Pope Eugene III
Pope Eugene III, born Bernardo Pignatelli, called Bernardo da Pisa, was Pope from 15 February 1145 to his death in 1153. He was the first Cistercian to become Pope. In response to the fall of Edessa to the Muslims in 1144, Eugene proclaimed the Second Crusade; the crusade failed to recapture Edessa, the first of many failures by the Christians in the crusades to recapture lands won in the First Crusade. He was beatified on 28 December 1872 by Pope Pius IX on the account of his sanctity. Bernardo was born in the vicinity of Pisa. Little is known about his origins and family except. From the 16th century he is identified as member of the family of Paganelli di Montemagno, which belonged to the Pisan aristocracy, but this has not been proven and contradicts earlier testimonies that suggest he was a man of rather humble origins. In 1106 he was a canon of the cathedral chapter from 1115 is attested as subdeacon. 1133–1138 he acted as vicedominus of the archdiocese of Pisa. Between May 1134 and February 1137 he was ordained to the priesthood by Pope Innocent II, who resided at that time in Pisa.
Under the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux he entered the Cistercian Order in the monastery of Clairvaux in 1138. A year he returned to Italy as leader of the Cistercian community in Scandriglia. In Autumn 1140, Pope Innocent II named him abbot of the monastery of S. Anastasio alle Tre Fontane outside Rome; some chronicles indicate that he was elevated to the College of Cardinals, but these testimonies resulted from a confusion because Bernardo is not attested as cardinal in any document and from the letter of Bernard of Clairvaux addressed to the cardinals shortly after his election appears that he was not a cardinal. Bernardo was elected pope on 15 February 1145, the same day as the death of his predecessor Lucius II who had unwisely decided to take the offensive against the Roman Senate and was killed by a "heavy stone" thrown at him during an attack on the Capitol, he took the pontifical name of "Eugene III". He was "a simple character and retiring - not at all, men thought, the material of which Popes are made".
He owed his elevation to the fact that no one was eager to accept an office the duties of which were at the time so difficult and dangerous and because the election was "held on safe Frangipani territory". His election was assisted by being a friend and pupil of Bernard of Clairvaux, the most influential ecclesiastic of the Western Church and a strong assertor of the pope's temporal authority; the choice did not have the approval of Bernard, who remonstrated against the election, writing to the entire Curia:"May God forgive you what you have done!... What reason or counsel, when the Supreme Pontiff was dead, made you rush upon a mere rustic, lay hands on him in his refuge, wrest from his hands the axe, pick or hoe, lift him to a throne?"Bernard was forthright in his views directly to Eugene, writing:"Thus does the finger of God raise up the poor out of the dust and lift up the beggar from the dunghill that he may sit with princes and inherit the throne of glory."Despite these criticisms, Eugene seems to have borne no resentment to Bernard and notwithstanding these criticisms, after the choice was made, Bernard took advantage of the qualities in Eugene III which he objected to, so as to rule in his name.
During nearly the whole of his pontificate, Eugene III was unable to reside in Rome. Hardly had he left the city to be consecrated in the monastery of Farfa, when the citizens, under the influence of Arnold of Brescia, the great opponent of the Pope's temporal power, established the old Roman constitution, the Commune of Rome and elected Giordano Pierleoni to be Patrician. Eugene III appealed for help to Tivoli, Italy, to other cities at feud with Rome, to King Roger II of Sicily, with their aid was successful in making such conditions with the Roman citizens as enabled him for a time to hold the semblance of authority in his capital, but as he would not agree to a treacherous compact against Tivoli, he was compelled to leave the city in March 1146. He stayed for some time at Viterbo, at Siena, but went to France. On hearing of the fall of Edessa to the Turks, which occurred in 1144, he had, in December 1145, addressed the bull Quantum praedecessores to Louis VII of France, calling on him to take part in another crusade.
