Rogers Communications Inc. is a Canadian communications and media company. It operates in the field of wireless communications, cable television and Internet connectivity with significant additional telecommunications and mass media assets; the company is headquartered in Toronto. The company claims the heritage of the Rogers Vacuum Tube Company, founded in 1925 by Edward Rogers, which started the CFRB radio station in Toronto, acquired by outside interests; the present enterprise dates to 1959, when Rogers' son, Ted Rogers, founded Baton Aldred Rogers Broadcasting. That company acquired CHFI in 1960, launched CFTO in 1961; the chief competitor to the company is Bell Canada, which has a extensive portfolio of radio and television media assets, as well as wireless, television distribution, telephone services in Eastern and Central Canada. However, the company competes nationally with Telus for wireless services, indirectly with Shaw Communications for television service. In 1925, Rogers Sr. invented the world's first alternating current heater filament cathode for a radio tube, which enabled radios to be powered by ordinary transformer-coupled household electric current.
This became a key factor in popularizing radio reception. In 1931, Rogers Sr. was awarded an experimental television licence in Canada. He was working on radar when, on May 6, 1939 he died due to complications of a hemorrhage, he was 38 years old. He left a widow, a five-year-old son, Edward. While his business interests were sold, his son determined to carry on his father's business. In 1959, Edward S. Rogers Jr. and Joel Aldred received funding from John Bassett to found Baton Aldred Rogers Broadcasting. In 1960, it bought CHFI FM, in 1961, established CFTO, Toronto's first private television station in 1961. In 1964, it established an AM radio station. In 1967, it established Rogers Cable TV in partnership with BARB. In 1971, new CRTC regulations forced BARB to sell its 50% stake in Rogers Cable. In 1979, Rogers acquired Canadian Cablesystems, became listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange as a result. In 1980, Rogers acquired Premier Cablevision becoming the largest cable company in Canada. In 1986, Rogers Cable was renamed Rogers Communications, established operational control over Cantel, a wireless telephone company in which Rogers had a stake.
Rogers Communications Inc. unveiled its new Mobius strip logo on January 17, 2000 marking the departure of its original logo. In 2000, Rogers acquired Cable Atlantic from Newfoundland businessman Danny Williams In July 2001, Rogers Media acquired CTV Sportsnet, renamed Rogers Sportsnet that November; the FAN 590 sports radio station joined Rogers Media in August 2001 along with 14 Northern Ontario radio stations. In fall 2004, several strategic transactions were executed that increased Rogers exposure to the potential of the Canadian wireless market. Rogers acquired the 34% of Rogers Wireless owned by AT&T Wireless Services Inc for $1.77 billion. On December 2, 2008, Edward S. Rogers died of heart failure. In 2012, Rogers Cable filed a complaint in an Ontario court against penalties levied under a'Truth in Advertising' law, claiming that the amount of the penalties, the requirements imposed by the law, are in violation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms; the company has had to recognize the rising market trend of customers canceling or foregoing cable television service subscriptions in favour of cheaper alternate content delivery means such as streaming media services like Netflix, a demographic called "cord cutters" and "cord nevers."
In response, Rogers had acquired content with a speculated cost of $100 million to begin their own competing online streaming service, much like the American Hulu Plus, which launched November 4, 2014. Shomi subsequently shut down after only 2 years of operation on November 30, 2016. CEO Guy Laurence has spoken out about an upcoming change meant to jumpstart growth at the company. Laurence has not released any specific details, but says that the strategy will help allow the company's telecom and media units to work better together. In the summer of 2014, Rogers reported a 24% drop in profit compared to the previous year's second quarter. Rogers Communications is traded on the Toronto Stock Exchange and on the New York Stock Exchange under ticker "RCI". Following the death of Ted Rogers in 2008, control of Rogers Communications passed to the Rogers Control Trust, a trust for which a subsidiary of Scotiabank serves as trustee. Ted's son Edward Rogers III and daughter Melinda Rogers serve as Chair and Vice-Chair of the trust.
As of October 2018, members of the board of directors of Rogers Communications are: As of October 2018, senior corporate officers of Rogers Communications are: Rogers Communications Inc. Rogers Cable Rogers Wireless Rogers Communications Rogers Smart Home Monitoring Rogers Media Rogers Publishing Limited publishes more than 70 consumer magazines and trade and professional publications, digital properties and directories in Canada, including Maclean's, Canada's weekly newsmagazine; the publishing arm was once part of the Maclean-Hunter Publishing empire. Unlike Maclean-Hunter, Rogers does not have printing facilities and has contracted out services On
New Brunswick is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton. Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes. Being close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq and the Passamaquoddy peoples; the French settlers were displaced when the area became part of the British Empire.
In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia. The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada. After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England; the mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services 43%. Tourism accounts for about 9 % of the labour force indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.
