Roger Bacon known by the scholastic accolade Doctor Mirabilis, was a medieval English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism. In the early modern era, he was regarded as a wizard and famed for the story of his mechanical or necromantic brazen head, he is sometimes credited as one of the earliest European advocates of the modern scientific method. Bacon applied the empirical method of Ibn al-Haytham to observations in texts attributed to Aristotle. Bacon discovered the importance of empirical testing when the results he obtained were different than those that would have been predicted by Aristotle, his linguistic work has been heralded for its early exposition of a universal grammar. However, more recent re-evaluations emphasise that Bacon was a medieval thinker, with much of his "experimental" knowledge obtained from books in the scholastic tradition, he was, however responsible for a revision of the medieval university curriculum, which saw the addition of optics to the traditional quadrivium.
A survey of how Bacon's work was received over the centuries found that it reflected the concerns and controversies that were central to his readers. Bacon's major work, the Opus Majus, was sent to Pope Clement IV in Rome in 1267 upon the pope's request. Although gunpowder was first invented and described in China, Bacon was the first in Europe to record its formula. Roger Bacon was born in Ilchester in Somerset, England, in the early 13th century, although his date of birth is sometimes narrowed down to c. 1210, "1213 or 1214", or "1215". However, modern scholars tend to argue for the date of c. 1220, but there are disagreements on this. The only source for his birth date is a statement from his 1267 Opus Tertium that "forty years have passed since I first learned the Alphabetum"; the latest dates assume this referred to the alphabet itself, but elsewhere in the Opus Tertium it is clear that Bacon uses the term to refer to rudimentary studies, the trivium or quadrivium that formed the medieval curriculum.
His family appears to have been well off. Bacon studied at Oxford. While Robert Grosseteste had left shortly before Bacon's arrival, his work and legacy certainly influenced the young scholar and it is possible Bacon subsequently visited him and William of Sherwood in Lincoln. Bacon became a master at Oxford. There is no evidence he was awarded a doctorate. A caustic cleric named Roger Bacon is recorded speaking before the king at Oxford in 1233. In 1237 or at some point in the following decade, he accepted an invitation to teach at the University of Paris. While there, he lectured on Latin grammar, Aristotelian logic, arithmetic and the mathematical aspects of astronomy and music, his faculty colleagues included Robert Kilwardby, Albertus Magnus, Peter of Spain, the future Pope John XXI. The Cornishman Richard Rufus was a scholarly opponent. In 1247 or soon after, he left his position in Paris; as a private scholar, his whereabouts for the next decade are uncertain but he was in Oxford c. 1248–1251, where he met Adam Marsh, in Paris in 1251.
He seems to have studied most of the known Arabic works on optics. A passage in the Opus Tertium states. By the late 1250s, resentment against the king's preferential treatment of his émigré Poitevin relatives led to a coup and the imposition of the Provisions of Oxford and Westminster, instituting a baronial council and more frequent parliaments. Pope Urban IV absolved the king of his oath in 1261 and, after initial abortive resistance, Simon de Montfort led a force, enlarged due to recent crop failures, that prosecuted the Second Barons' War. Bacon's own family were considered royal partisans: De Montfort's men seized their property and drove several members into exile. In 1256 or 1257, he became a friar in the Franciscan Order in either Paris or Oxford, following the example of scholarly English Franciscans such as Grosseteste and Marsh. After 1260, Bacon's activities were restricted by a statute prohibiting the friars of his order from publishing books or pamphlets without prior approval.
He was kept at constant menial tasks to limit his time for contemplation and came to view his treatment as an enforced absence from scholarly life. By the mid-1260s, he was undertaking a search for patrons who could secure permission and funding for his return to Oxford. For a time, Bacon was able to get around his superiors' interference through his acquaintance with Guy de Foulques, bishop of Narbonne, cardinal of Sabina, the papal legate who negotiated between England's royal and baronial factions. In 1263 or 1264, a message garbled by Bacon's messenger, Raymond of Laon, led Guy to believe that Bacon had completed a summary of the sciences. In fact, he had no money to research, let alone copy, such a work and attempts to secure financing from his family were thwarted by the Second Barons' War. However, in 1265, Guy was summoned to a conclave at Perugia that elected him Pope Clement IV. William Benecor, the courier between Henry III and the pope, now carried the correspondence between Bacon and Clement.
Clement's reply of 22 June 1266 commissioned "writings and remedies for current conditions", instructing Bacon not to
Khosro Naghed is a Persian writer and linguist. He has written numerous books and articles on Iranian culture, Persian history, Persian language and literature and philosophy and has influence on Iranian intellectual circles, his articles have appeared in some Iranian newspapers. He wrote a German-Persian dictionary published by Langenscheidt. Critique of the Dialectic of Enlightenment. By Khosro Naghed.. The Intellectuals and the October Revolution. By Khosro Naghed.. East-West dreams. From Gilgamesh's dreams to Nietzsche's nightmares. By Khosro Naghed.. In Search of the meaning of life. Conversations with European thinkers. Selected and translated by Khosro Naghed.. From Knowledge to Wisdom. Essays and Interviews about philosophy and literature. By Khosro Naghed.. Apple and soldier. Poems beyond the horror. Re-creation by Khosro Naghed.. The Praise of Dialogue. Meeting with the Other. By Khosro Naghed.. Utopia and Violence. Essays and Interviews by Karl Popper. Selected and translated by Khosro Naghed and Rahman Afshari..