At a great diet held at Speyer in 1146, King of the Romans Conrad III and many of his nobles were incited to dedicate themselves to the crusade by the eloquence of Bernard who preached to an enormous crowd at Vézelay. In the end, the Second Crusade was "an ignominious fiasco" and, after travelling for a year, the army abandoned their campaign after just five days of siege "having regained not one inch of Muslim territory." The crusaders suffered immense losses in both men and materiel and suffered, in the view of one modern historian, "the ultimate humiliation which neither they, nor their enemies, would forget". Eugene III held synods in northern Europe at Paris and Trier in 1147 that were devoted to the reform of clerical life, he considered and approved the works of Hildegard of Bingen. In June 1148, Eugene III took up his residence at Viterbo, he was unable to return to Rome due to the popularity of Arnold of Brescia, who opposed Papal temporal authority, in the city. He established himself at Prince Ptolemy's fortress in Tusculum, the closest town to Rome at which he could safely install himself, on 8 April 1149.
There he met the returning Crusader
Fountains Abbey is one of the largest and best preserved ruined Cistercian monasteries in England. It is located 3 miles south-west of Ripon in North Yorkshire, near to the village of Aldfield. Founded in 1132, the abbey operated for 407 years becoming one of the wealthiest monasteries in England until its dissolution in 1539 under the order of Henry VIII; the abbey is a Grade I listed building owned by the National Trust and part of the designated Studley Royal Park including the Ruins of Fountains Abbey UNESCO World Heritage Site. After a dispute and riot in 1132 at the Benedictine house of St Mary's Abbey, in York, 13 monks were expelled and, after unsuccessful attempts to form a new monastery were taken under the protection of Thurstan, Archbishop of York, he provided them with land in the valley of the River Skell, a tributary of the Ure. The enclosed valley had all the natural features needed for the creation of a monastery, providing shelter from the weather and timber for building, a supply of running water.
After enduring a harsh winter in 1133, the monks applied to join the Cistercian order which since the end of the previous century was a fast-growing reform movement that by the beginning of the 13th century was to have over 500 houses. So it was that in 1135, Fountains became the second Cistercian house in northern England, after Rievaulx; the Fountains monks became subject to Clairvaux Abbey, in Burgundy, under the rule of St Bernard. Under the guidance of Geoffrey of Ainai, a monk sent from Clairvaux, the group learned how to celebrate the seven Canonical Hours according to Cistercian usage and were shown how to construct wooden buildings in accordance with Cistercian practice. After Henry Murdac was elected abbot in 1143, the small stone church and timber claustral buildings were replaced. Within three years, an aisled nave had been added to the stone church, the first permanent claustral buildings built in stone and roofed in tile had been completed. In 1146 an angry mob, annoyed at Murdac for his role in opposing the election of William FitzHerbert as archbishop of York, attacked the abbey and burnt down all but the church and some surrounding buildings.
The community founded four daughter houses. Henry Murdac resigned as abbot in 1147 upon becoming the Archbishop of York and was replaced first by Maurice, Abbot of Rievaulx on the resignation of Maurice, by Thorald. Thorald was forced by Henry Murdac to resign after two years in office; the next abbot, held the post until his death in 1170 and restored the abbey's stability and prosperity. In 20 years as abbot, he supervised a huge building programme which involved completing repairs to the damaged church and building more accommodation for the increasing number of recruits. Only the chapter house was completed before he died and the work was ably continued by his successor, Robert of Pipewell, under whose rule the abbey gained a reputation for caring for the needy; the next abbot was William, who presided over the abbey from 1180 to 1190 and he was succeeded by Ralph Haget, who had entered Fountains at the age of 30 as a novice, after pursuing a military career. During the European famine of 1194 Haget ordered the construction of shelters in the vicinity of the abbey and provided daily food rations to the poor enhancing the abbey's reputation for caring for the poor and attracting more grants from wealthy benefactors.
In the first half of the 13th century Fountains increased in reputation and prosperity under the next three abbots, John of York, John of Hessle and John of Kent. They were burdened with an inordinate amount of administrative duties and increasing demands for money in taxation and levies but managed to complete another massive expansion of the abbey's buildings; this included building an infirmary. In the second half of the 13th century the abbey was in more straitened circumstances, it was presided over by eleven abbots, became financially unstable due to forward selling its wool crop, the abbey was criticised for its dire material and physical state when it was visited by Archbishop John le Romeyn in 1294. The run of disasters that befell the community continued into the early 14th century when northern England was invaded by the Scots and there were further demands for taxes; the culmination of these misfortunes was the Black Death of 1348–1349. The loss of manpower and income due to the ravages of the plague was ruinous.
