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Roger Wolcott Sperry

Roger Wolcott Sperry was an American neuropsychologist and Nobel laureate who, together with David Hunter Hubel and Torsten Nils Wiesel, won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine for his work with split-brain research. A Review of General Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Sperry as the 44th most cited psychologist of the 20th century. Sperry was born in Connecticut, to Francis Bushnell and Florence Kraemer Sperry, his father was in banking, his mother trained in business school. He was raised in an upper middle-class environment. Roger had Russell Loomis, their father died when Roger was 11. Afterwards, his mother became assistant to the principal in the local high school. Sperry went to Hall High School in West Hartford, where he was a star athlete in several sports, did well enough academically to win a scholarship to Oberlin College. At Oberlin, he was captain of the basketball team, he took part in varsity baseball and track, he worked at a cafe on campus to help support himself.

Sperry was an English major, but he took an Intro to Psychology class taught by a Professor named R. H. Stetson who had worked with William James, the father of American Psychology; this class sparked Sperry's interest in the brain. Stetson was disabled and had trouble getting around so Sperry would help him out by driving him to and from wherever he needed to go; this included taking Stetson to lunch with his colleagues. Sperry would just sit at the end of the table and listen to Stetson and his colleagues discuss their research and other psychological interests; this increased Sperry's interest in Psychology more and after he received his undergraduate degree in English from Oberlin he decided to stay and get his master's degree in Psychology. He received his bachelor's degree in English in 1935 and a master's degree in psychology in 1937, he received his Ph. D. in zoology from the University of Chicago in 1941, supervised by Paul A. Weiss. Sperry did postdoctoral research with Karl Lashley at Harvard University though most of his time was spent with Lashley at the Yerkes Primate Research Center in Orange Park, Florida.

In 1942, Sperry began work at the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology a part of Harvard University. There he focused on experiments involving the rearranging of motor and sensory nerves, he left in 1946 to become an assistant professor, associate professor, at the University of Chicago. In 1949, during a routine chest x-ray, there was evidence of tuberculosis, he was sent to Saranac Lake in the Adironack Mountains in New York for treatment. It was during this time when he began writing his concepts of the mind and brain, was first published in the American Scientist in 1952. In 1952, he became the Section Chief of Neurological Diseases and Blindness at the National Institutes of Health and finished out the year at the Marine Biology Laboratory in Coral Gables, FL. Sperry went back to The University of Chicago in 1952 and became an Associate Professor of Psychology, he was not offered tenure at Chicago and planned to move to Bethesda, Maryland but was held up by a delay in construction at the National Institutes of Health.

During this time Sperry's friend Victor Hepburn invited him to lecture about his research at a symposium. There were professors from the California Institute of Technology in the audience of the symposium who, after listening to Sperry's lecture, were so impressed with him they offered him a job as the Hixson Professor of Psychobiology. In 1954, he accepted the position as a professor at the California Institute of Technology where he performed his most famous experiments with Joseph Bogen, MD and many students including Michael Gazzaniga. Under the supervision of Paul Weiss while earning his Ph. D. at the University of Chicago, Sperry became interested in neuronal specificity and brain circuitry and began questioning the existing concepts about these two topics. He asked the simple question first asked in his Introduction to Psychology class at Oberlin: Nature or nurture? He began a series of experiments in an attempt to answer this question. Sperry crosswired the motor nerves of rats' legs so the left nerve controlled the right leg and vice versa.

He would place the rats in a cage that had an electric grid on the bottom separated into four sections. Each leg of the rat was placed into one of the four sections of the electric grid. A shock was administered to a specific section of the grid, for example the grid where the rat's left back leg was located would receive a shock; every time the left paw was shocked the rat would lift his right vice versa. Sperry wanted to know. After repeated tests Sperry found that the rats never learned to lift up the correct paw, leading him to the conclusion that some things are just hardwired and cannot be relearned. In Sperry's words, "no adaptive functioning of the nervous system took place." During Sperry's postdoctoral years with Karl Lashley at Harvard and at the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology in Orange Park, Florida, he continued his work on neuronal specificity that he had begun as a doctoral student and initiated a new series of studies involving salamanders. The optic nerves were sectioned and the eyes rotated 180 degrees.

