, Ferrara passed to Azzo VI d'Este In 1146, with the last of the Adelardi. In 1242 Azzo VII Novello was nominated podestà for his lifetime; the lordship of Ferrara was made hereditary by Obizzo II, proclaimed Lord of Ferrara in 1264, Lord of Modena in 1288, Lord of Reggio in 1289. Ferrara was a papal fief and the Este family were given the position of hereditary papal vicars in 1332. Ferrara became a significant center of culture under Niccolò d'Este III, who received several popes with great magnificence Eugene IV, he held a Council in Ferrara in 1438 known as the Council of Florence. His successors were his illegitimate sons Leonello and Borso, elevated to Duke of Modena and Reggio by Emperor Frederick III in 1452, receiving these duchies as imperial fiefs.
In 1471, he received the duchy of Ferrara as papal fief from Pope Paul II, for which occasion splendid frescoes were executed at Palazzo Schifanoia. Borso was succeeded by a half-brother, one of the most significant patrons of the arts in late 15th and early 16th century Italy. Ferrara grew into a cultural center renowned for music. Ercole's daughter Beatrice married Ludovico Duke of Milan. Ercole I's successor was his son Alfonso I, third husband of Lucrezia Borgia, daughter of Pope Alexander VI, sister to Cesare Borgia. Alfonso I was a patron of Ariosto; the son of Alfonso and Lucrezia Borgia, Ercole d'Este II, married Renée of France, daughte
Not to be confused with Dorotheus of Gaza. Theodorus Gaza or Theodore Gazis called by the epithet Thessalonicensis and Thessalonikeus, was a Greek humanist and translator of Aristotle, one of the Greek scholars who were the leaders of the revival of learning in the 15th century. Theodorus Gaza was born a Greek in an illustrious family in Thessaloniki, Macedonia in about c. 1400 when the city was under its first period of Turkish rule. On the final capture of his native city by the Turks in 1430 he escaped to Italy. In December 1440 he was in Pavia, where he became acquainted with Iacopo da San Cassiano, who introduced him to his master Vittorino da Feltre. During a three years' residence in Mantua where Vittorino held the celebrated humanistic school "La Giocosa", he acquired a competent knowledge of Latin under his teaching, supporting himself meanwhile by giving lessons in Greek, by copying manuscripts of the ancient classics. In 1447 he became professor of Greek in the newly founded University of Ferrara, to which students in great numbers from all parts of Italy were soon attracted by his fame as a teacher.
His students there included Rodolphus Agricola. He had taken some part in the councils which were held in Siena and Florence, with the object of bringing about a reconciliation between the Greek and Latin Churches. In Rome, he continued his teaching activities: it was reported that on one occasion Pope Sixtus IV commissioned Gaza to translate Aristotle's works into Latin, with the pay of a number of gold pieces. Amongst his students were fellow Byzantine Greeks Demetrius Chalcondyles, a leading scholar of the Renaissance period and Andronicus Callistus, a cousin of Theodore Gaza's. After the death of Nicholas, being unable to make a living at Rome, Gaza removed to Naples, where he enjoyed the patronage of Alphonso the Magnanimous for two years. Shortly afterwards he was appointed by Cardinal Bessarion to a benefice in Calabria, where the years of his life were spent, where he died about 1475 and was buried in the Basilian monastery of San Giovanni a Piro. After Gaza's death he was praised for his skills.
His influence on humanists was considerable, in the success with which he taught Greek language and literature. At Ferrara he founded an academy to offset the influence of the Platonic academy founded by Plethon at Florence, his translations were superior, both to the versions in use before his time. He devoted particular attention to the translation and exposition of Aristotle's works on natural science. Gaza stood high in the opinion of most of his learned contemporaries, but still higher in that of the scholars of the succeeding generation, his Greek grammar, written in Greek, first printed at Venice in 1495, afterwards translated by Erasmus in 1521, although in many respects defective in its syntax, was for a long time the leading textbook. His translations into Latin were numerous, including: Problemata, De partibus animalium and De generatione animalium of Aristotle the Historia Plantarum of Theophrastus the Problemata of Alexander of Aphrodisias the De instruendis aciebus of Aelian the De compositione verborum of Dionysius of Halicarnassus some of the Homilies of John Chrysostom.