A further complication arose as a result of the Papal Schism of 1378–1409. Fountains Abbey along with other English Cistercian houses was told to break off any contact with the mother house of Citeaux, which supported a rival pope; this resulted in the abbots forming their own chapter to rule the order in England and they became involved in internecine politics. In 1410, following the death of Abbot Burley of Fountains, the community was riven by several years of turmoil over the election of his successor. Contending candidates John Ripon, Abbot of Meaux, Roger Frank, a monk of Fountains were locked in conflict until 1415 when Ripon was appointed, ruling until his death in 1434. Under abbots John Greenwell, Thomas Swinton, John Darnton, who undertook some much needed restoration of the fabric of the abbey, including notable work on the church, Marmaduke Huby Fountains regained stability and prosperity. At Abbot Huby's death he was succeeded by William Thirsk, accused by the royal commissioners of immorality and inadequacy and was dismissed as abbot.
He was replaced by Marmaduke Bradley, a monk of the abbey who had reported Thirsk's supposed offences, testified against hi
John of Salisbury
John of Salisbury, who described himself as Johannes Parvus, was an English author, educationalist and bishop of Chartres, was born at Salisbury. He was of Anglo-Saxon, not of Norman extraction, therefore a clerk from a modest background, whose career depended upon his education. Beyond that, that he applied to himself the cognomen of Parvus, "short", or "small", few details are known regarding his early life. From his own statements it is gathered that he crossed to France about 1136, began regular studies in Paris under Peter Abelard, who had for a brief period re-opened his famous school there on Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, his vivid accounts of teachers and students provide some of the most valuable insights into the early days of the University of Paris. When Abelard withdrew from Paris John studied under Master Alberic and Robert of Melun. In 1137 John went to Chartres, where he studied grammar under William of Conches, rhetoric and the classics under Richard l'Evêque, a disciple of Bernard of Chartres.
Bernard's teaching was distinguished by its pronounced Platonic tendency, by the stress laid upon literary study of the greater Latin writers. The influence of the latter feature is noticeable in all John of Salisbury's works. Around 1140 John returned to Paris to study theology under Gilbert de la Porrée under Robert Pullus and Simon of Poissy, supporting himself as a tutor to young noblemen. In 1148 he resided at the Abbey of Moutiers-la-Celle in the diocese of Troyes, with his friend Peter of Celle, he was present at the Council of Reims in 1148, presided over by Pope Eugene III. It is conjectured that while there, he was introduced by St. Bernard of Clairvaux to Theobald, whose secretary he became. John of Salisbury was secretary to Archbishop Theobald for seven years. While at Canterbury he became acquainted with Thomas Becket, one of the significant potent influences in John's life. During this period he went on many missions to the Papal See; the following year John visited him. He was at the court of Rome at least twice afterward.
During this time he composed his greatest works, published certainly in 1159, the Policraticus, sive de nugis curialium et de vestigiis philosophorum and the Metalogicon, writings invaluable as storehouses of information regarding the matter and form of scholastic education, remarkable for their cultivated style and humanist tendency. The Policraticus sheds light on the decadence of the 12th-century court manners and the lax ethics of royalty; the idea of contemporaries standing on the shoulders of giants of Antiquity first appears in written form in the Metalogicon. After the death of Theobald in 1161, John continued as secretary to his successor, Thomas Becket, took an active part in the long disputes between that primate and his sovereign, Henry II, who looked upon John as a papal agent, his letters throw light on the constitutional struggle agitating England. In 1163, John fell into disfavor with the king for reasons that remain obscure, withdrew to France; the next six years he spent with his friend Peter of La Celle, now Abbot of St. Remigius at Reims.
Here he wrote "Historia Pontificalis". In 1170 he led the delegation charged with preparing for Becket's return to England, was in Canterbury at the time of Becket's assassination. In 1174 John became treasurer of Exeter cathedral. In 1176 he was made bishop of Chartres. In 1179 he took an active part in the Third Council of the Lateran, he died at or near Chartres on October 25, 1180. John's writings are excellent at clarifying the literary and scientific position of 12th century Western Europe. Though he was well versed in the new logic and dialectical rhetoric of the university, John's views imply a cultivated intelligence well versed in practical affairs, opposing to the extremes of both nominalism and realism a practical common sense, his doctrine is a kind of utilitarianism, with a strong leaning on the speculative side to the modified literary scepticism of Cicero, for whom he had unbounded admiration and on whose style he based his own. His view that the end of education was moral, rather than intellectual, became one of the prime educational doctrines of western civilization, but his influence is to be found, not in his immediate contemporaries but in the world-view of Renaissance humanism.