The question was whether vision would be normal after regeneration or would the animal forever view the world as "upside down" and right-left reversed. Should the latter prove to be the case, it would mean that the nerves were somehow "guided" back to their original sites of termination. Restoration of normal vision (i.e. "seeing" the worl

Your Ghost Is a Gift

Your Ghost Is a Gift is American metalcore band Ligeia's first full-length album released on March 21, 2006. "Beyond a Doubt" - 2:28 "I'm Sorry You're Ugly" - 2:42 "Heart Attack" - 4:08 "Judas Complex" - 3:40 "The Blackout" - 5:37 "Household Stereotypes" - 3:54 "Makin' Love to a Murderer" - 3:08 "Swollen Eye View" - 3:45 "Always, Forever" - 4:18 "Dead Man's Bride" - 3:58 "Wishing Wells" - 5:22 Keith Holuk - vocals Ryan Ober - guitar and bass Chris Keane - guitar Phil Fonseca - drums Ken Susi - Engineering and production Alaan Douches - Mastering Sons of Nero - artwork Jeff Zorn - Photography

Drunken Master II

Drunken Master II is a 1994 Hong Kong action-comedy kung fu film directed by Lau Kar-leung and Jackie Chan, who stars as Chinese martial arts master and folk hero of Cantonese ethnicity, Wong Fei-hung. It was Chan's first traditional style martial arts film since The Young Dragon Lord; the film was released in North America as The Legend of Drunken Master in 2000. The film is a sequel to Chan's 1978 film Drunken Master, directed by Yuen Woo-ping. Another film, Drunken Master III features little in common with either this or its predecessor, is not considered a sequel. In 2005, Drunken Master II was named one of the top 100 best films of all time by Time magazine. In 2015, the British Film Institute selected Drunken Master II as one of the 10 best action movies of all time; the movie is set in early 20th century China. Wong Fei-hung, along with his father Wong Kei-ying and servant Tso, is on the way home to Canton after a trip to the Northeast when he encounters Fu Wen-chi, a former top candidate in the Qing era's military examination.

After an exchange of blows, Wong and Fu accidentally switch the boxes. Wong ends up with the Imperial Seal while Fu gets the ginseng that Wong's father had bought for a client. Unknown to Wong, the Imperial Seal is one of numerous Chinese artefacts that the British consul is trying to smuggle out of China to Britain. Back in Canton, Wong gives the client a root from his father's favourite bonsai to pass off as the ginseng. Wong's stepmother, complicates things when she tries to help Wong by loaning her necklace for money for Wong to buy a new ginseng. In the meantime, the British consul sends his henchmen to track down Wong and seize the Imperial Seal. A fight breaks out between Wong and the henchmen when the latter try to snatch a bag from Ling, thinking that it contains the Seal. At Ling's instigation, Wong gets drunk and uses drunken boxing to beat up the henchmen until his father shows up and stops him; the older Wong is furious at his son for embarrassing their family by getting drunk and fighting in public.

To make matters worse, he learns the truth behind the ginseng and bonsai and becomes so angry that he hits his son and chases him out of the house. When Wong tries to drown his sorrow by drinking he gets beaten up and publicly humiliated by the henchmen because he is too drunk to fight back. After his family saves him and brings him home, Wong feels ashamed of his drunken behaviour and apologises to his father. Meanwhile, Fu Wen-chi visits the Wong residence and tells them about the British consul's smuggling operation; the next day, Fu and Wong are attacked at a restaurant by the Axe Gang, a group of thugs hired by the consul. Fu is fatally shot and the Imperial Seal is taken by the consul's men. Before dying, Fu implores Wong and his friends to retrieve the Seal and stop the consul from stealing Chinese artefacts. One night and his friend, disguise themselves and break into the British consulate, they are caught, beaten up and held for ransom by the consul, who demands that Wong's father sells his land in exchange for their release.

Wong's friends discover that the British consul is planning to smuggle the stolen artefacts out of Canton using boxes meant for steel shipments. They inform Wong and Tsang, who join the workers in a violent protest at the British-owned steel factory against the consul's abuses. After a long fight and his friends defeat the consul's henchmen and put an end to the smuggling operation. At the end of the movie, a Chinese general presents the Wongs a commemorative plaque to honour them for their service to the country. No DVD has been made available to date that preserves the original aspect ratio and the uncut version of the film with the original Cantonese audio track; the film's purest English-friendly version can only be found on now out-of-print releases – the Mei Ah VCD and LaserDisc, Tai Seng's VHS and the Australian VHS from Chinatown Video. These prints have "burnt-in" Chinese/English subtitles. An uncut release with good picture quality, the original audio track, the original aspect ratio is considered a "holy grail" by many Hong Kong cinema fans.

