Video on demand
Video on demand is a programming system which allows users to select and watch/listen to video or audio content such as movies and TV shows whenever they choose, rather than at a scheduled broadcast time, the method that prevailed with over-the-air programming during the 20th century. IPTV technology is used to bring VOD to televisions and personal computers. Television VOD systems can stream content through either a set-top box, a computer or other device, allowing viewing in real time, or download it to a device such as a computer, digital video recorder or portable media player for viewing at any time; the majority of cable- and telephone company–based television providers offer: VOD streaming, whereby a user selects a video program and it begins to play on the television set, or downloading to a digital video recorder rented or purchased from the provider, or downloading onto a PC or to a portable device, for viewing in the future. Internet television, using the Internet, is an popular form of video on demand.
VOD can be accessed via desktop client applications such as the Samsung iCloud online content store. Some airlines offer VOD as in-flight entertainment to passengers through individually controlled video screens embedded in seatbacks or armrests or offered via portable media players; some video on demand services, such as Netflix, use a subscription model that requires users to pay a monthly fee to access a bundled set of content, movies shows. Other services, such as YouTube, use an advertising - model. Downloading and streaming video on demand systems provide the user with all of the features of Portable media players and DVD players; some VOD systems that store and stream programs from hard disk drives use a memory buffer to allow the user to fast forward and rewind digital videos. It is possible to put video servers on local area networks, in which case they can provide rapid response to users. Cable companies have reeled out their own versions of video on demand services through apps, allowing for TV access anywhere where there is a device, internet compatible.
In addition to cable services launching apps that offer on demand video, they have combined it with offering live streaming services as well. The recent launches of apps from cable companies have the phrases "go" or "watch" are attempts to compete with Subscription Video on Demand services since they lack having live news, etc. Streaming video servers can serve a wider community via a WAN, in which case the responsiveness may be reduced. Download VOD services are practical to homes equipped with DSL connections. Servers for traditional cable and telco VOD services are placed at the cable head-end serving a particular market as well as cable hubs in larger markets. In the telco world, they are placed in either the central office, or a newly created location called a Video Head-End Office; the first video on demand systems used tapes. GTE started as a trial in 1990 with AT&T providing all components. By 1992 VOD servers were supplying encoded digital video from disks and DRAM. In the US, the 1982 anti-trust break-up of AT&T resulted in a number of smaller telephone companies called Baby Bells.
Following this the Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 prohibited telephone companies from providing video services within their operating regions. In 1993 the National Communication and Information Infrastructure was proposed and passed by the US House and Senate, thus opening the way for the seven Baby Bells—Ameritech, Bell Atlantic, BellSouth, NYNEX, Pacific Telesis, Southwestern Bell, US West—to implement VOD systems. All of these companies and others began holding trials to set up systems for supplying video on demand over telephone and cable lines. In November 1992, Bell Atlantic announced a VOD trial. IBM was developing video server code-named Tiger Shark. Concurrently Digital Equipment was developing a scalable video server. Bell Atlantic selected IBM and in April 1993 the system became the first VOD over ADSL to be deployed outside the lab, serving 50 video streams. In June 1993, US West filed for a system consisting of the Digital Equipment Corporation Interactive Information Server, with Scientific Atlanta providing the network, 3DO as the set-top box, with video streams and other information to be deployed to 2500 homes.
In 1994–1995 US West went on to file for VOD at several cities: 330,000 subscribers in Denver, 290,000 in Minneapolis, 140,000 in Portland. Many VOD trials were held with various combinations of server and set-top. Of these the primary players in the US were the telephone companies, using DEC, Oracle, IBM, Hewlett-Packard, USA Video, nCube, SGI, other servers; the DEC server system was used in more of these trials than any other. The DEC VOD server architecture used interactive gateways to set up video streams and other information for delivery from any of a large number of VAX servers, enabling it in 1993 to support more than 100,000 streams with full VCR-like functionality. In 1994, it would upgrade to a DEC Alpha–based computer for its VOD servers, allowing it to support more than a million users. By 1994 the Oracle scalable VOD system used massively parallel processors to support from 500 to 30,000 users; the SGI system supported 4000 users. The servers connected to networks of increasing size to support video stream delivery to whole cities.