Of Greek writers he appears to have known nothing at first hand, little in translations. He was one of the best Latinists of his age; the Timaeus of Plato in the Latin version of Chalcidius was known to him as to his contemporaries and predecessors, he had access to translations of the Phaedo and Meno. Of Aristotle he possessed the whole of the Organon in Latin, he first coined the term theatrum mundi, a notion that influences the theater several centuries later. In several chapters of the third book of his Policraticus, he meditates on the fact that "the life of man on earth is a comedy, where each forgetting his own plays another's role". John was portrayed by actor Alex G. Hunter in the 1923 silent film Becket, based on a play by Alfred Lord Tennyson. Bollermann, Karen. "John of Salisbury". In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Durham is a historic city and the county town of County Durham in North East England. The city lies on the River Wear, to the west of Sunderland, south of Newcastle upon Tyne and to the north of Darlington. Founded over the final resting place of St Cuthbert, its Norman cathedral became a centre of pilgrimage in medieval England; the cathedral and adjacent 11th-century castle were designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986. The castle has been the home of Durham University since 1832. HM Prison Durham is located close to the city centre. City of Durham is the name of the civil parish; the name "Durham" comes from the Celtic element "dun", signifying a hill fort, the Old Norse "holme", which translates to island. The Lord Bishop of Durham takes a Latin variation of the city's name in his official signature, signed "N. Dunelm"; some attribute the city's name to the legend of the Dun Cow and the milkmaid who in legend guided the monks of Lindisfarne carrying the body of Saint Cuthbert to the site of the present city in 995 AD.
Dun Cow Lane is said to be one of the first streets in Durham, being directly to the east of Durham Cathedral and taking its name from a depiction of the city's founding etched in masonry on the south side of the cathedral. The city has been known by a number of names throughout history; the original Nordic Dun Holm was known in Latin as Dunelm. The modern form Durham came into use in the city's history; the north eastern historian Robert Surtees chronicled the name changes in his History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham but states that it is an "impossibility" to tell when the city's modern name came into being. Archeological evidence suggests a history of settlement in the area since 2000 BC; the present city can be traced back to AD 995, when a group of monks from Lindisfarne chose the strategic high peninsula as a place to settle with the body of Saint Cuthbert, that had lain in Chester-le-Street, founding a church there. Local legend states that the city was founded in A.
D. 995 by divine intervention. The 12th century chronicler Symeon of Durham recounts that after wandering in the north, Saint Cuthbert's bier miraculously came to a halt at the hill of Warden Law and, despite the effort of the congregation, would not move. Aldhun, Bishop of Chester-le-Street and leader of the order, decreed a holy fast of three days, accompanied by prayers to the saint. During the fast, Saint Cuthbert appeared to a certain monk named Eadmer, with instructions that the coffin should be taken to Dun Holm. After Eadmer's revelation, Aldhun found that he was able to move the bier, but did not know where Dun Holm was; the legend of the Dun Cow, first documented in The Rites of Durham, an anonymous account about the Durham Cathedral, published in 1593, builds on Symeon's account. According to this legend, by chance that day, the monks came across a milkmaid at Mount Joy, she stated. The monks, followed her, they settled at a wooded "hill-island" – a high wooded rock surrounded on three sides by the River Wear.
There they erected a shelter for the relics, on the spot where the Durham Cathedral would stand. Symeon states that a modest wooden building erected there shortly was the first building in the city. Bishop Aldhun subsequently had a stone church built, dedicated in September 998, it no longer remains. The legend is interpreted by a Victorian relief stone carving on the south face of the cathedral and, more by the bronze sculpture'Durham Cow', which reclines by the River Wear in view of the cathedral. During the medieval period the city gained spiritual prominence as the final resting place of Saint Cuthbert and Saint Bede the Venerable; the shrine of Saint Cuthbert, situated behind the High Altar of Durham Cathedral, was the most important religious site in England until the martyrdom of St Thomas Becket at Canterbury in 1170. Saint Cuthbert became famous for two reasons. Firstly, the miraculous healing powers he had displayed in life continued after his death, with many stories of those visiting the saint's shrine being cured of all manner of diseases.