Thakral's region 0 DVD release of Drunken Master II is the only version which features the entire Hong Kong version with proper English subtitles. However, on the DVD the aspect ratio is cropped to 1.78:1 from the original theatrical 2.35:1 aspect ratio. The region 3 releases for Hong Kong and Korea contains the English export version with the original 2:35:1 non-anamorphic aspect ratio; this cut of the film ends immediately after Fei-Hung defeats John. The audio tracks include an abridged Cantonese and Mandarin soundtracks, the original Golden Harvest English dub different than that of Dimension's, it contains the original score and sound effects. Of all the films in Chan's back-catalogue that received North American theatrical distribution, Drunken Master II was cut the least. A scene in which Wong drunkenly sings at a café was re-cut making use of a few alternate takes not seen in the original Cantonese version. In addition, a 35 second cut was made to the concluding scene of the film which showed Wong blinded and mentally crippled as a result of drinking industrial alcohol during the film's ultimate fight.

Played for laughs, the scene was considered to be in bad taste by the American distributor, Dimension Films. In addition to the

Tanedra Howard

Tanedra Howard is an American actress. She is best known for winning the reality show Scream Queens and playing Simone Bethson in Saw VI and Saw 3D. Howard was raised in Inglewood, California, she attended Santa Monica College, where she was a member of the cheer squad, El Camino College. In 2006, Howard was one out of 500 actors chosen to try out for the ABC reality show I Wanna Be a Soap Star 3, but did not make it on the show, she had an uncredited role in the 2008 remake of Prom Night. In 2008, Howard's roommate showed her an ad on Craigslist where Lionsgate was holding auditions for the VH1 acting competition reality TV show Scream Queens, she auditioned and was cast. Howard spent five and half weeks competing in weekly challenges with nine other actors and won the competition earning a role in Saw VI. In the film, she played the part of Simone, she reprises her role in Saw 3D, released on October 29, 2010. Howard appeared in the online Shane Dawson Christmas special. Tanedra Howard on IMDb


Échandens is a municipality in the district of Morges of the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland. Échandens is first mentioned in 1164 as Scandens. Échandens has an area, as of 2009, of 3.9 square kilometers. Of this area, 2.03 km2 or 52.3% is used for agricultural purposes, while 0.7 km2 or 18.0% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 1.13 km2 or 29.1 % is settled, 0.03 km2 or 0.8 % is either lakes. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 3.6% of the total area while housing and buildings made up 13.9% and transportation infrastructure made up 8.5%. While parks, green belts and sports fields made up 2.3%. Out of the forested land, 15.7% of the total land area is forested and 2.3% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land, 42.0% is used for growing crops, while 9.3% is used for orchards or vine crops. All the water in the municipality is flowing water; the municipality was part of the Morges District until it was dissolved on 31 August 2006, Échandens became part of the new district of Morges.

It consists of the hamlet of Les Abbesses. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is two Chevrons Argent. Échandens has a population of 2,791. As of 2008, 17.1% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 2.8%. It has changed at a rate of 3.9 % due to births and deaths. Most of the population speaks French, with German being second most Italian being third. There is 1 person. Of the population in the municipality 388 or about 18.6% were born in Échandens and lived there in 2000. There were 875 or 42.0% who were born in the same canton, while 388 or 18.6% were born somewhere else in Switzerland, 386 or 18.5% were born outside of Switzerland. In 2008 there were 10 live births to Swiss citizens and 2 births to non-Swiss citizens, in same time span there were 11 deaths of Swiss citizens and 1 non-Swiss citizen death. Ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 1 while the foreign population increased by 1.

There were 1 Swiss woman who emigrated from Switzerland. At the same time, there were 12 non-Swiss men and 3 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland; the total Swiss population change in 2008 was a decrease of 6 and the non-Swiss population increased by 12 people. This represents a population growth rate of 0.3%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in Échandens is. Of the adult population, 220 people or 10.3 % of the population are between 29 years old. 261 people or 12.2% are between 30 and 39, 320 people or 15.0% are between 40 and 49, 291 people or 13.6% are between 50 and 59. The senior population distribution is 329 people or 15.4% of the population are between 60 and 69 years old, 182 people or 8.5% are between 70 and 79, there are 67 people or 3.1% who are between 80 and 89, there are 9 people or 0.4% who are 90 and older. As of 2000, there were 810 people who never married in the municipality. There were 130 individuals who are divorced; as of 2000, there were 828 private households in the municipality, an average of 2.5 persons per household.