In the UK, from September 1994, a VOD service formed a major part of the Cambridge Digital Interactive Television Trial in England. This provided video and data to 250 homes and a number of sc
Ojai is a city in Ventura County in the U. S. state of California. Located in the Ojai Valley, it is east of Santa Barbara; the valley is about 10 miles long by 3 miles wide, surrounded by mountains. The population was 7,461 at the 2010 census, down from 7,862 at the 2000 census. Ojai is a tourism destination known for its boutique hotels, recreation opportunities, spiritual retreats and farmers' market of local organic agriculture, it has small businesses specializing in local and ecologically friendly art and home improvement—such as galleries and a solar power company. Chain stores are prohibited by Ojai city law to encourage local small business development and keep the town unique; the origin of the name Ojai has been known as derived from an Indigenous word meaning nest, though the specific Indigenous nation is not identified. The city's self-styled nickname is "Shangri-La" referencing the natural environment of this health and spirituality-focused region as well as the mystical sanctuary of 1937 film adaption of James Hilton's novel Lost Horizon.
Chumash Indians were the early inhabitants of the valley. They called it Ojai, which derives from the Ventureño Chumash word ʼawhaý meaning "moon"; the area became part of the Rancho Ojai Mexican land grant made to Fernando Tico in 1837, he established a cattle ranch. Tico sold it in 1853 without much success to prospectors searching for oil. By 1864, the area was settled; the town was laid out in 1874 by real estate developer R. G. Surdam and named Nordhoff, California, in honor of the writer Charles Nordhoff. Leading up to and during World War I, American sentiment became anti-German. Across the United States and German-sounding place names were changed; as part of this trend, Nordhoff was renamed Ojai in 1917. The public high school in Ojai is still named Nordhoff High School; the public junior high school, named "Matilija" served as Nordhoff Union High School and still features large tiles with the initials "NUHS" on the steps of the athletic field. The Ventura and Ojai Valley Railroad connected Ojai to the national rail network near Ventura station in 1898.
A nine-day Pineapple Express with rainfall intensity reaching 6.2 inches per per day caused floods destroying the rail line in January 1969. The former rail line was converted to the Ojai Valley Trail in 1989; the main turning point in the development of the city was the coming of Edward Libbey, early owner of the Libbey Glass Company. He saw the valley and fell in love, thinking up many plans for expansion and beautification of the existing rustic town. A fire destroyed much of the original western-style downtown Nordhoff/Ojai in 1917. Afterwards Libbey helped design and build a new downtown more in line with the contemporary taste for Spanish Colonial Revival style architecture; the projects included a Spanish-style arcade along the main street, a bell-tower reminiscent of the famous campanile of the Basilica Menor de San Francisco de Asis in Havana, a pergola opposite the arcade. To thank Libbey for his gifts to the town, the citizens proposed a celebration to take place on March 2 of each year.
Libbey declined their offer to call it "Libbey Day", instead suggested "Ojai Day". The celebration still takes place each year in October; the arcade and bell tower still stand, have come to serve as symbols of the city and the surrounding valley. Libbey's pergola was destroyed after being damaged in an explosion, it was rebuilt in the early 2000s to complete the architectural continuity of the downtown area. The Taormina neighborhood was established as the first historic district in the city in 2016; the housing development was built in the style of French architecture of Normandy in the 1960s and 1970s by members of the Theosophy movement adjacent to the Krotona Institute of Theosophy. Taormina's founder, theosophist Ruth Wilson, envisioned the development as a retirement community for fellow theosophists but in the early 1980s a court ruling required the community to be open to residents of all faiths and backgrounds. Ojai is situated in north of Ventura and east of Santa Barbara; the city is 745 feet above sea level and is bordering the Los Padres National Forest to the north.
