Middleton Tyas is a village and civil parish in the Richmondshire district of North Yorkshire, England. It is located near Scotch Corner; the name Middleton is of Anglo-Saxon origin and it means middle-farm or middle-settlement. Tyas is a Norman family name but there seems to be no evidence that Middleton Tyas once belonged to a family of that name; the village lies on a substratum of limestone, extensively quarried. Limestone quarrying still takes place at the nearby Barton roundabout. There was an 18th-century copper mine and works near the village. Just outside the village is the Middleton Lodge Estate. Middleton Lodge itself is a listed building, it has a number of Grade II listed buildings and 200 acres of private parkland. The Church of St Michael and All Angels lies just outside the village on the road towards Moulton, it is an ancient structure, with Norman arches and pillars on the north side, Early English on the south. It was renovated between 1867-79 under the direction of Sir George Gilbert Scott.
A Primitive Methodist chapel was erected in the village in 1877. It is no longer used as a church being closed down in 1984; the fraudster Sir Edmund Backhouse, 2nd Baronet and his brother, the naval officer Roger Backhouse were both born in the village. Lady Alicia Blackwood lived in the village, as did Arthur Francis Pease, who died there; the two brothers Almroth Charles Theodore Hagberg Wright were born in the village. Top poker player Keith Hawkins makes his home in the village There is one pub in the village: The Shoulder of Mutton; the village is served by Middleton Tyas Church of England primary school, which moved premises from the old Victorian building in the village to a new purpose-built building on the outskirts. The old school was built in 1861-62 and the new school was built in 2003-04; the old school is now being extensively refurbished. The village had a post office and shop but it closed in April 2003; this left the village with no retail facilities within its boundaries, so the local community decided to open a new shop.
Using grant aid from the Countryside Agency and DEFRA the villagers founded the Community Co-operative village store at Memorial Hall. It was opened by local MP William Hague in April 2004; the shop is open 55 hours a week. The shop employs two part-time staff and there is regular input from eight volunteers; the nearby Scotch Corner Service Station acts as a useful 24-hour shop for Middleton Tyas and other neighbouring villages. An electoral ward in the same name exists; this ward stretches south west to Skeeby and had a total population at the 2011 Census of 1,183. Middleton Lodge Middleton Tyas Parish Council
HMS Neptune (1909)
HMS Neptune was a dreadnought battleship built for the Royal Navy in the first decade of the 20th century, the sole ship of her class. She was the first British battleship to be built with superfiring guns. Shortly after her completion in 1911, she carried out trials of an experimental fire-control director and became the flagship of the Home Fleet. Neptune was assigned to the 1st Battle Squadron; the ship became part of the Grand Fleet when it was formed shortly after the beginning of the First World War in August 1914. Aside from participating in the Battle of Jutland in May 1916, the inconclusive Action of 19 August several months her service during the war consisted of routine patrols and training in the North Sea. Neptune was deemed obsolete after the war and was reduced to reserve before being sold for scrap in 1922 and subsequently broken up; the launch of Dreadnought in 1906 precipitated a naval arms race when Germany accelerated its naval construction plans in response. Despite this sudden expansion of another nation's fleet, the British Admiralty felt secure in the knowledge that Germany would only have four modern capital ships in commission by 1910, while the Royal Navy would have eleven.
Accordingly they only proposed the construction of a single battleship and a battlecruiser in the 1908–1909 naval budget that they sent to the government in December. The Liberals, committed to reducing military expenditures and increasing social welfare spending, wished to cut the budget by £1,340,000 below the previous year's budget, but were persuaded not to do so after the Prime Minister, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, was briefed on each part of the budget in February 1908; the debates over the budget in March were heated. Neptune was an improved version of the preceding St Vincent class with additional armour and the armament rearranged for greater efficiency, she was the first British dreadnought. Unlike the earlier ships, her wing turrets were staggered "en echelon" so that all five turrets could shoot on the broadside, although in practise the blast damage to the superstructure and boats made this impractical except in an emergency; this was done to match the 10-gun broadside of the latest foreign designs like the American Delaware class, although the all-centreline turret configuration of the American ships eliminated the blast problems that compromised the effectiveness of the "en echelon" arrangement.