Indigenous peoples have been in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, the Passamaquoddy. Although these tribes did not leave a written record, their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Petitcodiac and Shediac. New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, Basque and Norman fishermen may have visited the Bay of Fundy in the early 1500s; the first documented European visits were by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1604, a party including Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Now Saint John, this was the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick. French settlement extended up the river to the site of present-day Fredericton. Other settlements in the southeast extended from Beaubassin, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, up the Petitcodiac and Shepody Rivers.
By the early 1700s the area was part of the French colony of Acadia, in turn part of New France. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Maine. In the early 1700s, rivalry between Britain and France for control of territory led to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, under which Acadia was reduced to Île Saint-Jean and Île-Royale; the ownership of New Brunswick being disputed, with an informal border on the Isthmus of Chignecto. The British prevailed, leading to the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians. Present-day New Brunswick became part of the colony of Nova Scotia. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Acadians returning from exile discovered several thousand immigrants from New England, on their former lands; some settled along the Saint John River. Settlement was slow. Pennsylvanian immigrants founded Moncton in 1766, English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area. After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit.
The number reached 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten returning to America. The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly; the colony was named New Brunswick in honour of George III, King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, Prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany. In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city; the population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812. The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding, bolstered by The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 and demand from the American Civil War. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes, producing over 500 vessels; the first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861. In 1848, responsible home government was granted and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties organised along religious and ethnic lines.
The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed i
Brampton is a city in the Canadian province of Ontario. Situated in Southern Ontario, it is a suburban city in the Greater Toronto Area and the seat of Peel Region; the city has a population of 593,638 as of the Canada 2016 Census. Brampton is Canada's ninth-most populous municipality, the seventy-seventh largest city in North America and the third most populous city in the Greater Golden Horseshoe Region, behind Toronto and Mississauga. Brampton was incorporated as a village in 1853 with 50 residents, taking its name from the market town of Brampton, in Cumbria, England. In 1873, with 2,000 residents, Brampton was incorporated as a town; the city was once known as "The Flower Town of Canada", a title based on its large greenhouse industry. Today, Brampton's major economic sectors include advanced manufacturing, retail administration, logistics and communication technologies and beverage, life sciences, business services. Mass immigration has increased Brampton's population from 10,000 in the 1950s to over 600,000 today.
Prior to the 1800s, all real business in Chinguacousy Township took place at Martin Salisbury's tavern. One mile distant at the corner of Main and Queen streets, now the recognised centre of Brampton, William Buffy's tavern was the only significant building. At the time, the area was referred to as "Buffy's Corners". By 1834, John Elliott laid out the area in lots for sale, calling it "Brampton", soon adopted by others. In 1853, a small agricultural fair was set up by the newly initiated County Agricultural Society of the County of Peel, was held at the corner of Main and Queen streets. Grains, produce and dairy products were up for sale. Horses and cattle, along with other lesser livestock, were sold at market; this agricultural fair became the modern Brampton Fall Fair. In that same year Brampton was incorporated as a village. In 1866, the town became the county seat and the location of the Peel County Courthouse, built in 1865-66. Edward Dale, an immigrant from Dorking, established a flower nursery in Brampton shortly after his arrival in 1863.
Dale's Nursery became the town's largest and most prominent employer, developed a flower grading system, established a global export market for its products. The company chimney was a town landmark, until Brampton Town Council allowed it to be torn down in 1977. At its height, the company had 140 greenhouses, was the largest cut flower business in North America, producing 20 million blooms and introducing numerous rose and orchid varietals and species to the market, it spurred the development of other nurseries in the town. Forty-eight hothouse flower nurseries once did business in the town. In January 1867, Peel County separated from the County of York, a union which had existed since 1851. By 1869, had a population of 1800. A federal grant had enabled the village to found its first public library in 1887, which included 360 volumes from the Mechanic's Institute. In 1907, the library received a grant from the Carnegie Foundation, set up by United States steel magnate and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, to build a new, expanded library.
The Carnegie libraries were built on the basis of communities coming up with matching funds and guaranteeing maintenance. In 1902, Sir William J. Gage purchased a 3.25 acres part of the gardens and lawns of the Alder Lea estate, built on Main Street by Kenneth Chisolm in 1867 to 1870. Sir William donated 1.7 acres of the property to the town, with a specific condition that it be made into a park. Citizens donated the town used the funds to purchase extra land to ensure a larger park. A group of regional farmers in Brampton had trouble getting insurance from city-based companies. After several meetings in Clairville Hall, they decided to found the County of Peel Farmers Mutual Fire Insurance Company. In 1955, when the company moved to its third and current location, 103 Queen Street West, it took the new name of Peel Mutual Insurance Company, it reigns as the longest-running company in modern Brampton. Harmsworth Decorating Centre was established in 1890, as Harmsworth and Son, operated out of the family's house on Queen Street West.
