County of Tyrol
The County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140. A jurisdiction under the sovereignty of the Counts of Tyrol, it was inherited by the Counts of Gorizia in 1253 and fell to the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1363. In 1804 the Princely County of Tyrol, unified with the secularised Prince-Bishoprics of Trent and Brixen, became a crown land of the Austrian Empire in 1804 and from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary. Today the territory of the historic crown land is divided between the Italian autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and the Austrian state of Tyrol. Both parts are today associated again in the Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino Euroregion. At least since German king Otto I had conquered the former Lombard kingdom of Italy in 961 and had himself crowned Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, the principal passes of the Eastern Alps had become an important transit area; the German monarchs travelled across Brenner or Reschen Pass on their Italian expeditions aiming at papal coronation or the consolidation of Imperial rule.
In 1004 King Henry II of Germany separated the estates of Trent from the North Italian March of Verona and vested the Bishops of Trent with comital rights. In 1027 Henry's Salian successor, Emperor Conrad II granted the Trent bishops further estates around Bozen and in the Vinschgau region; the Brixen bishops remained loyal supporters of the Salian rulers in the Investiture Controversy and in 1091 received the Puster Valley from the hands of Emperor Henry IV. Documented from about 1140 onwards, the comital dynasty residing in Tyrol Castle near Meran held the office of Vogts in the Trent diocese, they extended their territory over much of the region and came to surpass the power of the bishops, who were nominally their feudal lords. After the deposition of the Welf duke Henry X of Bavaria in 1138, the Counts of Tyrol strengthened their independence; when Henry the Lion was again enfeoffed with the Bavarian duchy by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the 1154 Imperial Diet in Goslar, his possessions no longer comprised the Tyrolean lands.
The Counts maintained that independence under the rising Bavarian Wittelsbach dynasty. In 1210, Count Albert IV of Tyrol took over the Vogt office in the Bishopric of Brixen, prevailing against the rivalling Counts of Andechs. In 1253 Count Meinhard of Gorizia inherited the Tyrolean lands by his marriage to Adelheid, daughter of the last Count Albert IV of Tyrol; when their sons divided their estate in 1271, the elder Meinhard II took Tyrol, for which he was recognized as an immediate lordship. He supported the German king Rudolph of Habsburg against his rival King Ottokar II of Bohemia. In reward, he received the Duchy of Carinthia with the Carniolan march in 1286. In 1307 Meinhard's son Henry was elected King of Bohemia, After his death, he had one surviving daughter, Margaret Maultasch, who could gain the rule only over Tyrol. In 1342 she married Louis V of Wittelsbach Margrave of Brandenburg; the red eagle in Tyrol's coat of arms may derive from the Brandenburg eagle at the time when she and her husband ruled Tyrol and Brandenburg in personal union, though the Tyrolean eagle had appeared in the 13th century.
Louis V died followed by Margaret's son Meinhard III two years later. Lacking any descendants to succeed her, she bequeathed the county to Rudolph IV of Habsburg, Duke of Austria in 1363, he was recognized by the House of Wittelsbach in 1369. From that time onward, Tyrol was ruled by various lines of the Austrian Habsburg dynasty, who held the title of Count. After the Habsburg hereditary lands had been divided by the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, Tyrol was ruled by the descendants of Duke Leopold III of Austria. After a second division within the Leopoldinian line in 1406, Duke Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets ruled them. In 1420 he made Innsbruck the Tyrolean residence. In 1490 his son and heir Sigismund renounced Tyrol and Further Austria in favour of his cousin German king Maximilian I of Habsburg. By Maximilian I had re-united all Habsburg lands under his rule. In 1500 he acquired the remaining Gorizia territories around Lienz and the Puster Valley; when Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg died in 1564, he bequeathed the rule over Tyrol and Further Austria to his second son Archduke Ferdinand II.