Neptune was the first British dreadnought to be equipped with superfiring turrets, in an effort to shorten the ship and reduce costs. A further saving in length was achieved by siting the ship's boats on girders over the two wing turrets to reduce the length of the vessel; the drawback to this arrangement was that if the girders were damaged during combat, they could fall onto the turrets, immobilising them. The bridge was situated above the conning tower, which risked being obscured if the bridge collapsed. Neptune had an overall length of 546 feet, a beam of 85 feet, a deep draught of 28 feet 6 inches, she displaced 19,680 long tons at normal load and 23,123 long tons at deep load. The ship had a metacentric height of 6.5 feet at deep load. Her crew numbered about 756 officers and ratings upon completion and 813 in 1914; the ship was powered by two sets of Parsons direct-drive steam turbines, each of, housed in a separate engine room. The outer propeller shafts were coupled to the high-pressure turbines and these exhausted into low-pressure turbines which drove the inner shafts.
The turbines used steam from eighteen Yarrow boilers at a working pressure of 235 psi. They gave Neptune a maximum speed of 21 knots, she carried a maximum of 2,710 long tons of coal and an additional 790 long tons of fuel oil, sprayed on the coal to increase its burn rate. This gave her a range of 6,330 nautical miles at a cruising speed of 10 knots. Neptune was equipped with ten 50-calibre breech-loading 12-inch Mark XI guns in five hydraulically powered twin-gun turrets, three along the centreline and the remaining two as wing turrets; the centreline turrets were designated'A','X' and'Y', from front to rear, the port and starboard wing turrets were'P' and'Q' respectively. The guns had a maximum elevation of +20 °, they fired 850-pound projectiles at a muzzle velocity of 2,825 ft/s at a rate of two rounds per minute. The ship carried 100 shells per gun. Neptune was the first British dreadnought with her secondary armament of sixteen 50-calibre BL four-inch Mark VII guns installed in unshielded single mounts in the superstructure.
This change was made to address the problems that plagued the turret-roof locations used in earlier battleships. Notably, the exposed guns were difficult to work when the main armament was in action as was replenishing their ammunition. Furthermore, the guns could not be centrally controlled to coordinate fire at the most dangerous targets; the guns had a maximum elevation of +15 °. They fired 31-pound (14
A cruiser is a type of warship. Modern cruisers are the largest ships in a fleet after aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships, can perform several roles; the term has been in use for several hundred years, has had different meanings throughout this period. During the Age of Sail, the term cruising referred to certain kinds of missions – independent scouting, commerce protection, or raiding – fulfilled by a frigate or sloop-of-war, which were the cruising warships of a fleet. In the middle of the 19th century, cruiser came to be a classification for the ships intended for cruising distant waters, commerce raiding, scouting for the battle fleet. Cruisers came in a wide variety of sizes, from the medium-sized protected cruiser to large armored cruisers that were nearly as big as a pre-dreadnought battleship. With the advent of the dreadnought battleship before World War I, the armored cruiser evolved into a vessel of similar scale known as the battlecruiser; the large battlecruisers of the World War I era that succeeded armored cruisers were now classified, along with dreadnought battleships, as capital ships.
By the early 20th century after World War I, the direct successors to protected cruisers could be placed on a consistent scale of warship size, smaller than a battleship but larger than a destroyer. In 1922, the Washington Naval Treaty placed a formal limit on these cruisers, which were defined as warships of up to 10,000 tons displacement carrying guns no larger than 8 inches in calibre; some variations on the Treaty cruiser design included the German Deutschland-class "pocket battleships" which had heavier armament at the expense of speed compared to standard heavy cruisers, the American Alaska class, a scaled-up heavy cruiser design designated as a "cruiser-killer". In the 20th century, the obsolescence of the battleship left the cruiser as the largest and most powerful surface combatant after the aircraft carrier; the role of the cruiser varied according to ship and navy including air defense and shore bombardment. During the Cold War, the Soviet Navy's cruisers had heavy anti-ship missile armament designed to sink NATO carrier task forces via saturation attack.