It is 15 miles inland from the Pacific Ocean coast. The Ventura River flows into the Pacific Ocean at the city of Ventura; the Ventura River was once known for its steelhead fishing before Matilija Dam and Lake Casitas were constructed, eliminating habitat for this trout species. Nordhoff Ridge, the western extension of the Topatopa Mountains, towers over the north side of the valley at more than 5,000 feet. Sulphur Mountain creates the southern ranges bounding the Ojai Valley, a little under 3,000 feet in elevation; the Sulphur and Topatopa Mountains are part of the Transverse Ranges system. The Ojai Valley and the surrounding mountains are wooded with oak trees; the climate of Ojai is Mediterranean, characterized by hot, dry summers exceeding 100 °F or 37.8 °C on ten afternoons, mild winters, with lows at night below freezing on 23 mornings. During dry spells with continental air, morning temperatures can due to Ojai's valley location drop well below most of Southern California, with the record being 13 °F on January 6 and 7 of 1913.
In contrast, Ojai is far enough from the sea to minimise marine cooling, hot days can occur during summer, with the record being 119 °F on June 16, 1917 – when it fell as low as 65 °F in the morning due to clear skies and dry air. As is typical for much of coastal southern California
Manitoba is a province at the longitudinal centre of Canada. It is considered one of the three prairie provinces and is Canada's fifth-most populous province with its estimated 1.3 million people. Manitoba covers 649,950 square kilometres with a varied landscape, stretching from the northern oceanic coastline to the southern border with the United States; the province is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, Northwest Territories to the northwest, the U. S. states of North Minnesota to the south. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited. In the late 17th century, fur traders arrived on two major river systems, what is now called the Nelson in northern Manitoba and in the southeast along the Winnipeg River system. A Royal Charter in 1670 granted all the lands draining into Hudson's Bay to the British company and they administered trade in what was called Rupert's Land. During the next 200 years, communities continued to grow and evolve, with a significant settlement of Michif in what is now Winnipeg.
The assertion of Métis identity and self-rule culminated in negotiations for the creation of the province of Manitoba. There are many factors that led to an armed uprising of the Métis people against the Government of Canada, a conflict known as the Red River Rebellion aka Resistance; the resolution of the assertion of the right to representation led to the Parliament of Canada passing the Manitoba Act in 1870 that created the province. Manitoba's capital and largest city, Winnipeg, is the eighth-largest census metropolitan area in Canada. Other census agglomerations in the province are Brandon, Portage la Prairie, Thompson; the name Manitoba is believed to be derived from the Ojibwe or Assiniboine languages. The name derives from Cree manitou-wapow or Ojibwa manidoobaa, both meaning "straits of Manitou, the Great Spirit", a place referring to what are now called The Narrows in the centre of Lake Manitoba, it may be from the Assiniboine for "Lake of the Prairie". The lake was known to French explorers as Lac des Prairies.
Thomas Spence chose the name to refer to a new republic he proposed for the area south of the lake. Métis leader Louis Riel chose the name, it was accepted in Ottawa under the Manitoba Act of 1870. Manitoba is bordered by the provinces of Ontario to the east and Saskatchewan to the west, the territories of Nunavut to the north, the US states of North Dakota and Minnesota to the south; the province meets the Northwest Territories at the four corners quadripoint to the extreme northwest, though surveys have not been completed and laws are unclear about the exact location of the Nunavut–NWT boundary. Manitoba adjoins Hudson Bay to the northeast, is the only prairie province to have a saltwater coastline; the Port of Churchill is Canada's only Arctic deep-water port. Lake Winnipeg is the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world. Hudson Bay is the world's second-largest bay by area. Manitoba is at the heart of the giant Hudson Bay watershed, once known as Rupert's Land, it was a vital area of the Hudson's Bay Company, with many rivers and lakes that provided excellent opportunities for the lucrative fur trade.
