click links in text for more info


Roentgenium is a chemical element with the symbol Rg and atomic number 111. It is an radioactive synthetic element that can be created in a laboratory but is not found in nature; the most stable known isotope, roentgenium-282, has a half-life of 100 seconds, although the unconfirmed roentgenium-286 may have a longer half-life of about 10.7 minutes. Roentgenium was first created in 1994 by the GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near Darmstadt, Germany, it is named after the physicist Wilhelm Röntgen. In the periodic table, it is a d-block transactinide element, it is a member of the 7th period and is placed in the group 11 elements, although no chemical experiments have been carried out to confirm that it behaves as the heavier homologue to gold in group 11 as the ninth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Roentgenium is calculated to have similar properties to its lighter homologues, copper and gold, although it may show some differences from them. Roentgenium was first synthesized by an international team led by Sigurd Hofmann at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany, on December 8, 1994.

The team bombarded a target of bismuth-209 with accelerated nuclei of nickel-64 and detected three nuclei of the isotope roentgenium-272: 20983Bi + 6428Ni → 272111Rg + 10nThis reaction had been conducted at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna in 1986, but no atoms of 272Rg had been observed. In 2001, the IUPAC/IUPAP Joint Working Party concluded that there was insufficient evidence for the discovery at that time; the GSI team detected three more atoms. In their 2003 report, the JWP decided that the GSI team should be acknowledged for the discovery of this element. Using Mendeleev's nomenclature for unnamed and undiscovered elements, roentgenium should be known as eka-gold. In 1979, IUPAC published recommendations according to which the element was to be called unununium, a systematic element name as a placeholder, until the element was discovered and a permanent name was decided on. Although used in the chemical community on all levels, from chemistry classrooms to advanced textbooks, the recommendations were ignored among scientists in the field, who called it element 111, with the symbol of E111, or simply 111.

The name roentgenium was suggested by the GSI team in 2004, to honor the German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, the discoverer of X-rays. This name was accepted by IUPAC on November 1, 2004. Roentgenium has no stable or occurring isotopes. Several radioactive isotopes have been synthesized in the laboratory, either by fusion of the nuclei of lighter elements or as intermediate decay products of heavier elements. Nine different isotopes of roentgenium have been reported with atomic masses 272, 274, 278–283, 286, two of which, roentgenium-272 and roentgenium-274, have known but unconfirmed metastable states. All of these decay through alpha decay or spontaneous fission, though 280Rg may have an electron capture branch. All roentgenium isotopes are unstable and radioactive; the most stable known roentgenium isotope, 282Rg, is the heaviest known roentgenium isotope. The unconfirmed 286Rg is heavier and appears to have an longer half-life of about 10.7 minutes, which would make it one of the longest-lived superheavy nuclides known.

The isotopes 280Rg and 281Rg have been reported to have half-lives over a second. The remaining isotopes have half-lives in the millisecond range. No properties of roentgenium or its compounds have been measured. Properties of roentgenium metal remain only predictions are available. Roentgenium is the ninth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Since copernicium has been shown to be a group 12 metal, it is expected that all the elements from 104 to 111 would continue a fourth transition metal series. Calculations on its ionization potentials and atomic and ionic radii are similar to that of its lighter homologue gold, thus implying that roentgenium's basic properties will resemble those of the other group 11 elements, copper and gold. Roentgenium is predicted to be a noble metal, more noble than gold, with a standard electrode potential of 1.9 V for the Rg3+/Rg couple compared to that of 1.5 V for the Au3+/Au couple. It is expected to be the second-most noble metal in the periodic system, behind only its neighbour copernicium.