Leben trotz Geschichte. Essays und Interviews von Leszek Kolakowski. Ausgewählt und übersetzt von Khosro Naghed. Liebesgedichte im Zeitalter der Gewalt. Gedichte von Erich Fried. Übersetzt von Khosro Naghed. Graphiken von Basam Rasam. Gedichte für melancholische Tage. Gedichte über Kafkas Stadt. Übersetzt von Khosro Naghed. Graphiken von Basam Rasam. Der Tod hat dir nichts zu sagen. Gedichte von Erich Fried. Ausgewählt und übersetzt von Khosro Naghed. A la sombra de la luna y la muerte. Federico García Lorca. Traducción Khosro Naghed.. Warum Krieg? Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud. Für einen militanten Pazifismus. Persisch: Khosro Naghed Langenscheidt Universal-Wörterbuch Persisch. Persisch-Deutsch, Deutsch-Persisch. Von Khosro Naghed L´ impact planetaire de la pensee occidentale et le dialogue de la civilisation. Traduction: F. Badreie, B. Parham, Kh. Naghed Wie Wasser im Strom, wie Wuestenwind. Gedichte eines Mystikers. Omar Chajjam. Hrsg. von Khosro Naghed. Auf der Schneide des Laechelns. Erich Fried Leben und Gedichte.
Compellent Technologies, founded in 2002, was a provider of enterprise computer data storage systems that automate data movement at the block level. The company was headquartered in Eden Prairie, Minnesota, USA. Compellent's chief product, Storage Center, is a storage area network system that combines a standards-based hardware platform and a suite of virtualized storage management applications, including automated tiered storage, thin provisioning and replication; the company developed software and products aimed at mid-size enterprises and sold through a channel network of independent providers and resellers. It became part of Dell in February 2011. Compellent Technologies was founded in 2002 by Phil Soran, John Guider, Larry Aszmann; the three had network virtualization backgrounds. The company had its initial public offering on October 15, 2007, became profitable for the first time in Q3 2008 and was profitable in consecutive quarters since. On February 11, 2010, it announced Q4 2009 revenues had increased 35 percent over Q4 2008, the company’s 17th consecutive quarter of revenue growth, with full year revenue of $125.3 million.
On December 13, 2010, Compellent announced it agreed to be acquired by Dell for $960 million. The purchase was completed in the product line sold as Dell Compellent. Compellent’s storage area network system, called "Storage Center", combines several virtualized storage-management applications with hardware; the product tracks metadata, information about each block of data stored on the Compellent system, including the date and time written, frequency of access, associated volume, type of disk drive used, type of data stored and RAID level. Large amounts of data are stored and managed on a granular level and assigned automatically to high-performance drives or large-capacity drives. Compellent said this method of data management can lower hardware and cooling costs."The base configuration of Storage Center includes a disk array controller, disk enclosure, disk drives, connectivity hardware, software modules. The operating system called Storage Center, is updated. Software modules include: Storage virtualization Thin provisioning Automated tiered storage Continuous snapshots Remote replication Boot from SANCompellent’s hardware supports different server/host interfaces and drive technologies.
To expand the hardware, users add new drives or I/O cards to the existing system. Compellent provides technical support and professional managed services through its Copilot team, housed at its Minnesota headquarters. Copilot technical support and service representatives provide maintenance, managed services, consultative services and training. SupportAssist is an automated problem-detection service that remotely monitors each customer’s SAN and provides proactive alerting on issues; the company headquarters occupies the first commercial facility in Minnesota's Twin Cities region to receive a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design designation, now Gold-certified, from the United States Green Building Council. Compellent’s Eden Prairie campus has sustainable design elements such as waterless urinals and drip irrigation systems for landscaping that cut water consumption by 40 percent, energy-efficient HVAC equipment with carbon dioxide monitors, low emission paints and adhesives. In addition, 75 percent of the building’s construction waste was recycled.
In 2009, Computerworld magazine honored Compellent as a top green IT vendor for its corporate and technology efforts to reduce power consumption and lower carbon emissions. 2005 - Storage Magazine Bronze Product of the Year - Disk and Disk Subsystems 2006 - CRN Emerging Vendors - No. 1 Storage Standout 2006 - TechWorld UK Recommends - Compellent Storage Centre 2006 - InfoWorld Technology of the Year - Best SAN 2007 - CRN 50 Emerging Vendors You Should Know 2008 - Gold "Best of VMWorld 2008" in Hardware for Virtualization 2008 - Microsoft Partner of the Year for Advanced Infrastructure Solutions, Storage Solutions 2008 - InfoWorld Technology of the Year - Best SAN 2008 - Ernst & Young Entrepreneurs of the Year - Upper Midwest Region 2008 - Diogenes Labs - Storage Magazine Quality Awards for Midrange Arrays 2009 - Network Computing UK Technology Project of the Year - London Borough of Hillingdon 2009 - CRN Channel Chiefs 2009 - ComputerWorld Top 12 Green IT Vendors 2010 - InfoWorld Technology of the Year Award 2010 - Business Solutions Best Channel Vendor List Dell Compellent