The province has a saltwater coastline bordering Hudson Bay and more than 110,000 lakes, covering 15.6 percent or 101,593 square kilometres of its surface area. Manitoba's major lakes are Lake Manitoba, Lake Winnipegosis, Lake Winnipeg, the tenth-largest freshwater lake in the world; some traditional Native lands and boreal forest on Lake Winnipeg's east side are a proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site. Manitoba is at the centre of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, with a high volume of the water draining into Lake Winnipeg and north down the Nelson River into Hudson Bay; this basin's rivers reach far west to the mountains, far south into the United States, east into Ontario. Major watercourses include the Red, Nelson, Hayes and Churchill rivers. Most of Manitoba's inhabited south has developed in the prehistoric bed of Glacial Lake Agassiz; this region the Red River Valley, is flat and fertile. Baldy Mountain is the province's highest point at 832 metres above sea level, the Hudson Bay coast is the lowest at sea level.
Riding Mountain, the Pembina Hills, Sandilands Provincial Forest, the Canadian Shield are upland regions. Much of the province's sparsely inhabited north and east lie on the irregular granite Canadian Shield, including Whiteshell and Nopiming Provincial Parks. Extensive agriculture is found only in the province's southern areas, although there is grain farming in the Carrot Valley Region; the most common agricultural activity is cattle husbandry, followed by assorted grains and oilseed. Around 12 percent of Canada's farmland is in Manitoba. Manitoba has an extreme continental climate. Temperatures and precipitation decrease from south to north and increase from east to west. Manitoba is far from the moderating large bodies of water; because of the flat landscape, it is exposed to cold Arctic high-pressure air masses from the northwest during January and February. In the summer, air masses sometimes come out of the Southern United States, as warm humid air is drawn northward from the Gulf of Mexico.
Temperatures exceed 30 °C numerous times each summer, the combination of heat and humidity can bring the humidex value to the mid-40s. Carman, Manitoba recorded the second-highest humidex in Canada in 2007, with
Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau was a French poet, designer, playwright and filmmaker. Cocteau is best known for his novel Les Enfants Terribles, the films The Blood of a Poet, Les Parents Terribles and the Beast and Orpheus, he was described as "one of avant-garde's most influential filmmakers" by AllMovie. Cocteau was born in Maisons-Laffitte, Yvelines, a town near Paris, to Georges Cocteau and his wife, Eugénie Lecomte, his father was a lawyer and amateur painter. From 1900–1904, Cocteau attended the Lycée Condorcet where he met and began a physical relationship with schoolmate Pierre Dargelos who would reappear throughout Cocteau's oeuvre, he left home at fifteen. He published his first volume of Aladdin's Lamp, at nineteen. Cocteau soon became known in Bohemian artistic circles as The Frivolous Prince, the title of a volume he published at twenty-two. Edith Wharton described him as a man "to whom every great line of poetry was a sunrise, every sunset the foundation of the Heavenly City..."
In his early twenties, Cocteau became associated with the writers Marcel Proust, André Gide, Maurice Barrès. In 1912, he collaborated with Léon Bakst on Le Dieu bleu for the Ballets Russes. During World War I Cocteau served in the Red Cross as an ambulance driver; this was the period in which he met the poet Guillaume Apollinaire, artists Pablo Picasso and Amedeo Modigliani, numerous other writers and artists with whom he collaborated. Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev persuaded Cocteau to write a scenario for a ballet, which resulted in Parade in 1917, it was produced by Diaghilev, with sets by Picasso, the libretto by Apollinaire and the music by Erik Satie. The piece was expanded into a full opera, with music by Satie, Francis Poulenc and Maurice Ravel. "If it had not been for Apollinaire in uniform," wrote Cocteau, "with his skull shaved, the scar on his temple and the bandage around his head, women would have gouged our eyes out with hairpins." He denied being in any way attached to the movement.
Cocteau wrote the libretto for Igor Stravinsky's opera-oratorio Oedipus rex, which had its original performance in the Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt in Paris on 30 May 1927. An important exponent of avant-garde art, Cocteau had great influence on the work of others, including a group of composers known as Les six. In the early twenties, he and other members of Les six frequented a wildly popular bar named Le Boeuf sur le Toit, a name that Cocteau himself had a hand in picking; the popularity was due in no small measure to the presence of his friends. In 1918 he met the French poet Raymond Radiguet, they collaborated extensively and undertook many journeys and vacations together. Cocteau got Radiguet exempted from military service. Admiring of Radiguet's great literary talent, Cocteau promoted his friend's works in his artistic circle and arranged for the publication by Grasset of Le Diable au corps, exerting his influence to have the novel awarded the "Nouveau Monde" literary prize; some contemporaries and commentators thought there might have been a romantic component to their friendship.