This led to him being known as the "wonder worker of England". Secondly, after the first translation of his relics in 698 AD, his body was found to be incorruptible. Apart from a brief translation back to Holy Island during the Norman Invasion the saint's relics have remained enshrined to the present day. Saint Bede's bones are entombed in the cathedral, these drew medieval pilgrims to the city. Durham's geographical position has always given it an important place in the defence of England against the Scots; the city played an important part in the defence of the north, Durham Castle is the only Norman castle keep never to have suffered a breach. The Battle of Neville's Cross, which took place near the city on 17 October 1346 between the English and Scots, is the most famous battle of the age; the city suffered from plague outbreaks in 1544, 1589 and 1598. Owing to the divine providence evidenced in the city's legendary founding, the Bishop of Durham has always enjoyed the title "Bishop by Divine Providence" as opposed to other bishops, who are "Bishop by Divine Permission".
However, as the north-east of England lay so far from Westminster, the bishops of Durham enjoyed extraordinary powers such as the ability to hold their own parliament, raise their own armies, appoint their own sheriffs and Justices, administer their own laws, levy taxes and customs duties, create fairs and markets, issue charters, salvage shipwrecks
Bishop of Salisbury
The Bishop of Salisbury is the ordinary of the Church of England's Diocese of Salisbury in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers much of the counties of Dorset; the see is in the City of Salisbury where the bishop's seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary. The current bishop is Nick Holtam, the 78th Bishop of Salisbury, consecrated at St Paul's Cathedral on 22 July 2011 and enthroned in Salisbury Cathedral on 15 October 2011; the Diocese of Sherborne was the origin of the present diocese. Ramsbury's diocese was created from the northwestern territory of the bishop of Winchester in 909. In about 705 the vast diocese of Wessex at Winchester was divided in two with the creation of a new diocese of Sherborne under Bishop Aldhelm, covering Devon and Dorset. Cornwall was added to the diocese at the end of the ninth century, but in about 909 the diocese was divided in three with the creation of the bishoprics of Wells, covering Somerset, Crediton, covering Devon and Cornwall, leaving Sherborne with Dorset.
In 1058, the Sherborne chapter elected Herman, Bishop of Ramsbury to be Bishop of Sherborne. Following the Norman conquest, the 1075 Council of London united his two sees as a single diocese and translated them to the then-larger settlement around the royal castle at Old Sarum. Disputes between Bishops Herbert and Richard Poore and the sheriffs of Wiltshire led to the removal of the see in the 1220s to New Sarum; this was chartered as the city of New Sarum by King Henry III in 1227, but it wasn't until the 14th century that the office was described as the bishop of Sarum. The diocese, like the city it administers, is now known as Salisbury; the archdeaconry around Salisbury, retains the name of Sarum. Reforms within the Church of England led to the annexation of Dorset from the abolished diocese of Bristol in 1836. In 1925 and 1974, new suffragan bishops were appointed to assist the Bishop of Salisbury; until 2009 the bishops operated under an episcopal area scheme established in 1981, with each suffragan bishop having a formal geographical area of responsibility, being known as "area bishops".
The Bishop of Ramsbury had oversight of the diocese's parishes in Wiltshire, while the Bishop of Sherborne had oversight of the diocese's parishes in Dorset. This scheme was replaced to reflect the increased working across the whole diocese by all three bishops; the two suffragans may now function anywhere in the diocese, the Bishop of Salisbury may delegate any of his functions to them. The Bishop of Salisbury's residence is now the South Canonry, near the Cathedral. Official website
This page is about Thurstan of Bayeux who became Archbishop of York. Thurstan of Caen became the first Norman Abbot of Glastonbury in circa 1077. Thurstan or Turstin of Bayeux was a medieval Archbishop of the son of a priest, he served kings William II and Henry I of England before his election to the see of York in 1114. Once elected, his consecration was delayed for five years while he fought attempts by the Archbishop of Canterbury to assert primacy over York, he was consecrated by the pope instead and allowed to return to England. While archbishop, he secured two new suffragan bishops for his province; when Henry I died, Thurstan supported Henry's nephew Stephen of Blois as king. Thurstan defended the northern part of England from invasion by the Scots, taking a leading part in organising the English forces at the Battle of the Standard. Shortly before his death, Thurstan took the habit of a Cluniac monk. Thurstan was the son of a canon of St Paul's in London named Anger, Auger or Ansgar, who held the prebend of Cantlers.
