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Roger Penrose

Sir Roger Penrose is an English mathematical physicist and philosopher of science. He is Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics in the University of Oxford, an emeritus fellow of Wadham College, Oxford and an honorary fellow of St John's College, Cambridge. Penrose has made contributions to the mathematical physics of general cosmology, he has received several prizes and awards, including the 1988 Wolf Prize for physics, which he shared with Stephen Hawking for the Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems. Born in Colchester, Roger Penrose is a son of psychiatrist and geneticist Lionel Penrose and Margaret Leathes, the grandson of the physiologist John Beresford Leathes and his Russian wife, Sonia Marie Natanson, who had left St. Petersburg in the late 1880s, his uncle was artist Roland Penrose. Penrose is the brother of physicist Oliver Penrose and of chess Grandmaster Jonathan Penrose. Penrose attended University College School and University College, where he graduated with a first class degree in mathematics.

In 1955, while still a student, Penrose reintroduced the E. H. Moore generalised matrix inverse known as the Moore–Penrose inverse, after it had been reinvented by Arne Bjerhammar in 1951. Having started research under the professor of geometry and astronomy, Sir W. V. D. Hodge, Penrose finished his PhD at St John's College, Cambridge in 1958, with a thesis on "tensor methods in algebraic geometry" under algebraist and geometer John A. Todd, he devised and popularised the Penrose triangle in the 1950s, describing it as "impossibility in its purest form", exchanged material with the artist M. C. Escher, whose earlier depictions of impossible objects inspired it. Escher's Waterfall, Ascending and Descending were in turn inspired by Penrose; as reviewer Manjit Kumar puts it: As a student in 1954, Penrose was attending a conference in Amsterdam when by chance he came across an exhibition of Escher's work. Soon he was trying to conjure up impossible figures of his own and discovered the tribar – a triangle that looks like a real, solid three-dimensional object, but isn't.

Together with his father, a physicist and mathematician, Penrose went on to design a staircase that loops up and down. An article followed and a copy was sent to Escher. Completing a cyclical flow of creativity, the Dutch master of geometrical illusions was inspired to produce his two masterpieces. Having become a reader at Birkbeck College, London it was in 1964 that, in the words of Kip Thorne of Caltech, "Roger Penrose revolutionised the mathematical tools that we use to analyse the properties of spacetime"; until work on the curved geometry of general relativity had been confined to configurations with sufficiently high symmetry for Einstein's equations to be soluble explicitly, there was doubt about whether such cases were typical. One approach to this issue was by the use of perturbation theory, as developed under the leadership of John Archibald Wheeler at Princeton; the other, more radically innovative, approach initiated by Penrose was to overlook the detailed geometrical structure of spacetime and instead concentrate attention just on the topology of the space, or at most its conformal structure, since it is the latter – as determined by the lay of the lightcones – that determines the trajectories of lightlike geodesics, hence their causal relationships.

The importance of Penrose's epoch-making paper "Gravitational collapse and space-time singularities" was not only its result. It showed a way to obtain general conclusions in other contexts, notably that of the cosmological Big Bang, which he dealt with in collaboration with Dennis Sciama's most famous student, Stephen Hawking, it was in the local context of gravitational collapse that the contribution of Penrose was most decisive, starting with his 1969 cosmic censorship conjecture, to the effect that any ensuing singularities would be confined within a well-behaved event horizon surrounding a hidden space-time region for which Wheeler coined the term black hole, leaving a visible exterior region with strong but finite curvature, from which some of the gravitational energy may be extractable by what is known as the Penrose process, while accretion of surrounding matter may release further energy that can account for astrophysical phenomena such as quasars. Following up his "weak cosmic censorship hypothesis", Penrose went on, in 1979, to formulate a stronger version called the "strong censorship hypothesis".