There were 211 households that consist of only one person and 59 households with five or more people. Out of a total of 853 households that answered this question, 24.7% were households made up of just one person and there were 3 adults who lived with their parents. Of the rest of the households, there are 253 married couples without children, 310 married couples with children There were 38 single parents with a child or children. There were 13 households that were made up of unrelated people and 25 households that were made up of some sort of institution or another collective housing. In 2000 there were 355 single family homes out of a total of 500 inhabited buildings. There were 89 multi-family buildings, along with 37 multi-purpose buildings that were used for housing and 19 other use buildings that had some housing. Of the single family homes 19 were built before 1919, while 31 were built between 1990 and 2000; the greatest number of single family homes were built between 1971 and 1980. The most multi-family homes were built between 1961 and 1970 and the next most were built between 1971 and 1980.

There was 1 multi-family house built between 1996 and 2000. In 2000 there were 867 apartments in the municipality; the most common apartment size was 4 rooms of which there were 231. There were 321 apartments with five or more rooms. Of these apartments, a total of 806 apartments were permanently occupied, while 40 apartments were seasonally occupied and 21 apartments were empty; as of 2009, the construction rate of new housing units was 6.1 new units per 1000 residents. The vacancy rate for the municipality, in 2010, was 0.55%. The historical population is given in the following chart: In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 22.16% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP and the Green Party. In the federal election, a total of 704 votes were cast, the voter turnout was 51.7%. As of 2010, Échandens had an unemployment ra


Bakulari is a village located in Sohagara Panchayat of Guthani Block of Siwan district in the Indian state of Bihar. It is a medium size village, situated in the westernmost part of the Siwan district with the distance of about 35 km and about 185 km. far from its State Capital, Patna. It is in north-west direction of Guthani Block with a distance of about 7 km; the distance from the State-Border of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar is just 4 km from west of it and less than 1 km from south of it. A famous temple of Lord Shiva in Sohagara is just about 4 km from this village. On the southern end of the village, there is a large pond like a lake namely "Bhagra Taal", famous for Lotus and fishing at large scale, this pond is marked as the'U. P. - Bihar Border' as it divides the two states here. On the banks of this pond, "Chhath Puja Ghat" is there; the total geographical area of this village is 113 hectares. The internal roads of the village are constructed with Plain Cement Concrete; the nearest major road at the distance of less than 1 km is Sohagara-Nainijor-Guthani Road.

Nearest river to this village on western side at a distance of about 2 km is Chhoti Gandak, a tributary of Ghaghara River and both rivers meet near Guthani. Geographically, this village is situated at coordinates of 84 ° 01' 52.4" East. As of 2011 census of India, the number of families residing in this village is 164; the Bakulari village has population of 1008 of which 480 are males while 528 are females as per Population Census 2011. This village has 137 children in the age group of 0–6 years which makes up 13.59% of total population of village. Average Sex Ratio of Bakulari village is 1100, higher than Bihar state average of 918, good statistic. Child Sex Ratio for the Bakulari as per census is 1108, higher than Bihar average of 935, it is one of the 102 villages of Guthani Block of Siwan district. Bakulari village is good in terms of education; as of 2011 census of India, Bakulari village has higher literacy rate compared to Bihar. In 2011, literacy rate of this village was 71.87% compared to 61.80% of Bihar.

The male literacy stands at 81.20% while female literacy rate was 63.38%. This village has a old and famous school of Guthani Block namely "राजकीय मध्य विद्यालय - बकुलारी", founded in 1951, but this school is now upgraded from Middle School to Secondary School Certificate. Now this school provides for Secondary Education to the students not only of this village but of its various neighbouring villages. Addition to this, many people of this village are well educated like Graduates and Post-Graduates in Arts, Engineering and Science. There is a Post Office with PIN Code 841239; the local languages are Hindi as well. There are people of various castes like Brahmins, Gond, Ram, Rawat etc. along with only'one family' of Muslim religion in this village. Despite such a great diversity, there is ` brotherhood' among the residents. There are some temples of Hindu deities like Goddesses Maa Kali and Chanki, Lord Hanuman and Lord Shiva; the number of employed people of Bakulari village is more than 150 working in Govt.

Sectors like Indian Railways, Defence etc. Private sectors including their own businesses and working in Indian and Foreign companies as well; the major section of this village is dependent on agriculture for its livelihood. The agriculture includes farming like cultivation of paddy, millets, maize etc. and domestication of animals. The major sports played by the youth of this village are football; the name of the cricket team of this village is "Sadhu Baba Cricket Club, Bakulari". There are a lot of nearby villages like Sohagara, Bishunpura, Daraila, Khilwa, Tarawa Khurd, Kharwaniya etc.