The U. S. Navy built guided-missile cruisers upon destroyer-style hulls designed to provide air defense while adding anti-submarine capabilities, being larger and having longer-range surface-to-air missiles than early Charles F. Adams guided-missile destroyers tasked with the short-range air defense role. By the end of the Cold War, the line between cruisers and destroyers had blurred, with the Ticonderoga-class cruiser using the hull of the Spruance-class destroyer but receiving the cruiser designation due to their enhanced mission and combat systems. Indeed, the newest U. S. and Chinese destroyers are more armed than some of the cruisers that they succeeded. Only two nations operate cruisers: the United States and Russia, in both cases the vessels are armed with guided missiles. BAP Almirante Grau was the last gun cruiser in service, serving with the Peruvian Navy until 2017; the term "cruiser" or "cruizer" was first used in the 17th century to refer to an independent warship. "Cruiser" meant the mission of a ship, rather than a category of vessel.
However, the term was nonetheless used to mean a faster warship suitable for such a role. In the 17th century, the ship of the line was too large and expensive to be dispatched on long-range missions, too strategically important to be put at risk of fouling and foundering by continual patrol duties; the Dutch navy was noted for its cruisers in the 17th century, while the Royal Navy—and French and Spanish navies—subsequently caught up in terms of their numbers and deployment. The British Cruiser and Convoy Acts were an attempt by mercantile interests in Parliament to focus the Navy on commerce defence and raiding with cruisers, rather than the more scarce and expensive ships of the line. During the 18th century the frigate became the preeminent type of cruiser. A frigate was a small, long range armed ship used for scouting, carrying dispatches, disrupting enemy trade; the other principal type of cruiser was the sloop, but many other miscellaneous types of ship were used as well. During the 19th century, navies began to use steam power for their fleets.
The 1840s sloops. By the middle of the 1850s, the British and U. S. Navies were both building steam frigates with long hulls and a heavy gun armament, for instance USS Merrimack or Mersey; the 1860s saw the introduction of the ironclad. The first ironclads were frigates, in the sense of having one gun deck. In spite of their great speed, they would have been wasted in a cruising role; the French constructed a number of smaller ironclads for overseas cruising duties, starting with the Belliqueuse, commissioned 1865. These "station ironclads" were the beginning of the development of the armored cruisers, a type of ironclad for the traditional cruiser missions of fast, independent raiding and patrol; the first true armored cruiser was the Russian General-Admiral, completed in 1874, followed by the British Shannon a few years later. Until the 1890s armored cr
The Singapore strategy was a naval defence policy of the British Empire that evolved in a series of war plans from 1919 to 1941. It aimed to deter aggression by the Empire of Japan by providing for a base for a fleet of the Royal Navy in the Far East, able to intercept and defeat a Japanese force heading south towards India or Australia. To be effective it required a well-equipped base; the planners envisaged that a war with Japan would have three phases: while the garrison of Singapore defended the fortress, the fleet would make its way from home waters to Singapore, sally to relieve or recapture Hong Kong, blockade the Japanese home islands to force Japan to accept terms. The idea of invading Japan was rejected as impractical, but British planners did not expect that the Japanese would willingly fight a decisive naval battle against the odds. Aware of the impact of a blockade on an island nation at the heart of a maritime empire, they felt that economic pressure would suffice; the Singapore strategy was the cornerstone of British Imperial defence policy in the Far East during the 1920s and 1930s.
By 1937, according to Captain Stephen Roskill, "the concept of the'Main Fleet to Singapore' had through constant repetition, assumed something of the inviolability of Holy Writ". A combination of financial and practical difficulties ensured that it could not be implemented. During the 1930s, the strategy came under sustained criticism in Britain and abroad in Australia, where the Singapore strategy was used as an excuse for parsimonious defence policies; the strategy led to the despatch of Force Z to Singapore and the sinking of the Prince of Wales and Repulse by Japanese air attack on 10 December 1941. The subsequent ignominious fall of Singapore was described by Winston Churchill as "the worst disaster and largest capitulation in British history". After the First World War, the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet that had challenged the Royal Navy for supremacy was scuttled in Scapa Flow, but the Royal Navy was facing serious challenges to its position as the world's most powerful fleet from the United States Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy.