Together with the BKL conjecture and issues of nonlinear stability, settling the censorship conjectures is one of the most important outstanding problems in general relativity. From 1979 dates Penrose's influential Weyl curvature hypothesis on the initial conditions of the observable part of the universe and the origin of the second law of thermodynamics. Penrose and James Terrell independently realised that objects travelling near the speed of light will appear to undergo a peculiar skewing or rotation; this effect has come to be called Penrose -- Terrell rotation. In 1967, Penrose invented the twistor theory which maps geometric objects in Minkowski space into the 4-dimensional complex space with the metric signature. Penrose is well known for his 1974 discovery of Penrose tilings, which are formed from two tiles that can only tile the plane nonperiodically, are the first tilings to exhib

James Ralston Kennedy Paterson

James Ralston Kennedy "RP" Paterson, CBE, MC, MD, FRCSEd, FRCR, DMRE was a radiologist and oncologist in Scotland. Along with Herbert Parker, pioneered the development of the Paterson-Parker rules for the Radium Dosage System known as the Manchester system. James Ralston Kennedy Paterson known as Ralston Paterson or'RP' Paterson was born on 21 May 1897 in Edinburgh, Scotland, he attended George Heriot’s School and upon graduation served as an officer in World War I with the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders and was decorated with the Military Cross. After the War he went back to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh and in 1923 awarded MB, ChB with honors, in 1926 completed FRCSEd, in 1927 granted the MD with commendation. At Edinburgh he met colleague Edith Irvin Jones; the couple had 3 children, sons David and daughter Elspeth. In 1925 interest with radiology led to DMRE at Cambridge. Paterson went to the Mayo Clinic for a fellowship in radiology, he received further training in radiotherapy at clinics at the University of Chicago, in Toronto and South Africa.

He returned in 1930 to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh as acting director of the radiotherapy department. In 1931, Paterson was appointed as radiotherapy director of the combined Holt Radium Institute and Christie Hospital in Manchester. In November 1943, Paterson was invited by the government of Australia including Queensland and Victoria to assist with the establishment of a cancer institute that would provide medical care and services to the community; the Australian government allocated £100,000 for an institute dedicated to cancer treatment and research, with treatment methodologies to focus on X-ray and Radium. Paterson retired in 1962 and devoted his efforts to the running of a top-notch cattle and sheep farm at Stenreishill, near Moffat, Scotland, he died at home in his sleep. Peterson received numerous awards in his career. British Association of Radiotherapists, president, 1938-1939 Founding member, Faculty of Radiologists President, Faculty of Radiologists, President, 1943-1946 MC, 1917 MB, ChB with Honors, Edinburgh, 1923 DMRE, Canterbury, 1924 MD with Commendation, 1927 FRCSEd, Edinburgh, 1927 FFR, 1938 FRCS, 1948 CBE, 1950 Professor of Radiotherapy, University of Manchester, 1960 Gold medal, Society of Apothecaries, 1961 President, International Radiological Congress in London, 1950 Gold Medal, Faculty of Radiologists, 1966 Working with Herbert Parker, developed the Paterson-Parker rules for the Radium Dosage System known as the Manchester system.

Paterson Research Laboratory Paterson and Herbert M. Parker.. "A dosage system for gamma ray therapy." The British Journal of Radiology. 7: 592-632. Paterson and Herbert M. Parker.. "A dosage system for interstitial radium therapy." The British Journal of Radiology. 11: 252-266

Joe Minter

Joe Minter is an American sculptor based in Birmingham, Alabama. Minter was born the eighth child into a family of ten, his father was a mechanic during World War I, but after the war, was unable to find a job in his field. Minter's father instead worked for thirty years as caretaker of a white cemetery. Joe Minter attended local Birmingham schools, was drafted in 1965 and discharged in 1967. After the military, Minter took a series of low-paying jobs, from dishwasher at a drive-in, to messenger and orderly hospital work. Minter worked in metals, constructed school furniture, did work on cars, with crews building roads; as a result of his fabrication work, Minter got asbestos dust in his eyes in the 1960s and ‘70s. Minter had one eye. Minter never was forced to retire. Upon retiring, Minter rediscovered an artistic practice dormant since childhood. Located on the southwest edge of Birmingham and begun in the late 1980s and built over the course of thirty years, Minter's African Village in America is part sculpture garden, part history museum, part memorial.

The African Village in America is an ever-evolving art environment, populated by sculptures made from scrap and found materials from footwear, lawn decorations, old sporting equipment, to baking utensils, more. Although Minter's sculpture have a variety of themes and influences, from one commemorating the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting to one dedicated to the victims of Hurricane Katrina, Minter's overriding message is to provide a recognition for the eleven million Africans shipped in bondage to America, to their descendants who helped to build and defend America; the sculptures in the African Village in America tell the stories of African-Americans over the centuries, from the griots and warriors of West Africa to the deadly 1963 bombing at the 16th Street Baptist Church. 2019 – Whitney BiennialWhitney Museum of American Art – curated by Rujeko Hockley and Jane Panetta 2018 – History Refused to Die: Highlights from the Souls Grown Deep Foundation Gift - Metropolitan Museum of Art 2018 - Revelations: Art from the African American South - de Young Museum, San Francisco, CA 2018 - Joe Minter: Once That River Starts to Flow - Atlanta Contemporary, Georgia 2017 - The Road Less Traveled Exhibition Series.