He turned into Greek Cicero's De senectute and Somnium Scipionis with much success, in the opinion of Erasmus. He was the author of two small treatises entitled De mensibus and De origine Turcarum; the flowering plant Gazania, of southern Africa, is named after him. Byzantine scholars in Renaissance List of Macedonians For a complete list of Gaza's works, see Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca, x. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Theodore of Gaza". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nancy Bisaha, Creating East and West: Renaissance humanists and the Ottoman Turks, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006. ISBN 0-8122-1976-7 Deno J. Geanakoplos, `Theodore Gaza, a Byzantine scholar of the Palaeologan "renaissance" in the Italian Renaissance', Medievalia et Humanistica 12, 61-81 and in *Deno J. Geanakoplos,'Theodore Gaza: a Byzantine Scholar of the Palaeologan "Renaissance" in the early Italian Renaissance, c. 1400-1475', in Geanakoplos and the West, University of Wisconsin Press, 1989, pp. 68–90.
ISBN 0-299-11884-3 Jonathan Harris,'Byzantines in Renaissance Italy', in Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies – http://the-orb.net/encyclop/late/laterbyz/harris-ren.html Jonathan Harris, Greek Émigrés in the West, 1400-1520, Camberley UK, 1995. ISBN 1-871328-11-X Fotis Vassileiou & Barbara Saribalidou, Short Biographical Lexicon of Byzantine Academics Immigrants in Western Europe, 2007. N. G. Wilson, From Byzantium to Italy. Greek Studies in the Italian Renaissance. ISBN 0-7156-2418-0Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gaza, Theodor
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings and collectively, prefers critical thinking and evidence over acceptance of dogma or superstition. The meaning of the term humanism has fluctuated according to the successive intellectual movements which have identified with it; the term was coined by theologian Friedrich Niethammer at the beginning of the 19th century to refer to a system of education based on the study of classical literature. However, humanism refers to a perspective that affirms some notion of human freedom and progress, it views humans as responsible for the promotion and development of individuals and emphasizes a concern for man in relation to the world. In modern times, humanist movements are non-religious movements aligned with secularism, today humanism refers to a nontheistic life stance centred on human agency and looking to science rather than revelation from a supernatural source to understand the world; the word "humanism" is derived from the Latin concept humanitas.
It entered English in the nineteenth century. However, historians agree that the concept predates the label invented to describe it, encompassing the various meanings ascribed to humanitas, which included both benevolence toward one's fellow humans and the values imparted by bonae litterae or humane learning. In the second century AD, a Latin grammarian, Aulus Gellius, complained: Those who have spoken Latin and have used the language do not give to the word humanitas the meaning which it is thought to have, what the Greeks call φιλανθρωπία, signifying a kind of friendly spirit and good-feeling towards all men without distinction; those who earnestly desire and seek after these are most humanized. For the desire to pursue of that kind of knowledge, the training given by it, has been granted to humanity alone of all the animals, for that reason it is termed humanitas, or "humanity". Gellius says that in his day humanitas is used as a synonym for philanthropy – or kindness and benevolence toward one's fellow human beings.
Gellius maintains that this common usage is wrong, that model writers of Latin, such as Cicero and others, used the word only to mean what we might call "humane" or "polite" learning, or the Greek equivalent Paideia. Yet in seeking to restrict the meaning of humanitas to literary education this way, Gellius was not advocating a retreat from political engagement into some ivory tower, though it might look like that to us, he himself was involved in public affairs. According to legal historian Richard Bauman, Gellius was a judge as well as a grammarian and was an active participant the great contemporary debate on harsh punishments that accompanied the legal reforms of Antoninus Pius. "By assigning pride of place to Paideia in his comment on the etymology of humanitas, Gellius implies that the trained mind is best equipped to handle the problems troubling society."Gellius's writings fell into obscurity during the Middle Ages, but during the Italian Renaissance, Gellius became a favorite author.