Cocteau himself was aware of this perception, worked earnestly to dispel the notion that their relationship was sexual in nature. There is disagreement over Cocteau's reaction to Radiguet's sudden death in 1923, with some claiming that it left him stunned and prey to opium addiction. Opponents of that interpretation point out that he did not attend the funeral and left Paris with Diaghilev for a performance of Les noces by the Ballets Russes at Monte Carlo. Cocteau himself much characterised his reaction as one of "stupor and disgust." His opium addiction at the time, Cocteau said, was only coincidental, due to a chance meeting with Louis Laloy, the administrator of the Monte Carlo Opera. Cocteau's opium use and his efforts to stop profoundly changed his literary style, his most notable book, Les Enfants Terribles, was written in a week during a strenuous opium weaning. In Opium: Journal of drug rehabilitation, he recounts the experience of his recovery from opium addiction in 1929, his account, which includes vivid pen-and-ink illustrations, alternates between his moment-to-moment experiences of drug withdrawal and his current thoughts about people and events in his world.
Cocteau was supported throughout his recovery by his friend and correspondent, Catholic philosopher Jacques Maritain. Under Maritain's influence Cocteau made a temporary return to the sacraments of the Catholic Church, he again returned to the Church in life and undertook a number of religious art projects. Cocteau's experiments with the human voice peaked with his play La Voix humaine; the story involves one woman on stage speaking on the telephone with her departing lover, leaving her to marry another woman. The telephone proved to be the perfect prop for Cocteau to explore his ideas, "algebra" concerning human needs and realities in communication. Cocteau acknowledged in the introduction to the script that the play was motivated, in part, by complaints from his actresses that his works were too writer/director-dominated and gave the players little opportunity to show off their full range of talents. La Voix humaine was written, as an extravagant aria for Madame Berthe Bovy. Before came Orphée turned into one of hi
Konami Holdings Corporation referred to as Konami, is a Japanese entertainment and gaming conglomerate. It operates as video game developer and publisher company. Besides those, it has casino around the world and operates health and physical fitness clubs across Japan. Konami is best known for their video games, including Metal Gear, Silent Hill, Contra, Gradius, Yu-Gi-Oh!, Suikoden and Pro Evolution Soccer. Additionally, Konami owns Bemani, known for Dance Dance Revolution and Beatmania, as well as the assets of former game developer Hudson Soft, known for Bomberman, Adventure Island, Bloody Roar and Star Soldier. Konami is the twentieth-largest game company in the world by revenue; the company originated in 1969 as a jukebox rental and repair business in Toyonaka, Japan, by Kagemasa Kōzuki, who remains the company's chairman. The name "Konami" is a portmanteau of the names Kagemasa Kozuki, Yoshinobu Nakama, Tatsuo Miyasako. Konami is headquartered in Tokyo. In the United States, Konami manages its video game business from offices in El Segundo and its casino gaming business from offices in Paradise, Nevada.
Its Australian gaming operations are located in Sydney. As of March 2016, it owns 21 consolidated subsidiaries around the world; the company was founded on March 21, 1969 and was incorporated under the name Konami Industry Co. Ltd. on March 19, 1973. The company's founder and current chairman, Kagemasa Kozuki ran a jukebox rental and repair business in Toyonaka, Osaka before transforming the business into a manufacturer of amusement machines for video arcades, their first coin-operated video game was released in 1978, they began exporting products to the United States the following year. Konami began to achieve success with hit arcade games such as 1981's Frogger and Super Cobra, many of which were licensed to other companies for stateside release, including Stern Electronics and Gremlin Industries, they established their U. S. subsidiary, Konami of America, Inc. in 1982. It was during this period that Konami began expanding their video game business into the home consumer market following a brief stint releasing video games for the Atari 2600 in 1982 for the U.