Both territories thereafter fell to the younger sons of the Habsburg Emperors: Archduke Matthias in 1608 and Maximilian III in 1612. After the death of Archduke Sigismund Francis in 1665, all Habsburg lands were again under the united rule of the Emperor Leopold I. From the time of Maria Theresa of Austria onward, Tyrol was governed by the central government of the Habsburg Monarchy at Vienna in all matters of major importance. In 1803 the lands of the Bishoprics of Trent and Brixen were secularised and incorporated into the county. Following defeat by Napoleon in 1805, Austria was forced to cede Tyrol to the Kingdom of Bavaria in the Peace of Pressburg. Tyrol as a part of Bavaria became a member of the Confederation of the Rhine in 1806; the Tyroleans rose up against the Bavarian authority and succeeded three times in defeating Bavarian and French troops trying to retake the country. Austria lost the war of the Fifth Coalition against France, got harsh terms in the Treaty of Schönbrunn in 1809.
Glorified as Tyrol's national hero, Andreas Hofer, the leader of the uprising, was executed in 1810 in Mantua. His forces had lost a final battle against the French and Bavarian forces. Tyrol remained under Bavaria and the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy for another four years
Oxford University Museum of Natural History
The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known as the Oxford University Museum or OUMNH, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxford's natural history specimens, located on Parks Road in Oxford, England. It contains a lecture theatre, used by the university's chemistry and mathematics departments; the museum provides the only public access into the adjoining Pitt Rivers Museum. The university's Honour School of Natural Science started in 1850, but the facilities for teaching were scattered around the city of Oxford in the various colleges; the university's collection of anatomical and natural history specimens were spread around the city. Regius Professor of Medicine, Sir Henry Acland, initiated the construction of the museum between 1855 and 1860, to bring together all the aspects of science around a central display area. In 1858, Acland gave a lecture on the museum, setting forth the reason for the building's construction, he viewed that the university had been one-sided in the forms of study it offered—chiefly theology, the classics and history—and that the opportunity should be offered to learn of the natural world and obtain the "knowledge of the great material design of which the Supreme Master-Worker has made us a constituent part".
This idea, of Nature as the Second Book of God, was common in the 19th century. The largest portion of the museum's collections consist of the natural history specimens from the Ashmolean Museum, including the specimens collected by John Tradescant the elder and his son of the same name, William Burchell and geologist William Buckland; the Christ Church Museum donated its osteological and physiological specimens, many of which were collected by Acland. The construction of the building was accomplished through money earned from the sale of Bibles. Several departments moved within the building—astronomy, experimental physics, chemistry, zoology, anatomy and medicine; as the departments grew in size over the years, they moved to new locations along South Parks Road, which remains the home of the university's Science Area. The last department to leave the building was the entomology department, which moved into the zoology building in 1978. However, there is still a working entomology laboratory on the first floor of the museum building.
Between 1885 and 1886 a new building to the east of the museum was constructed to house the ethnological collections of General Augustus Pitt Rivers—the Pitt Rivers Museum. In 19th-century thinking, it was important to separate objects made by the hand of God from objects made by the hand of man; the neo-Gothic building was designed by the Irish architects Thomas Newenham Deane and Benjamin Woodward Woodward. The museum's design was directly influenced by the writings of critic John Ruskin, who involved himself by making various suggestions to Woodward during construction. Construction began in 1855, the building was ready for occupancy in 1860; the adjoining building that houses the Pitt Rivers Museum was the work of Thomas Manly Deane, son of Thomas Newenham Deane. It was built between 1885 and 1886; the museum consists of a large square court with a glass roof, supported by cast iron pillars, which divide the court into three aisles. Cloistered arcades run around the ground and first floor of the building, with stone columns each made from a different British stone, selected by geologist John Phillips.