Teachers and scholars of Greek and Latin grammar, rhetoric and poetry were called and called themselves "humanists". Modern scholars, point out that Cicero, most responsible for defining and popularizing the term humanitas, in fact used the word in both senses, as did his near contemporaries. For Cicero, a lawyer, what most distinguished humans from brutes was speech, allied to reason, could enable them to settle disputes and live together in concord and harmony under the rule of law, thus humanitas included two meanings from the outset and these continue in the modern derivative, which today can refer to both humanitarian benevolence and to a method of study and debate involving an accepted group of authors and a careful and accurate use of language. During the French Revolution, soon after, in Germany, humanism began to refer to an ethical philosophy centered on humankind, without attention to the transcendent or supernatural; the designation Religious Humanism refers to organized groups that sprang up during the late-nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
It is similar to Protestantism, although centered on human needs and abilities rather than the supernatural. In the Anglophone world, such modern, organized forms of humanism, which are rooted in the 18th-century Enlightenment, have to a considerable extent more or less detached themselves from the historic connection of humanism with classical learning and the liberal arts; the first Humanist Manifesto was issued by a conference held at the University of Chicago in 1933. Signatories included the philosopher John Dewey, they identified humanism as an ideology that espouses reason and social and economic justice, they called for science to replace dogma and the supernatural as the basis of morality and decision-making. In 1808 Bavarian educational commissioner Friedrich Immanuel Niethammer coined the term Humanismus to describe the new classical curriculum he planned to offer in German secondary schools, by 1836 the word "humanism" had been absorbed into the English language in this sense; the coinage gained universal acceptance in 1856, when
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a common fixture in most international games—it has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds; the result is decided when an opponent is deemed incapable to continue by a referee, is disqualified for breaking a rule, or resigns by throwing in a towel. If a fight completes all of its allocated rounds, the victor is determined by judges' scorecards at the end of the contest. In the event that both fighters gain equal scores from the judges, professional bouts are considered a draw. In Olympic boxing, because a winner must be declared, judges award the content to one fighter on technical criteria. While humans have fought in hand-to-hand combat since the dawn of human history, the earliest evidence of fist-fighting sporting contests date back to the ancient Near East in the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC.
The earliest evidence of boxing rules date back to Ancient Greece, where boxing was established as an Olympic game in 688 BC. Boxing evolved from 16th- and 18th-century prizefights in Great Britain, to the forerunner of modern boxing in the mid-19th century with the 1867 introduction of the Marquess of Queensberry Rules; the earliest known depiction of boxing comes from a Sumerian relief in Iraq from the 3rd millennium BC. Depictions from the 2nd millennium BC are found in reliefs from the Mesopotamian nations of Assyria and Babylonia, in Hittite art from Asia Minor. A relief sculpture from Egyptian Thebes shows both spectators; these early Middle-Eastern and Egyptian depictions showed contests where fighters were either bare-fisted or had a band supporting the wrist. The earliest evidence of fist fighting with the use of gloves can be found on Minoan Crete. Various types of boxing existed in ancient India; the earliest references to musti-yuddha come from classical Vedic epics such as the Ramayana and Rig Veda.
The Mahabharata describes two combatants boxing with clenched fists and fighting with kicks, finger strikes, knee strikes and headbutts. Duels were fought to the death. During the period of the Western Satraps, the ruler Rudradaman - in addition to being well-versed in "the great sciences" which included Indian classical music, Sanskrit grammar, logic - was said to be an excellent horseman, elephant rider and boxer; the Gurbilas Shemi, an 18th-century Sikh text, gives numerous references to musti-yuddha. In Ancient Greece boxing was enjoyed consistent popularity. In Olympic terms, it was first introduced in the 23rd Olympiad, 688 BC; the boxers would wind leather thongs around their hands. There were no boxers fought until one of them acknowledged defeat or could not continue. Weight categories were not used; the style of boxing practiced featured an advanced left leg stance, with the left arm semi-extended as a guard, in addition to being used for striking, with the right arm drawn back ready to strike.
It was the head of the opponent, targeted, there is little evidence to suggest that targeting the body was common. Boxing was a popular spectator sport in Ancient Rome. In order for the fighters to protect themselves against their opponents they wrapped leather thongs around their fists. Harder leather was used and the thong soon became a weapon; the Romans introduced metal studs to the thongs to make the cestus. Fighting events were held at Roman Amphitheatres; the Roman form of boxing was a fight until death to please the spectators who gathered at such events. However in times, purchased slaves and trained combat performers were valuable commodities, their lives were not given up without due consideration. Slaves were used against one another in a circle marked on the floor; this is. In AD 393, during the Roman gladiator period, boxing was abolished due to excessive brutality, it was not until the late 16th century. Records of Classical boxing activity disappeared after the fall of the Western Roman Empire when the wearing of weapons became common once again and interest in fighting with the fists waned.