S. market. The company would release numerous games for the MSX home computer standard in 1983, followed by the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985. Numerous Konami franchises were established during this period on both platforms, as well as the arcades, such as Gradius, Twin Bee, Ganbare Goemon and Metal Gear. Due to the success of their NES games, Konami's earnings grew from $10 million in 1987 to $300 million in 1991. In June 1991, Konami's legal name was changed to Konami Co. Ltd. and their headquarters would relocated to Minato, Tokyo in April 1993. The company started supporting the 16-bit video game consoles during this period, starting with the Super NES in 1990, followed by the PC Engine in 1991 and the Sega Genesis in 1992. After the launch of the Sega Saturn and PlayStation in 1994, Konami became a business divisional organization with the formation of various Konami Computer Entertainment subsidiaries, starting with KCE Tokyo and KCE Osaka in April 1995, followed by KCE Japan in April 1996.
Each KCE subsidiary would end up creating different intellectual properties such as KCE Tokyo's Silent Hill series and KCE Japan's Metal Gear Solid series. In 1997, Konami started producing rhythm games for arcades under the Bemani brand and branched off into the collectable card game business with the launch of the Yu-Gi-Oh! Trading Card Game. On July 2000, the company's legal English name was changed once again to Konami Corporation, the Japanese legal name remained the same; as the company transitioned into the developing video games for the sixth-generation consoles, they branched out into the health and fitness business with the acquisitions of People Co. Ltd and Daiei Olympic Sports Club, Inc. which became Konami subsidiaries. In August 2001, Konami invested in another video game developer, Hudson Soft, which became a consolidated subsidiary after Konami accepted new third-party shares issued by them. In March 2006, Konami merged all their video game development divisions into a new subsidiary known as Konami Digital Entertainment Co. as the parent company became a pure holding company.
Their headquarters would be relocated once again, this time to headquarters was moved to Minato, Tokyo, in 2007. The absorption of Hudson Soft in 2012 resulted in the addition of several other franchises including: Adventure Island, Bloody Roar, Far East of Eden and Star Soldier. In April 2015, Konami delisted itself from the New York stock exchange following the dissolution of their Kojima Productions subsidiary. In a translated interview with Nikkei Trendy Net published in the following month, the newly appointed CEO of Konami Digital Entertainment, Hideki Hayakawa announced that Konami will shift their focus towards mobile gaming for a while, claiming that, "Mobile is where the future of gaming lies." The trade name of the company was changed from Konami Corporation to Konami Holdings Corporation during the same month. In 2017, Konami is to publicly announce that they would be reviving some of the company's other well-known video game titles following the success of their Nin
Reservoir Dogs is a 1992 American heist film written and directed by Quentin Tarantino in his feature-length debut. It stars Harvey Keitel, Tim Roth, Chris Penn, Steve Buscemi, Lawrence Tierney, Michael Madsen and Edward Bunker, as diamond thieves whose planned heist of a jewelry store goes wrong; the film depicts the events after the heist. Kirk Baltz, Randy Brooks and Steven Wright play supporting roles, it incorporates many motifs that have become Tarantino's hallmarks: violent crime, pop culture references and nonlinear storytelling. The film is regarded as a classic of independent film and a cult film, was named "Greatest Independent Film of all Time" by Empire. Although controversial for its depictions of violence and use of profanity, Reservoir Dogs was well received, with the cast being praised by many critics. Despite not being promoted during its theatrical run, the film became a modest success in the United States after grossing $2.8 million against its $1.2 million budget, was more successful in the United Kingdom, grossing nearly £6.5 million.