The ornamentation of the stonework and iron pillars incorporates natural forms such as leaves and branches, combining the Pre-Raphaelite style with the scientific role of the building. Statues of eminent men of science stand around the ground floor of the court—from Aristotle and Bacon through to Darwin and Linnaeus. Although the university paid for the construction of the building, the ornamentation was funded by public subscription, much of it remains incomplete; the Irish stone carvers O'Shea and Whelan had been employed to create lively freehand carvings in the Gothic manner. When funding dried up, they offered to work unpaid, but they were accused by members of the University Convocation of "defacing" the building by adding unauthorised work. According to Acland, the O'Shea brothers responded by caricaturing the members of Convocation as parrots and owls in the carving over the building's entrance. Acland insists. A significant debate in the history of evolutionary biology took place in the museum in 1860 at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.
Representatives of the Church and science debated the subject of evolution, the event is viewed as symbolising the defeat of a literalist interpretation of the Genesis creation narrative. However, there are few eye-witness accounts of the debate, most accounts of the debate were written by scientists; the biologist Thomas Huxley and Samuel Wilberforce, the Bishop of Oxford, are cast as the main protagonists in the debate. Huxley was a staunch supporter of Darwin's theories. Wilberforce had supported the construction of the museum as the centre for the science departments, for the study of the wonders of God's creations. On the Wednesday of the meeting, 27 June 1860, botanist Charles Daubeny presented a paper on plant sexuality, which made reference to Darwin's theory of natural selection. Richard Owen, a zoologist who believed that evolution was governed by divine influence, criticised the theory pointing out that the brain of the gorilla was more different from that of man than that of other primates.
Huxley stated that he would respond to this comment in print, declined to continue the debate. However, rumours began to spread that the B
Roelant Roghman was a Dutch Golden Age painter and engraver. Roghman was born in Amsterdam, the son of the engraver Henrick Lambertsz Roghman and Maria Jacobs Savery, his mother was a daughter of the Savery family, Roghman became a student of his namesake and great-uncle, Roelant Savery. According to Houbraken, he only had one eye, but painted in a rough and ready way, the result of his eyesight, he specialized in landscapes, in life became a history buff, working on several prints of old castle ruins and defunct family estates based on drawings he made during travels in his youth. He was a follower of Hercules Seghers. Houbraken claimed that in his youth he had been a friend of Gerbrant van den Eekhout. Roghman worked on one of his print series with his sister Geertruydt in, under the title Plaisante Landschappen by the printer Claes Jansz Visscher, his other sister Magdalena was an engraver. Their landscape series of more than 200 prints, showing castles and landed estates in the Dutch provinces of North Holland and Utrecht, were popular.
He never married, died a resident of the old men's almshouse in Amsterdam. Aside from his sisters, he was the teacher of Pieter Wouwerman. North-Holland archives with online images by Roghman Utrecht archives with online images by Roghman Works and literature at PubHist
Guild of Saint Luke
The Guild of Saint Luke was the most common name for a city guild for painters and other artists in early modern Europe in the Low Countries. They were named in honor of the Evangelist Luke, the patron saint of artists, identified by John of Damascus as having painted the Virgin's portrait. One of the most famous such organizations was founded in Antwerp, it continued to function until 1795, although by it had lost its monopoly and therefore most of its power. In most cities, including Antwerp, the local government had given the Guild the power to regulate defined types of trade within the city. Guild membership, as a master, was therefore required for an artist to take on apprentices or to sell paintings to the public. Similar rules existed in Delft, where only members could have a shop; the early guilds in Antwerp and Bruges, setting a model that would be followed in other cities had their own showroom or market stall from which members could sell their paintings directly to the public. The guild of Saint Luke not only represented painters and other visual artists, but also—especially in the seventeenth century—dealers and art lovers.
In the medieval period most members in most places were manuscript illuminators, where these were in the same guild as painters on wood and cloth—in many cities they were joined with the scribes or "scriveners". In traditional guild structures, house-painters and decorators were in the same guild. However, as artists formed under their own specific guild of St. Luke in the Netherlands, distinctions were made. In general, guilds made judgments on disputes between artists and other artists or their clients. In such ways, it controlled the economic career of an artist working in a specific city, while in different cities they were wholly independent and competitive against each other. Although it did not become a major artistic center until the sixteenth century, Antwerp was one of, if not the first, city to found a guild of Saint Luke, it is first mentioned in 1382, was given special privileges by the city in 1442. The registers, or Liggeren, from the guild exist, cataloging when artists became masters, who the dean for each year was, what their specialities were, the names of any students.