However, there are detailed records of various fist-fighting sports that were maintained in different cities and provinces of Italy between the 12th and 17th centuries. There was a sport in ancient Rus called Kulachniy Boy or "Fist Fighting"; as the wearing of swords became less common, there was renewed interest in fencing with the fists. The sport would resurface in England during the early 16th century in the form of bare-knuckle boxing sometimes referred to as prizefighting; the first documented account of a bare-knuckle fight in England appeared in 1681 in the London Protestant Mercury, the first English bare-knuckle champion was James Figg in 1719. This is the time when the word "boxing" first came to be used; this earliest form of modern boxing was different. Contests in Mr. Figg's time, in addition to fist fighting contained fencing and cudgeling. On 6 January 1681, the first recorded boxing match took place in Britain when Christopher Monck, 2nd Duke of Albemarle engineered a bout between his butler and his butcher with the latter winning the prize.
Early fighting had no written rules. There were no weight divisions or round limits, no referee. In general, it was chaotic. An early article on boxing was published i
Ermolao or Hermolao Barbaro Hermolaus Barbarus, was an Italian Renaissance scholar. Ermolao Barbaro was born in Venice, the son of Zaccaria Barbaro, the grandson of Francesco Barbaro, he was the uncle of Daniele Barbaro and Marcantonio Barbaro Much of his early education was outside of Venice, accompanying his father, an active politician and diplomat. He received further education in Verona with an uncle named Ermolao. In 1462 he was sent to Rome, where he studied under Theodorus Gaza. By 1468 he had returned to Verona, he completed his education at the University of Padua, where he was appointed professor of philosophy there in 1477. Two years he revisited Venice, but returned to Padua when the plague broke out in his native city. Barbaro had an active political career, though he resented these duties as a distraction from his studies. In 1483 he was elected to the Senate of the Republic of Venice, he was twenty. In 1486, he was sent to the court of the Duchy of Burgundy in Bruges. In 1488 he held the important civil post of ‘’Savio di Terrafirma’’.
In 1489 he was appointed ambassador to Milan and in 1490 he was appointed Ambassador to Rome. In 1491, Pope Innocent VIII, nominated him to the office of Patriarch of Aquileia, it was illegal under Venetian law for ambassadors to accept gifts or positions of foreign heads of state. There was a dispute between Venice and the Papacy as to who should nominate Patriarchs of Aquileia. Barbaro was accused of treason and the Venetian Senate ordered him to refuse the position. Pope Innocent and his successor Alexander VI threatened to excommunicate Barbaro if he resigned as Patriarch of Aquileia; the Venetian Senate exiled him from Venice. They threatened the same for his father, Zaccaria, as well as confiscation of both men's property, but Zaccaria died shortly afterwards. Barbaro lived in a Roman villa on the Pincian Hill belonging to his brothers Daniele and Ludovico, he was buried at the church of Santa Maria del Popolo. Ferdinando Ughelli mentions an inscription to Barbaro there, but it was lost by 1758.
Valeriano wrote a tribute to Barbaro. Barbaro edited and translated a number of classical works: Aristotle's Ethics and Politics, his own work, De Coelibatu was less influential, but Barbaro's Castigationes Plinianae, published in Rome in 1492 by Eucharius Silber, was his most influential work. In this discussion of Pliny's Natural History Barbaro made 5000 corrections to the text; the work was written in only twenty months and dedicated to the newly elected Pope Alexander VI. Castigationes Plinianae was considered by Barbaro's contemporaries to be the most authoritative work on Pliny. Before his death, he was considered a leading authority on the Greek and Latin works of antiquity. Erasmus cited Barbaro's works with respect, his letters to Giovanni Pico were widely circulated. Much of his work was published after his death: In Dioscuridem Corelari, a work on Dioscorides, in 1510, his translations of Aristotle in 1544, Compendium Scientae Naturalis in 1545. Barbaro's work De Officio Legati was representative of a revolution in the conduct of diplomacy which took place during the Renaissance.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Barbaro, Ermolao". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press