The United States' determination to create what Admiral of the Navy George Dewey called "a navy second to none" presaged a new maritime arms race. The U. S. Navy was smaller than the Royal Navy in 1919, but ships laid down under its wartime construction program were still being launched, their more recent construction gave the American ships a technological edge; the "two-power standard" of 1889 called for a Royal Navy strong enough to take on any two other powers. In 1909, this was scaled back to a policy of 60% superiority in dreadnoughts. Rising tensions over the U. S. Navy's building program led to heated arguments between the First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir Rosslyn Wemyss, the Chief of Naval Operations Admiral William S. Benson in March and April 1919, although, as far back as 1909, the government directed that the United States was not to be regarded as a potential enemy; this decision was reaffirmed by Cabinet in August 1919 in order to preclude the U. S. Navy's building program from becoming a justification for the Admiralty initiating one of its own.
In 1920, the First Lord of the Admiralty Sir Walter Long announced a "one-power standard", under which the policy was to maintain a navy "not... inferior in strength to the Navy of any other power". The one-power standard became official when it was publicly announced at the 1921 Imperial Conference; the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 reinforced this policy. The Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominions met at the 1921 Imperial Conference to determine a unified international policy the relationship with the United States and Japan; the most urgent issue was that of whether or not to renew the Anglo-Japanese Alliance, due to expire on 13 July 1921. On one side were the Prime Minister of Australia Billy Hughes and the Prime Minister of New Zealand Bill Massey, who favoured its renewal. Neither wanted their countries to be caught up in a war between the United States and Japan, contrasted the generous assistance that Japan rendered during the First World War with the United States' disengagement from international affairs in its aftermath.
"The British Empire", declared Hughes, "must have a reliable friend in the Pacific". They were opposed by the Prime Minister of Canada, Arthur Meighen, on the grounds that the alliance would adversely affect the relationship with the United States, which Canada depended upon for its security; as a result, no decision to renew was reached, the alliance was allowed to expire. The Washington Naval Treaty in 1922 provided for a 5:5:3 ratio of capital ships of the British, United States and Japanese navies. Throughout the 1920s, the Royal Navy remained the world's largest navy, with a comfortable margin of superiority over Japan, regarded as the most adversary; the Washington Naval Treaty prohibited the fortification of islands in the Pacific, but Singapore was excluded. The provisions of the London Naval Treaty of 1930, restricted naval construction, resulting in a serious decline in the British shipbuilding industry. Germany's willingness to limit the size of its navy led to the Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 1935.
This was seen as signalling a sincere desire to avoid conflict with Britain. In 1934, the First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir Ernle Chatfield, began to press for a new naval build-up sufficient to fight both Japan and the strongest European power, he intended to accelerate construction to the maximum capacity
HMS Excellent (shore establishment)
HMS Excellent is a Royal Navy "stone frigate" sited on Whale Island near Portsmouth in Hampshire. HMS Excellent is itself part of the Maritime Warfare School, with a Headquarters at HMS Collingwood, although a number of lodger units are resident within the site, the principal of, the Headquarters of Fleet Commander. In the 1829 a Commander George Smith advocated the establishment of a Naval School of Gunnery. Smith was given oversight and set up Excellent not only as a training establishment but as a platform for experimental firing of new weapons. In 1832 Smith was replaced in command by Captain Thomas Hastings, under whom the school grew both numerically and in reputation, as trained gunners began to prove their effectiveness in combat situations. In 1834 the original Excellent was replaced by the second rate HMS Boyne, duly renamed Excellent. In 1845 Captain Henry Ducie Chads took over command of Excellent in succession to Hastings, he remained in post until 1854, by which time the Admiralty had purchased'Whaley Island'.
Chads was succeeded first by Captain Thomas Maitland and in 1857, by Richard Hewlett. In December 1859 the first-rate Queen Charlotte took over the role of gunnery training ship and was renamed Excellent. In 1863 Hewlett was replaced by Captain Astley Cooper Key, in turn succeeded by Captain Arthur Hood some three years later. By this time, a rifle range had been established on the island for the use of HMS Excellent and the first building appeared there, the land having been somewhat drained and levelled. Under Hood's leadership a torpedo section was set up within the school, it was under Fisher's command, in the 1880s, that approval was given to move the gunnery school ashore, on to Whale Island. The initial proposal had come from a Lieutenant Percy Scott, who used the island as a running track; the island had grown in size since the 1850s: indeed, up until the early 1890s excavated spoil from the expansion of the Dockyard was conveyed there, using convict labour, to build the island up. Scott returned to Excellent as an instructor in 1883 and took the opportunity to submit a detailed proposal to Fisher, accepted.