In Bruges, the dominant city for artistic production in the Low Countries in the fifteenth century, the earliest known list of guild members dates to 1453, although the guild was older than this. There all artists had to belong to the guild in order to practice in their own names or to sell their works, the guild was strict about which artistic activities could be practiced–distinctly forbidding an artisan to work in an area where another guild's members, such as tapestry weaving, were represented; the Bruges guild, in a idiosyncratic medieval arrangement included the saddlemakers because most members were painting illuminated manuscripts on vellum, were therefore grouped as a sort of leatherworker. Because of this link, for a period they had a rule that all miniatures needed a tiny mark to identify the artist, registered with the Guild. Only under special privileges, such as court artist, could an artist practice their craft without holding membership in the guild. Peter Paul Rubens had a similar situation in the seventeenth century, when he obtained special permission from the Archdukes Albert and Isabella to be both court artist in Brussels and an active member of the Guild of Saint Luke in Antwerp.
Membership allowed members to sell works at the guild-owned showroom. Antwerp, for example, opened a market stall for selling paintings in front of the cathedral in 1460, Bruges followed in 1482. Guilds of St. Luke in the Dutch Republic began to reinvent themselves as cities there changed over to Protestant rule, there were dramatic movements in population. Many St. Luke guilds reissued charters to protect the interests of local painters from the influx of southern talent from places like Antwerp and Bruges. Many cities in the young republic became more important artistic centres in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Amsterdam was the first city to reissue a St. Luke's charter after the reformation in 1579, it included painters, sculptors and other trades dealing in the visual arts; when trade between the Spanish Netherlands and the Dutch Republic resumed with the Twelve Years' Truce in 1609, immigration increased and many Dutch cities reissued guild charters as a form of protection against the great number of paintings that began to cross the border.
For example, Gouda and Delft, all founded guilds between 1609 and 1611. In each of those cases, panel painters removed themselves from their traditional guild structure that included other painters, such as those who worked in fresco and on houses, in favor of a specific "Guild of St. Luke". On the other hand, these distinctions did not take effect at that time in Haarlem. In the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke, however, a strict hierarchy was attempted in 1631 with panel painters at the top, though this hierarchy was rejected. In the Utrecht guild founded in 1611, the break was with the saddlemakers, but in 1644 a further split created a new painters' guild, leaving the guild of Saint Luke with only the sculptors and woodcarvers. A similar move in The Hague in 1656 led to the painters leaving the Guild of Saint Luke to establish a new Confrerie Pictura with all other kinds of visual artists, leaving the guild to the house-painters. Artists in other cities were not successful in setting up their own guilds of St. Luke, remained part of the existing gui
Kortrijk is a Belgian city and municipality in the Flemish province of West Flanders. It is largest city of the judicial and administrative arrondissement of Kortrijk; the wider municipality comprises the city of Kortrijk proper and the villages of Aalbeke, Bissegem, Kooigem and Rollegem. Kortrijk is part of the cross-border Lille-Kortrijk-Tournai metropolitan area; the city is on 42 km southwest of Ghent and 25 km northeast of Lille. Mouscron in Wallonia is just south of Kortrijk. Kortrijk originated from a Gallo-Roman town, Cortoriacum, at a crossroads near the Leie river and two Roman roads. In the Middle Ages, Kortrijk grew thanks to the flax and wool industry with France and England and became one of the biggest and richest cities in Flanders; the city is referred to as City of Groeninge or City of the Golden Spurs, referring to the Battle of Courtrai or the Battle of the Golden Spurs which took place on 11 July 1302 on the Fields of Groeninge in Kortrijk. In 1820, the Treaty of Kortrijk was signed, which laid out the current borders between France and Belgium.