It achieved higher popularity after the success of Pulp Fiction. A soundtrack was released featuring songs used in the film, which are from the 1970s. Eight men eat breakfast at a Los Angeles diner before carrying out a diamond heist. Mob boss Joe Cabot and his son and underboss "Nice Guy" Eddie Cabot are responsible for planning the job; the rest use aliases: Mr. Blonde, Mr. Blue, Mr. Brown, Mr. Orange, Mr. Pink, Mr. White. After the heist, White flees with Orange, shot during the escape and is bleeding in the back of White's car. At one of Joe's warehouses and Orange rendezvous with Pink, who believes that the job was a setup and that the police were waiting for them. White informs him that Brown is dead and Blonde are missing, Blonde murdered several civilians during the heist. Pink has hidden the diamonds nearby, he argues with White over whether or not they should get medical attention for Orange, before Blonde arrives with a kidnapped policeman, Marvin Nash. Some time earlier, Blonde meets with the Cabots.
To reward him for not having given Joe's name to the authorities for a lighter sentence, they offer him a no-show job. Blonde insists he wants to get back to "real work", they recruit him for the heist. In the present and Pink beat Nash for information. Eddie arrives and orders them to retrieve the diamonds and ditch the getaway vehicles, leaving Blonde in charge of Nash and Orange. Nash denies knowledge, but Blonde ignores him and resumes the torture, cutting off Nash's ear with a straight razor and attempting to set him on fire before being shot dead by Orange. Orange tells Nash that the police will arrive soon; when Eddie and White return, Orange tries to convince them that Blonde planned to kill them and steal the diamonds for himself. Eddie impulsively kills accuses Orange of lying, since Blonde was loyal to his father. Joe arrives with news, he is about to execute Orange, whom he suspects is the traitor behind the setup, but White intervenes and holds Joe at gunpoint. Eddie aims at White. All three fire.
Pink, the only uninjured person, takes the flees. As White cradles the dying Orange in his arms, Orange confesses that he is an undercover officer as White begins sobbing. White presses his gun to Orange's head; the police order White to drop his gun. Gunshots sound and White drops to the floor. Quentin Tarantino had been working at Video Archives, a video store in Manhattan Beach and planned to shoot the film with his friends on a budget of $30,000 in a 16 mm black-and-white format, with producer Lawrence Bender playing a police officer chasing Mr. Pink. Bender gave the script to his acting teacher. Keitel liked it enough to sign as a co-producer so Tarantino and Bender would have an easier job finding funding. Keitel paid for Tarantino and Bender to host casting sessions in New York, where the duo found Steve Buscemi, Michael Madsen, Tim Roth. Reservoir Dogs was, according to Tarantino, influenced by Stanley Kubrick's The Killing. Tarantino said: "I didn't go out of my way to do a rip-off of The Killing, but I did think of it as my "Killing," my take on that kind of heist movie."
The film's plot was suggested by the 1952 film Kansas City Confidential. Additionally, Joseph H. Lewis's 1955 film The Big Combo and Sergio Corbucci's 1966 Spaghetti Western Django inspired the scene where a police officer is tortured in a chair. Tarantino has denied that he instead said that he does homages. Having the main characters named after colors was first seen in the 1974 film The Taking of Pelham One Two Three; the film contains key elements similar to those found in Ringo Lam's 1987 film City on Fire. The warehouse used in the film was in reality an abandoned mortuary. In scenes with Orange in his apartment, the second floor of the mortuary was used and dressed up to look like living quarters; the location has since been demolished. Of his decision not to show the heist itself, Tarantino has said that the reason was budgetary but that he had always liked the idea of not showing it and stuck with that idea in order to make the details of the heist ambiguous, he has said that the technique allows for the realization that the film is "about other things"
Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese and Korean. Registered users can post and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service or its mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and launched in July of that year; the service gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet"; as of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. that day. It was a source of information on Brett Kavanaugh's Supreme Court nomination and the 2018 United States midterm elections. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group; the original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was in use, it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.
The developers considered "10958" as a short code, but changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time: "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds', and that's what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including Odeo.com and Twitter.com — from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility, it is that, in part, but the insight we came to was Twitter was more of an information network than it is a social network. The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was positive. Blogger Scott Beale said. Social software researcher danah boyd said. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less, and we just did!"The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. The company experienced rapid initial growth, it had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007.
This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications; as of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, about 140 million tweets posted daily; as noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site