The first buildings of the shore establishment were begun in 1885 and building work continued alongside the tasks of draining and levelling the land. By 1891 the whole operation had moved ashore and the old ship was paid off. Centred on a large open drill ground, the site includes the officers' mess in a range to the north with rows of barracks blocks for ratings arrayed behind. To the west, opposite the Quarterdeck, were long gun battery sheds. Firing training took place on the batteries and all different varieties of guns were kept on site for instruction on their maintenance and operation. Full-sized dummy gun turrets were provided for training purposes. Seagoing training took place up until 1957 on a series of battleships and destroyers that were attached to the facility. From the late 1950s guided missile training was provided; the Portsmouth Field Gun Crew, competing in the Royal Navy field gun competition at the Royal Tournament, used to be based at the site. A small museum in the Quarterdeck block preserves artefacts from Excellent's days as a gunnery school.
The gunnery school closed in 1985 whereupon HMS Excellent was decommissioned. The site became part of HMS Nelson; the establishment was recommissioned as HMS Excellent in 1994 following the closure of the old HMS Phoenix in nearby Tipner and Horsea Island, the relocation of the school of Fire Fighting and Damage Control from there to Whale Island. The following list goes as far as 1984, it shows the date of appointment, rank and decorations held at the time. In some cases a captain held several sequential appointments, it does not show captains held on the books of the Excellent who were not commanding officers of Excellent. Maritime Warfare School elements within the site are: MWS Phoenix school of Nuclear and Chemical Defence, damage control and fire fighting HMS Phoenix South East Naval Military Training Centre Defence Diving School Boat SectionHMS Excellent provides administrative and infrastructure support to the Maritime Warfare School elements at Defence Diving School, Horsea Island, small arms ranges at Tipner.
Lodger units are: Navy Command Headquarters – Fleet Commander Headquarters of UK Maritime Battle Staff HMS King Alfred Royal Naval Reserve Fleet Regional Photographic Unit Volunteer Cadet Corps Sea Cadet Corps National Training Centre HMS Bristol – Accommodation and Cadet Forces training ship TS Alamein Sea Cadet Corps DASA: Defence Analytical Services and Advice is a Division of the MOD t
Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements; the knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order", he did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred. The Order consists of the Sovereign, the Great Master, three Classes of members: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion Members belong to either the Civil or the Military Division. Prior to 1815, the order had Knight Companion, which no longer exists. Recipients of the Order are now senior military officers or senior civil servants. Commonwealth citizens who are not subjects of the Queen and foreign nationals may be made Honorary Members.
The Order of the Bath is the fourth-most senior of the British Orders of Chivalry, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick. In the Middle Ages, knighthood was conferred with elaborate ceremonies; these involved the knight-to-be taking a bath during which he was instructed in the duties of knighthood by more senior knights. He was put to bed to dry. Clothed in a special robe, he was led with music to the chapel. At dawn he made confession and attended Mass retired to his bed to sleep until it was daylight, he was brought before the King, who after instructing two senior knights to buckle the spurs to the knight-elect's heels, fastened a belt around his waist struck him on the neck, thus making him a knight. It was this accolade, the essential act in creating a knight, a simpler ceremony developed, conferring knighthood by striking or touching the knight-to-be on the shoulder with a sword, or "dubbing" him, as is still done today.
In the early medieval period the difference seems to have been that the full ceremonies were used for men from more prominent families. From the coronation of Henry IV in 1399 the full ceremonies were restricted to major royal occasions such as coronations, investitures of the Prince of Wales or Royal dukes, royal weddings, the knights so created became known as Knights of the Bath. Knights Bachelor continued to be created with the simpler form of ceremony; the last occasion on which Knights of the Bath were created was the coronation of Charles II in 1661. From at least 1625, from the reign of James I, Knights of the Bath were using the motto Tria juncta in uno, wearing as a badge three crowns within a plain gold oval; these were both subsequently adopted by the Order of the Bath. Their symbolism however is not clear. The'three joined in one' may be a reference to the kingdoms of England and either France or Ireland, which were held by English and British monarchs; this would correspond to the three crowns in the badge.