Throughout the 19th and 20th century, the flax industry flourished and remains important within the Belgian textile industry today. Kortrijk is the largest city in southern West Flanders, with several hospitals, colleges and a university. Kortrijk was the first city in Belgium with the Korte Steenstraat; the Roman name Cortoriacum meant in the settlement near the curb in the river. There is mention of Cortoracum in some Litterature, its name evolved to Cortrycke and Kortrijk. The French Called it Courtrai. Findings from an archeological digging in 1950 seem to indicate that the vicus was used as an encampment/base by the romans during their invasion of Britain in 43ad. Cortoriacum was a larger Gallo-Roman vicus of civitas Menapiorum at an important crossroads near the Lys river of the Roman roads linking Tongeren and Cassel and Tournai and Oudenburg, it was first mentioned in a document from the 4th or 5th century called Notitia Dignitatum where the Cortoriacenses Troops were mentioned. In the 9th century, Baldwin II, Count of Flanders established fortifications against the Vikings.
The town gained its city charter in 1190 from Count of Flanders. The population growth required new defensive walls. Several local places still refer to physical parts of the Defensive Structures around Kortrijk. In the 13th century, the battles between Fernando of Portugal, Count of Flanders and his first cousin, King Louis VIII of France, led to the destruction of the city; the Counts of Flanders had it rebuilt soon after. To promote industry and weaving in the town, Countess of Flanders exempted settlers in Kortrijk from property tax. From that time, Kortrijk gained great importance as a centre of linen production. In 1302, the population of Bruges started a successful uprising against the French, who had annexed Flanders a couple of years earlier. On 18 May the French population in that city was massacred, an event; the famous ensuing Battle of Courtrai or the Battle of the Golden Spurs between the Flemish people commoners and farmers, Philip the Fair’s knights took place near Kortrijk on 11 July, resulting in a victory for Flanders.
This date is now remembered as a national holiday by the whole Flemish community. Following a new uprising by the Flemish in 1323, but this time against their own Count Louis I, the French invaded again; these Flemish acquisitions were consolidated by the French at the Battle of Cassel. Louis I’s son, Louis II Philip van Artevelde regained the city in 1381 but lost it again the following year at the Battle of Roosebeke, resulting in a new wave of plundering and destruction. Most of the 15th century was prosperous under the Dukes of Burgundy, until the death of the Burgundian heiress, Mary of Burgundy, in 1482, which ushered in renewed fighting with France; the 16th century was marked by the confrontations engendered by the Reformation and the uprising of the Netherlands against Spain. Louis XIV’s reign saw Kortrijk occupied by the French five times in sixty years and its former fortifications razed; the Treaty of Utrecht assigned the whole area to Austria. After the French Revolution and the Napoleonic era, the textile industry, based on flax, the general economy of the city could prosper again.
Kortrijk was bombed in the summer of 1917, but was liberated by the British Army the following year. During World War II the city was an important railway hub for the German army, for this reason was the target of several allied air-strikes. On 21 July 1944 around 300 Avro Lancasters dropped over 5,000 bombs on the city centre. Many historical buildings on the central square, as well as the old railway station, were destroyed. See Battle of Courtrai After the 1977 fusion the city is made up of: I Kortrijk II Heule III Bissegem IV Marke V Aalbeke VI Rollegem VII Bellegem VIII Kooigem The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone consists of Kuurne, Wevelgem and Harelbeke. Although these municipalities have strong morphologic ties with Kortrijk, they aren't part of the city. Kortrijk has an oceanic climate (
The Sint Antoniesbreestraat is a street in the centre of Amsterdam in the Netherlands. The street runs south from Nieuwmarkt square to the Sint Antoniesluis sluice gates, where it continues as the Jodenbreestraat; the Sint Antoniesbreestraat is a shopping street with a variety of specialty shops. At the corner of Sint Antoniesbreestraat and Hoogstraat is an entry to the Nieuwmarkt stop of the Amsterdam Metro system; the street was a dike, the Sint Antoniesdijk, constructed during the Middle Ages. It protected its surroundings from flooding. After 1585 this part of the city, called the Lastage, was developed. In the early 17th century, the street was popular with immigrants and artists such as the painter Rembrandt, who lived there from 1631 to 1635, at the home of art dealer Hendrick van Uylenburgh. Other painters who lived in the street, near the Guild of Saint Luke in the former Sint Anthoniespoort, include Esaias Boursse, who lived next door to Rembrandt, Nicolaes Eliaszoon Pickenoy, Cornelis van der Voort, Roelant Savery, Pieter Lastman, Adriaen van Nieulandt, Pieter Codde, Johannes Vingboons, their father David Vinckboons, Willem Kick.