Based on the most stable oxidation states of the lighter group 11 elements, roentgenium is predicted to show stable +5 and +3 oxidation states, with a less stable +1 state. The +3 state is predicted to be the most stable. Roentgenium is expected to be of comparable reactivity to gold, but should be more stable and form a larger variety of compounds. Gold forms a somewhat stable −1 state due to relativistic effects, it has been suggested roentgenium may do so as well: the electron affinity of roentgenium is expected to be around 1.6 eV lower than gold's value of 2.3 eV, so roentgenides may not be stable or possible. The 6d orbi


Feliciano! is a 1968 album by Puerto Rican guitarist José Feliciano. All of the tracks are acoustic cover versions of songs popularized by other artists, including The Mamas & the Papas, The Doors and the Pacemakers, The Beatles, Jorge Ben Jor, Lou Johnson. Feliciano! has been the most successful album of his career in the USA, spending 59 weeks on the Billboard Top LP chart, peaking at number 2. The album performed well outside the USA, reaching number 1 in Canada and number 6 in the UK. Feliciano! was nominated for Best Album of the Year at the 1969 Grammy Awards and Jose Feliciano won the Best New Artist award, as well as the award for Best Pop Male Song of the Year for the song "Light My Fire" from the album. The album's producer Rick Jarrard received a nomination for Best Producer of the Year; the album cover shows a drawing by George Bartell of Feliciano with his guitar. Side One "California Dreamin'" "Light My Fire" "Don't Let the Sun Catch You Crying" "In My Life" "And I Love Her" Side Two "Nena Na Na" "Always Something There to Remind Me" "Just a Little Bit of Rain" "Sunny" "Here and Everywhere" "The Last Thing on My Mind" José Feliciano - classical guitar, arrangements Ray Brown - double bass Milt Holland - percussion, drums Jim Horn - alto flute, flute George Tipton - orchestration, string & woodwind arrangements Perry Botkin Jr. - arrangements Uncredited - organ on "California Dreamin'"TechnicalRick Jarrard - producer Dick Bogert - recording engineer George Bartell - cover illustration Recorded at RCA Victor's Music Center Of The World, California on November 21, 1967 and January 5 & 6, 1968

Dada (1999 film)

Dada is an action Hindi film made in 1999. A revenge drama, with Mithun in the lead role. Film was box office failure. Film was re run as an Aaj ka boss. A story of a simpleton whose life changes when he witnesses a shoot-out of a Don and rescues him; the don takes him as his successor. How the negative elements of the underworld influence him forms the film's finale. Mithun went to the Mumbai along with his younger sister, he went along with his family to have some food. He observed that one gunman came from Maruti Omni and started shooting a Don but Mithun took him hospital and saved his life. Don asks how he can help him. Mithun Chakraborty replies. Don provides the job. After some years, Don becomes happy with Mithun work and gave his designation to him with a new name DADA. Dada killed the goon in the whole crowd who has attempted to kill Don. Dada meets with a minister for the appointment of a sp in the Mumbai from the magpur; as dada is having a secret vengeance to that trikaal, theminister calls him to Mumbai.

Mithun Chakraborty as Police inspector Devraj/Dada Thakur Swati as Kamna Dilip Tahil as Police commissioner Trikaal Chowdhry Manvi Goswami as Rashmi Ishrat Ali as Police inspector Kamli Jasi Thakur Rami Reddy as Yeshwant Raza Murad as Akbar Jack Gaud as Ranjit Deepak Shirke as Anna Arjun as Goon Dada on IMDb

Raymond Turpin

Raymond Alexander Turpin, born 5 November 1895 in Pontoise, died May 24, 1988, in Paris, was a French pediatrician and geneticist. In the late 1950s, his team discovered the chromosomal abnormality, trisomy 21, responsible for Down syndrome. Turpin was admitted to the Faculty of Medicine of Paris in 1914, in 1915 he was mobilized as a military medical assistant. Three years he was affected by poison gas, was subsequently awarded the Croix de guerre. After the war, he resumed his medical studies, interning at Hôpitaux de Paris in 1921; as part of the Pasteur Institute, he participated, with Albert Calmette and Benjamin Weill-Hallé, in the first trials of the BCG vaccine, to prevent TB, continued the collaboration until 1933. He worked in pathology and pediatrics, including childhood tetany. In 1929, tetany was the topic of his medical thesis, for which he won the Thesis Prize of the Faculty of Medicine. In this work, he highlighted a specific electromyographic sign of tetany. After being named head of the laboratory and clinical director, he became Doctor of the Paris Hospitals in 1929.