Another explanation of the motto is. Nicolas quotes a source who claims that prior to James I the motto was Tria numina juncta in uno, but from the reign of James I the word numina was dropped and the motto understood to mean Tria juncta in uno; the prime mover in the establishment of the Order of the Bath was John Anstis, Garter King of Arms, England's highest heraldic officer. Sir Anthony Wagner, a recent holder of the office of Garter, wrote of Anstis's motivations: It was Martin Leake's opinion that the trouble and opposition Anstis met with in establishing himself as Garter so embittered him against the heralds that when at last in 1718 he succeeded, he made it his prime object to aggrandise himself and his office at their expense, it is clear at least that he set out to make himself indispensable to the Earl Marshal, not hard, their political principles being congruous and their friendship established, but to Sir Robert Walpole and the Whig ministry, which can by no means have been easy, considering his known attachment to the Pretender and the circumstances under which he came into office...
The main object of Anstis's next move, the revival or institution of the Order of the Bath was that which it in fact secured, of ingratiating him with the all-powerful Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. The use of honours in the early eighteenth century differed from the modern honours system in which hundreds, if not thousands, of people each year receive honours on the basis of deserving accomplishments; the only honours available at that time were hereditary peerages and baronetcies and the Order of the Garter, none of which were awarded in large numbers The political environment was significantly different from today: The Sovereign still exercised a power to be reckoned with in the eighteenth century. The Court remained the centre of the political w
Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)
Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the Royal Navy formally established in 1688. The five-star NATO rank code is OF-10, equivalent to a field marshal in the British Army or a marshal of the Royal Air Force. Other than honorary appointments no new admirals of the fleet have been named since 1995; the origins of the rank can be traced back to Sir John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick, appointed'Admiral of the King's Southern and Western Fleets' on 18 July 1360. The appointment gave the command of the English navy to one person for the first time. In the days sailing ships the admiral distinctions used by the Royal Navy when the fleet was divided into three divisions – red, white, or blue; each division was assigned an admiral, who in turn commanded a rear admiral. The rank of Admiral of the Fleet was formally established in 1688 prior to this date the Admiral of the White was pre-eminent and regarded informally as the admiral of the fleet In the 18th century, the original nine ranks began to be filled by more than one person at any one time.
The admiral of the red became known as the admiral of the fleet. In November 1805, a new rank of Admiral of the Red junior to that of Admiral of the Fleet was created, the announcement on page 1373 of issue 15859 of the London Gazette stating "His Majesty having been pleased to order the Rank of Admirals of the Red to be restored in His Majesty's Navy..." and promoting 22 men serving as Admirals to that rank. The organisation of the British fleet into coloured squadrons was abandoned in 1864, although the Royal Navy kept the White Ensign; when the professional head of the Royal Navy was given the title of First Naval Lord in 1828, the rank of admiral of the fleet became an honorary promotion for retiring First Naval Lords allowing more than one admiral of the fleet to exist at one time. It was broadly customary for the senior Admiral on the active list to be made an Admiral of the Fleet whether or not he had served as First Naval Lord. However, there was no Admiral of the Fleet between 1854 and 1857 and on the death of Provo Wallis in 1892 the promotion went to John Edmund Commerell rather than the senior Algernon Frederick Rous de Horsey.
In 1914 the criteria were revised and in 1940 the Admirals of the Fleet were exempted from compulsory retirement. Since 1811 five members of the British Royal family, other than the monarch, four members of foreign royal families have been appointed admirals of the fleet. Of the British royalty granted the rank, only one, the Prince of Wales had not seen service in the Royal Navy. During the two World Wars a number of serving officers held active commissions as admirals of the fleet, as well as the First Sea Lord. Following the creation of the Chief of the Defence Staff in 1959, the five naval officers appointed to that position became admirals of the fleet. Recognizing the reduced post–Cold War size of the British Armed Forces, no further appointments were made to the rank after 1995 when Sir Benjamin Bathurst was appointed admiral of the fleet on his retirement as First Sea Lord; the rank was not abolished and in 2012 the Prince of Wales became an honorary admiral of the fleet, in recognition of his support to Queen Elizabeth II in her role of as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces.
In 2014, Lord Boyce, a former First Sea Lord and Chief of the Defence Staff, was appointed an honorary admiral of the fleet. Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom First Sea Lord Heathcote, Tony; the British Admirals of the Fleet 1734–1995. Pen & Sword Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-835-6. Media related to Royal Navy admirals of the fleet at Wikimedia Commons