The burgomasters Geurt van Beuningen. and Joan Huydecoper grew up here. Isaac de Pinto's 17th-century house with an Italianate facade, the Huis De Pinto, still stands; the property was purchased by Pinto in 1651 and was remodeled after 1686. Upon its renovation, the building was the "talk of the town" due to the dramatic style of exterior and interior. Across from the De Pinto House is a gate giving access to the Zuiderkerkhof, the square where the Zuiderkerk church stands. Since the 17th century, the section of the street south of the sluice and bridge has been called Jodenbreestraat; the straight and wide Jodenbreestraat runs through the former Jewish quarter of Amsterdam. During World War II, many residents were taken away to the Nazi concentration camps and the neighbourhood was left deserted. After the war, the abandoned houses were left in a decrepit state and many were torn down. Plans were made to build new houses, as well as a metro line through the street; these plans were met by heavy rioting in 1975.
New houses were built along the existing Sint Antoniesbreestraat, the Huis de Pinto, which had become a symbol of the movement to save the neighbourhood, was renovated and now serves as public library
The Biografisch Portaal is an initiative based at the Huygens Institute for Dutch History in The Hague, with the aim of making biographical texts of the Netherlands more accessible. The project was started in February 2010 with material for 40,000 digitized biographies, with the goal to grant digital access to all reliable information about people of the Netherlands from the earliest beginnings of history up to modern times; the Netherlands as a geographic term includes former colonies, the term "people" refers both to people born in the Netherlands and its former colonies, to people born elsewhere but active in the Netherlands and its former colonies. As of 2011, only biographical information about deceased people is included; the system used is based on the standards of the Text Encoding Initiative. Access to the Biografisch Portaal is available free through a web-based interface; the project is a cooperative undertaking by ten scientific and cultural bodies in the Netherlands with the Huygens Institute as main contact.
The other bodies are: The Biografie Instituut The Centraal Bureau voor Genealogie The Digital Library for Dutch Literature Data Archiving and Networked Services The International Institute of Social History The Onderzoekscentrum voor Geschiedenis en Cultuur, The Parlementair Documentatie Centrum The Netherlands Institute for Art History Besides ongoing digital projects, Dutch biographical dictionaries published in book form that have been digitized and incorporated into the indexes of the Biografisch Portaal are: The work of Abraham van der Aa, the first Dutch biographical dictionary The BWN, or Biografisch Woordenboek van Nederland The NNBW, or Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek The work of Johan Engelbert Elias on the Amsterdam regency known as Vroedschap van Amsterdam The work of Barend Glasius known as Godgeleerd Nederland The work of Roeland van Eynden and Adriaan van der Willigen, known as Geschiedenis der vaderlandsche schilderkunst The work of Jan van Gool known as Nieuwe Schouburg The work of Jacob Campo Weyerman known as The Lives of Dutch painters and paintresses The BLNP, or Biografisch lexicon voor de geschiedenis van het Nederlands protestantismeAs of November 2012 the Biografisch Portaal contained 80,206 persons in 125,592 biographies.
In February 2012, a new project was started called "BiographyNed" to build an analytical tool for use with the Biografisch Portaal that will link biographies to events in time and space. The main goal of the three-year project is to formulate ‘the boundaries of the Netherlands’. List of Dutch people Official website