Another son of Anger, was Bishop of Évreux. Thurstan's mother was named Popelina. Thurstan was born sometime about 1070 in the Bessin region of Normandy. Before 1104 the father was given the prebend of Cantlers by Maurice, Bishop of London, the family moved to England. Early in his career, Thurstan held the prebendary of Consumpta per mare in the diocese of London, served both William Rufus and Henry I as a royal clerk. At some point in Thurstan's early career, he visited Cluny, where he vowed to become a Cluniac monk in his life. Thurstan served Henry as almoner, it was Henry who obtained Thurstan's election as Archbishop of York in August 1114, he was ordained a deacon in December 1114 and ordained a priest on 6 June 1115 by Ranulf Flambard, Bishop of Durham. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Ralph d'Escures, refused to consecrate Thurstan unless the archbishop-elect made a profession of obedience to the southern see; this was part of the long-running Canterbury-York dispute, which started in 1070.
Thurstan refused to make such a profession, asked the king for permission to go to Rome to consult Pope Paschal II. Henry I refused to allow him to make the journey, but without a personal appeal from Thurstan, Paschal decided against Canterbury. At the Council of Salisbury in 1116 the English king ordered Thurstan to submit to Canterbury, but instead Thurstan publicly resigned the archibishopric. On his way to the Council, Thurstan had received letters from Paschal II that supported York and commanded that he should be consecrated without a profession. Similar letters had gone to Ralph d'Escures from the pope, ordering Ralph, as Archbishop of Canterbury, to consecrate Thurstan. After the news of the letters became public, Thurstan's resignation was ignored, he continued to be considered the archbishop-elect. Over the next three years, the new popes, Gelasius II and Calixtus II, championed Thurstan's case, on 19 October 1119 he was consecrated by Calixtus at Reims. Calixtus had earlier promised Henry that he would not consecrate Thurstan without the king's permission, which had still not been granted.
Enraged at this, the king refused to allow the newly consecrated archbishop to enter England, Thurstan remained for some time on the continent in the company of the pope. While he was travelling with the pope, he visited Adela of Blois, King Henry's sister, Thurstan's spiritual daughter. At about this same time, Calixtus issued two bulls in Thurstan's favor: one released York from Canterbury's supremacy forever, the other demanded the king allow Thurstan to return to York; the pope threatened an interdict on England as a punishment. At length, Thurstan's friends, including Adela, succeeded in reconciling him with Henry, he rejoined the king in Normandy. At Easter 1120, he escorted Adela to the monastery of Marcigny, where she retired from active secular affairs, he was recalled to England in early 1121. One of the main weaknesses of the see of York was its lack of suffragan bishops. Thurstan managed to secure the resurrection of the Diocese of Galloway, or Whithorn, in 1125, it is possible that he compromised with Fergus of Galloway, the lord or sub-king of Galloway, in what is now Scotland.
In this Thurstan secured another suffragan, Fergus gained a bishop in his lordship, where ecclesiastical matters in his subkingdom had been handled by Scottish bishops. The first bishop was the native Galwegian – Gilla Aldan; this provoked the wrath of Wimund, Bishop of the Isles, who had had jurisdiction over Galloway. The number of bishops subject to either archbishop was an important factor in the reputation of each. In 1133, who had received papal permission to found an new diocese, consecrated Æthelwold as the first bishop of the new see of Carlisle. Thurstan refused to accept that the new Archbishop of Canterbury, William de Corbeil, was his superior, did not help with William's consecration; the dispute between the two continued, both archbishops carried their complaints in person to Rome twice. In 1126, Pope Honorius II ruled in favour of York; the pope based his decision on the fact. Thurstan supported King Stephen after Henry I's death in 1135, appeared at Stephen's first court at Easter held at Westminster.