American Sites: Art Environment Photography - The John Michael Kholer Arts Center, Sheboygan, WI 2015 - History Refused to Die - Alabama Contemporary Art Center, Mobile, AL 2014 - When Stars Begin to Fall: Imagination and the American South - Studio Museum in Harlem, New York 2007 - Alabama Folk Art - Birmingham Museum of Art, Alabama 2004 - Coming Home: Self-Taught Artists, the Bible, the American South - Art Museum of the University of Memphis, Memphis, TN Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D. C. Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA Birmingham Museum of Art, Birmingham, AL Finley, Cheryl. My Soul Has Grown Deep: Black Art from the American South. Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2018 Anglin Burgard, Thornton Dial, Lonnie Holley, Joe Minter, Lauren Palmor. Revelations: Art from the African American South. Prestel, 2017 Horace Randall Williams, Karen Wilkin, Sharon Holland, William S. Arnett, Bernard Herman.

History Refused to Die: The Enduring Legacy of African American Art in Alabama. Tinwood Books, 2015 Crown, Carol, ed. Coming Home: Self-Taught Artists, the Bible, the American South, Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2004 Conwill, Kinshasha. Harry N. Abrams, 2002 Arnett and Paul Arnett, eds. Souls Grown Deep: African American Vernacular Art of the South, vol. II, Atlanta: Tinwood Books, 2001 – artist profile Outsider Art Comes to the Metropolitan Museum – Hyperallergic

Ramaiah Institute of Technology

Ramaiah Institute of Technology M. S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, is an autonomous private engineering college located in Bangalore, Karnataka and is affiliated to the Visvesvaraya Technological University headquartered at Belgaum, India; the college was established in 1962. Since August 2007, RIT has been academically autonomous for both Undergraduate and Postgraduate Programs. While VTU will still award the degrees, the college has academic freedom in framing its own schemes of study and student evaluation. RIT offers undergraduate and graduate courses of study and research including Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Architecture, Master of Technology, Master of Business Administration and offers programs leading to award of PhD in various disciplines. RIT is a research centre in 12 areas including engineering and management disciplines. RIT is the only engineering college in Bangalore, autonomous for both undergraduate and postgraduate courses; the institute has academic alliances with Intel, IBM, Schneider Electric, JSW Steel Ltd, Cognizant EMC, Nokia and other multinationals.

It partnered ISRO in 2010 to build the StudSat nano satellite and RIT was chosen in 2012 to join the consortium of colleges that would assist ISRO in the StudSat-2 project. The institute is credited for the development of India's first unmanned air vehicle with an autopilot system. RIT was founded in 1962 by the late M. S. Ramaiah, an educationist and infrastructure visionary. RIT is part of Gokula Education Foundation which owns and manages several educational institutions across various streams; the foundation runs a Multi Speciality Hospital. RIT was the first institute started by the Gokula Education Foundation. RIT is one of the oldest engineering colleges in south India. Only 5 other engineering institutions have achieved this mark in Karnataka-UVCE, BMSCE in Bangalore, BVB College of Engineering & Technology in Hubli Malnad College of Engineering in Hassan and Siddaganga institute of technology. MSRIT is separate from M S Ramaiah University of Applied Sciences, a new private university created by the same management.

M. R. Seetharam, son of M. S. Ramaiah heads the college management as director; the autonomy given to the institute by the government is only for academic matters. The governing council of the college includes two principals of other colleges, one state government of Karnataka bureaucrat, one central government of India bureaucrat, one member from the VTU. RIT was affiliated to Mysore University with the Bangalore University and now Visvesvaraya Technological University, Belgaum, it is an institutional member of the ISTE and is recognised by the All India Council for Technical Education, a must for any technical institute in India. It has been certified ISO 9001:2008 and has been accredited for quality education by the Central government of India Body National Board of Accreditation; the Architecture Department is approved by Council of Architecture. RIT offers Bachelor of Bachelor of Architecture at the Under Graduate level; the program is offered in 12 different branches. The course structure is designed by the faculty of the college with the consultation of the faculty at VTU and IISc.