From 1931, Turpin and his team researched Down syndrome. He studied the clinical presentation of the disease in affected individuals, their ancestors and siblings. In 1937, he wrote: "The assumption that mongolism is connected with a chromosomal abnormality is acceptable like the Bar mutation, due to a chromosomal abnormality in the drosophila." In 1956, several teams established that the number of human chromosomes is 46, it became possible to count the number of chromosomes in a sample in the laboratory. From 1956 to 1958, Turpin - with students Jérôme Lejeune and Marthe Gautier - studied the number and appearance of chromosomes in the cells of children with and without Down syndrome, in 1958 they found that children with Down syndrome possess 47 chromosomes: they carry three copies of one chromosome instead of the usual two; this chromosome was designated chromosome 21 in 1960. Turpin discovered, in 1959, the first structural chromosomal abnormality translocation, the second of the two main types of chromosomal abnormalities.

In 1947, Turpin founded the French Genetics Society, of which he became president in 1954. He was appointed professor at the Faculty of Medicine of Paris, first in therapeutics, in infant health and medicine, he was elected president of the French Society of Pediatrics in 1960 and participated in the creation of the first chair of genetics in 1965, entrusted to Jérôme Lejeune. He was elected member of the French Academy of Sciences, Académie Nationale de Médecine and the Académie nationale de pharmacie

Lac la Biche (Alberta)

Lac la Biche is a large lake in north-central Alberta, Canada. It is located along the Northern Water Route, 95 km east of Athabasca. Lac la Biche has a total area including 3.2 km2 islands area. The indigenous peoples of the area referred to the lake as Elk Lake. Since the lake shares its name with the town, locals use the redundant name "Lac la Biche Lake". Owl River flows into the lake, its waters are drained through the La Biche River and into the Athabasca River, placing it in the basin that flows to the Arctic Ocean. Just to the south is Beaver Lake; the former town and population centre of Lac La Biche is located on the southern shore of the lake. The communities of Plamondon and Owl River are located around Lac la Biche. Sir Winston Churchill Provincial Park is located on an island of the lake

Strange Cruise (album)

Strange Cruise is the eponymously titled album by the short-lived British band Strange Cruise released on EMI. Released in 1986, it was the band's only album. After Visage disbanded in 1985, vocalist Steve Strange put a new band together the same year; the recording of the album took place in late 1985 in a studio near Nuremberg. Mike Hedges produced the album, with contributions from Steve Forward; the album was a commercial disappointment. Two singles taken off the album, "Rebel Blue Rocker" and a cover of Sonny & Cher's "The Beat Goes On", were unsuccessful. There was a B-side called Silver Screen Queen. All tracks written by Steve Strange and Steve Barnacle, except from "The Beat Goes On", written by Sonny Bono, "12 Miles High", written by Steve New. "Hit and Run" – 3:06 "The Beat Goes On" – 3:26 "Rebel Blue Rocker" – 3:15 "Communication" – 4:00 "This Old Town" – 3:15 "Animal Call" – 2:54 "Heart Is a Lonely Hunter" – 3:44 "Love Addiction" – 2:55 "12 Miles High" – 2:50 "Where Were Their Hearts" – 3:44 Steve Strange - vocals Wendy Wu - vocals Frankie Hepburn - guitar, backing vocals Steve Barnacle - bass guitar, backing vocals Pete Barnacle - drums, backing vocals Pete Murray - synthesizer, backing vocals Gary Barnacle - saxophone Pete Thoms - trombone Luke Tunney - trumpet Martin Ditcham - percussion