Thurstan negotiated a truce at Roxburgh in 1138 between Scotland. It was Thurstan who mustered the army which de
Henry the Young King
Henry the Young King was the eldest surviving son of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Beginning in 1170, he was titular King of Duke of Normandy, Count of Anjou and Maine. Henry the Young King was the only King of England since the Norman Conquest to be crowned during his father's reign, but spent his reign frustrated by his father's refusal to grant him meaningful autonomous power, he died aged 28, six years before his father. Little is known of the young Prince Henry before the events associated with his marriage and coronation, his mother's children by her first marriage to Louis VII of France were Marie of France, Countess of Champagne and Alix of France. He had one elder brother, William IX, Count of Poitiers, his younger siblings included Matilda. In June 1170, the fifteen-year-old Henry was crowned king during his father's lifetime, something practised by the French Capetian dynasty and adopted by the English kings Stephen and Henry II; the physical appearance of Henry at his coronation in 1170 is given in a contemporary court poem written in Latin, where the fifteen-year-old prince is described as being handsome, "tall but well proportioned, broad-shouldered with a long and elegant neck and freckled skin and wide blue eyes, a thick mop of the reddish-gold hair".
He was known in his own lifetime as "Henry the Young King" to distinguish him from his father. Because he was not a reigning king, he is not counted in the numerical succession of kings of England. According to one of Thomas Becket's correspondents, Henry was knighted by his father before the coronation, but the biographer of William Marshal asserts that the king was knighted by William in the course of the rebellion of 1173. Henry did not appear to have been interested in the day-to-day business of government, which distinguished him from his father and younger brothers, his father, however, is reputed to have failed to delegate authority to his son, retaining power in England. The majority opinion amongst historians is that of W. L. Warren: "The Young Henry was the only one of his family, popular in his own day....the only one who gave no evidence of political sagacity, military skill, or ordinary intelligence...", elaborated in a book, "He was gracious, affable, the soul of liberality and generosity.
He was shallow, careless, high-hoped, incompetent and irresponsible."The Young King's contemporary reputation, was positive. This was due to the enthusiastic tournament culture of his time. In the History of William Marshal, the biography of the knight assigned to him as a tutor in 1170 and his tournament team leader until 1182, he is described as a constant competitor at tournaments across northern and central France between 1175 and 1182. With his cousins, counts Philip I of Flanders and Baldwin V of Hainaut, he was a key patron of the sport, he is said to have spent over £200 a day on the great retinue of knights he brought to the tournament of Lagny-sur-Marne in November 1179. Though he lacked political weight, his patronage brought him celebrity status throughout western Europe; the baron and troubadour Bertran de Born knew him, stating: the best king who took up a shield, the most daring and best of all tourneyers. From the time when Roland was alive, before, never was seen a knight so skilled, so warlike, whose fame resounded so around the world – if Roland did come back, or if the world were searched as far as the River Nile and the setting sun.
There was a perception amongst his contemporaries, the next generation, that his death in 1183 marked a decline both in the tournament and knightly endeavour. His one-time chaplain, Gervase of Tilbury, said that "his death was the end of everything knightly"; the young Henry played an important part in the politics of his father's reign. On 2 November 1160, he was betrothed to Margaret of France, daughter of King Louis VII of France and his second wife, Constance of Castile, when he was 5 years of age and she was at least 2; the marriage was an attempt to settle the struggle between the counts of Anjou and the French kings over possession of the frontier district of the Norman Vexin, which Louis VII had acquired from Henry's grandfather, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, in around 1144. By the terms of the settlement, Margaret would bring the castles of the Norman Vexin to her new husband. However, the marriage was pushed through by Henry II when Young Henry and Margaret were small children so that he could seize the castles.
A bitter border war followed between the kings. They were formally married on 27 August 1172 at Winchester Cathedral, when Henry, aged seventeen, was crowned King of England a second time, this time together with Margaret, by Rotrou, the Archbishop of Rouen. Young Henry fell out with his father in 1173. Contemporary chroniclers allege that this was owing to the young man's frustration that his father had given him no realm to rule, his feeling starved of funds; the rebellion seems, however, to have drawn strength from much deeper discontent with his father's rule, a formidable party of Anglo-Norman, Angevin and Breton magnates joined him. The revolt of 1173–1174 came close to toppling the king. Young Henry sought a reconciliation after the capture of his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, the failure of the rebellion, his funds were much