The intake in the college is fixed by AICTE in India and no affiliated college has the right to increase the intake. This rule applies to colleges that are academically autonomous. In 2010, RIT's students won 29 VTU medals in academics second to RVCE in the state among 186 VTU-affiliated colleges; the medals were awarded by governor of Karnataka Hansraj Bhardwaj. The Institute offers 2-year Master of Technology in the various Branches as well as Master of Architecture, MCA and MBA; the college offers M. Sc. by research. The college offers PhD program in 12 areas. RIT is an approved Research Centre by Government of Karnataka. IEEE: The college has an IEEE Student branch; the IEEE-MSRIT celebrates its tech fest Aavishkaar each year Various competitions such as Algomach and Debugging, Cyber Treasure Hunt, Paper Presentation, Tech Quiz, Product Design, 8086/8051 Programming, Amazing Race, Photoshop Contest are held along with Workshops. TEDxMSRIT: This student organisation conducted a national event in March 2012.

The event involved speakers such as Atul Chitnis, Devi Prasad Shetty, Soumitra Bhattacharya Praveen Godkhindi and others. UDBHAV: UDBHAV is the annual Cultural Fest held at RIT every year. Shoutout: Annual intra-college theatre fest held in the odd semester. Dr. M. S. Ramaiah Memorial Parliamentary Debate: MSRMPD is the annual International Parliamentary Debate Tournament organised at RIT, with participation from across South-East Asia. VTU Fest: The Government of Karnataka in association with RIT held the 13th annual Youth Fest at RIT; the fest was named'Udbhav'. The fest was open to all engineering colleges. Karnataka's first IBM Centre of Excellence was established on 19 March 2009 at RIT; this center has been in involved in training students with software like DB2, etc. Schneider Electric: RIT has signed a memorandum of understanding With global energy management company Schneider Electric to promote technical excellence in the field of electronics and control engineering; the MoU covers “university partnership for curriculum development” and through this arrangement RIT has developed two courses – advanced industrial automation and modern controls, energy management JSW Energy Centre of Excellence.

RIT entered into a MoU with 8 Billion USD company JSW


Gabii was an ancient city of Latium, located 18 km due east of Rome along the Via Praenestina, in early times known as the Via Gabina. It was on the south-eastern perimeter of an extinct volcanic crater lake circular in shape, named the Lacus Gabinus, during times called the Lago di Castiglione, "lake of the fortification", after Castiglione, a mediaeval tower erected on the site of the ancient acropolis, or arx, of Gabii. A necropolis is adjacent on that side of the lake. At present, the former lake is agricultural land; the ruins of the ancient city project from the fields next to the cliffs overlooking it, on both sides of the via. A municipium in Roman times, Gabii is located in the frazione of Osteria dell'Osa 10 km from the comune of Montecompatri, of which it is a part, in the Province of Rome, Region of Lazio; the site is under new seasonal archaeological excavation. To what degree the lake was sedimented in ancient times remains unknown; some of the earliest huts are down in the crater.

Two streams flowing north to south flanked the lake on the west: the Fosso del'Osa, the east: Fosso di San Giuliano. These originated in another body of water, believed to be Lacus Regillus, on the south side of the road; the streams were crossed by bridges. The isthmus was isolated by streams on either side; the quadrangle so formed contained its own water supply and straddled a major route on the east flank of Rome. It could not, as history demonstrated, be ignored by Rome; the two streams flow north to the Anio river, which flows west into the Tiber river on the north side of Rome. In 1846 Gell reported that the Osa came from "a large marshy plain, extending to the Via Labicana." Passing by Lake Gabino it was connected to the latter by "artificial canals", which were in the process of draining the lake:The water of the lake has been much lowered by this canal, more draining is yet in contemplation, although there are many square miles of uncultivated ground in the vicinity. The draining of the lake was a project of the Borghese family, which had purchased it in 1614 from the Colonna family.

Octavian Blewitt's handbook was able to report in 1850: The lake was drained a few years ago by prince Borghese, who has converted it from the state of a pestilential marsh into a district of great fertility. Near the river a small inn had been placed, the Osteria dell'Osa, north of, the main necropolis of Gabii; the habitation today has expanded into the center of a frazione. The marshy plain was the last trace of the quasi-legendary lake near which the Battle of Lake Regillus decided whether the Roman Republic would continue or the kings of Rome would be restored by the intervention of the Latin League, to which Gabii belonged; the site of the battle is still a matter of dispute, which, on the unwarranted assumption that the location of the battle reveals the location of the lake, has extended into a dispute over the location of the lake. To modern topographers the deep lake basin, now kept dry, the aqueducts that drew water, still draw water, from its sources leave no doubt that the lake was located in the basin.

Lake Regillus varied in size and depth over the centuries but was between the Via Labicana and the Via Praenestina east of Finocchio and north of Colonna, the last remnant at Pantana Borghese having been drained by the Borghese family in conjunction with the restitution of the first part of the Acqua Alexandrina as the Acqua Felice under Pope Sixtus V in the years 1585–1587. The two roads joined on the outskirts of Rome; the Pantana was the low point. During the thousand years of the post-classical period a much smaller Rome had lived on a reduced water supply due to the broken and unrepaired aqueducts. Gabii had kept its lake until the completion of the Acqua Alexandrina in 226 AD; the Romans captured. It led from springs over the Pantana through underground conduits on the south side of the Via Praenestina to the outskirts of Rome, where it was carried on arched conduits above ground into the city; the Acqua Felice had more altitude at this point. By 226 the lake must have receded enough to have left a corridor along the road, as the Romans would not have been able to sink a conduit under the swamp.

Having its source water drained away, the lake receded drastically. The aqueduct is still in use. In 1915 it shunted some 22,000 m3 per day into the city of Rome. If these sources were not diverted, Lake Regillus would soon return. Meanwhile, the basin marks the location of the former lake, it is now agricultural land, except that the community of Lago Regillo has been placed in it near Gabii. Osteria del Finocchio marks the western limit, as it is settled and is on higher ground. Lake Regillus therefore cannot have been in the vicinity of Frascati, regardless of where the battle was fought. Scattered surface pottery has been found from the Middle Bronze Age outside the necropolis located below Castiglione, from which nothing can be deduced concerning the settlement at Gabii; the Late Bronze Age is missing. The Final Bronze Age is represented by minimal Latial I material around the inside of the crater on the southern side, indicating low-density settlement at the water's edge there. Definitive settlement at Gabii is believed to have begun with Latial IIA when the cemeteries of Castiglio


Kitepower is a registered trade mark of the Dutch company Enevate B. V. developing mobile airborne wind power systems. Kitepower was founded in 2016 by Johannes Peschel and Roland Schmehl as a commercial spin-off from the Delft University of Technology’s airborne wind energy research group established by the former astronaut Wubbo Ockels; the company is located in Delft and comprises 18 employees. Based on its first 20 kW prototype, Kitepower is developing a scaled-up 100 kW system for the purpose of commercialization. Funding is provided by the European Commission's Horizon 2020 Fast Track to Innovation project REACH in which the company is collaborating with Delft University of Technology and industry partners Dromec, Maxon Motor and Genetrix; the Kitepower system consists of three major components: a lightweight, high-performance kite, a load-bearing tether and a ground-based electric generator. Another important component is the so called kite control unit and together with the according control software for remotely steering the kite.

For energy production, the kite is operated in consecutive "pumping cycles" with alternating reel-out and reel-in phases: during reel-out the kite is flown in crosswind maneuvers. This creates a large pulling force, used to pull the tether from a ground-based drum, connected to a generator. In this phase electricity is generated. Once the maximum tether length is reached, the kite is reeled back, but this time depowered, such that it can be retracted with a low aerodynamic resistance; this phase consumes a small fraction of the generated power such that in total net energy is produced. The electricity is buffered by a rechargeable battery unit, or, in a kite park configuration, several systems can be operated with phase shifts such that the battery capacity can be reduced. Airborne wind energy promises to be a cost-competitive solution to existing renewable energy technologies; the main advantages of the airborne wind energy technology are the reduced material usage compared to conventional wind turbines which allows reaching for higher altitudes and makes the systems more mobile in terms of location, cheaper in construction.

Challenges are robustness and reliability of the flying wind energy systemand the airspace requirements of the technology. A considerable body of scientific literature and patents has been developed. For the art project Windvogel of Dutch artist Daan Roosegaarde the Kitepower system was operated during night, using a light-emitting tether YES! Delft Launchlab 2016 Dutch Defense Innovation Competition 2016 YES! Delft Incubation Program 2017 List of airborne wind energy organizations Crosswind kite power Airborne wind turbine Wind power Kitepower Official Website