The current location was purchased on September 1, 1904, after a fire destroyed their original store. Purchased for $1,400, the 24 Main Street South location is the longest-operating retail business in what is now Brampton. In 1974, the two townships of Chinguacousy and Toronto Gore were incorporated into Brampton; the small pine added to the centre of the shield on the Brampton city flag represents Chinguacousy, honouring the Chippewa chief Shinguacose, "The Small Pine." After this merger, outlying communities such as Bramalea, Heart Lake and Professor's Lake, Snelgrove and Mayfield, were developed. In 1963, the town established The Flower Festival of Brampton, based on the Rose Festival of Portland, Oregon in the United States, it began to market itself as the Flower Town of Canada. In a revival of this theme, on 24 June 2002, the City Council established the "Flower City Strategy", to promote a connection to its flower-growing heritage; the intention was to inspire design projects and community landscaping to beautify the city, adopt a sustainable environmental approach, to protect its natural and cultural heritage.
The Rose Theatre was named in keeping with this vision and is to
Famous Players was a Canadian-based film exhibitor and cable television service provider. Famous Players operated numerous movie theatre locations in Canada from British Columbia to Newfoundland and Labrador; the company was owned by Viacom Canada but was sold to Onex Corporation-owned Cineplex Galaxy LP in 2005. Famous Players Canadian Corporation dates back to the early days of Famous Players Film Company, founded in 1912, as its earliest predecessor, though that company did not have any operations in Canada until 1920, when it bought Nathan Nathanson's Paramount Theatre chain, which Nathanson had established four years earlier. Nathanson, along with being the 5th richest person in the world, became the first president of the resulting entity, Famous Players Canadian Corporation Limited. In 1923, Famous Players bought out rival Allen Theatres; the Famous Players Theatres chain was always linked with Paramount, was a wholly owned subsidiary of Paramount Communications at the time that firm was acquired by Viacom in 1994.
Some of the most high-profile and popular theatres in the Famous Players chain were the Imperial and the Uptown in Toronto. Began with 13 theatres located in Ontario and British Columbia, the company expanded its holdings to 100 by the end of 1926; until the 1950s, the company continued to build its operations in the movie theatre sector. In 1952, Famous Players began to invest in the new technology. First, the company purchased the rights to a coinbox system. A year it purchased its first broadcasting assets, CKCO-TV in Kitchener, Ontario and CFCM-TV in Québec City. At the end of the 1950s, the company acquired the first of many cable TV companies it would come to own, thus adding control over the distribution of its TV product; as the industry grew, starting in the mid-1960s, so did the assets of Famous Players in this segment. In 1971, the company sold off the majority of its shareholdings in its movie theatre and other non-TV-related entertainment holdings to Gulf + Western Canada and subsequently changed its name to Canadian Cablesystems Limited, reflecting the new focus of its operations.
Canadian Cablesystems was the owner and operator of Metro Cable, which served parts of Metro Toronto, as well as a minority shareholder in several other cable companies, until it was purchased by Rogers Cablesystems Ltd. in 1978. Most famously, Famous Players Theatres allowed the lease on a property containing the entrance of one of its flagship Toronto locations, the Imperial Six, to lapse in 1986. Cineplex took over the lease, denying Famous Players Theatres access to the portion of the property that they owned outright. Famous Players sold its property to Cineplex Odeon Cinemas, on the condition it never again be used to show filmed entertainment. Cineplex's live-theatre division renovated the theatre; the theatre was renamed the Canon in 2001 and again in 2011 as the Ed Mirvish Theatre, which it is known, in honour of the popular businessman and Mr. Drabinsky's main competitor in live theatre in Toronto. Famous Players expanded throughout the 1990s. Under chairman John Bailey, Famous Players re-built its infrastructure from 1997 to 2003 with new "megaplex" theatre brands featuring stadium seating, such as SilverCity and Coliseum, with food courts and video games.
Around that time, AMC Theatres entered the Canadian market, most of the traditional ties between the existing chains and the major studios began to unwind, putting all three chains in full-on competition in several major markets. The company once operated a number of drive-in theatres, but most have been closed and replaced with modern theatres; until 2004, it operated theatres in the Maritimes. In June 2005, Viacom announced it would sell Famous Players to Cineplex Galaxy, controlled by Onex Corporation for $500 million; this deal was completed on July 22, 2005. To satisfy antitrust concerns, on August 22, 2005 the group announced the sale of 27 locations in Ontario and western Canada to Empire Theatres. Prior to merging with Cineplex, Famous Players operated five theatre brands: Famous Players, SilverCity, Coliseum and Paramount. Of these, Cineplex only preserved the first two brands; the Coliseum and Colossus theatres sold to Cineplex were renamed to Cineplex Cinemas, though the unique features of the original brands were preserved.
Paramount theatres now use the Scotiabank Theatre brand since 2007. CKCO-TV - Kitchener, Ontario CFCM-TV - Quebec City, Quebec List of Cineplex Entertainment movie theatres Cineplex Galaxy buying Famous Players movie chain from Viacom for $500 million - CBC News Famous Players Theatres website List of FP theatres
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it comprises the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador to the northwest, with a combined area of 405,212 square kilometres. In 2018, the province's population was estimated at 525,073. About 92% of the province's population lives on the island of Newfoundland, of whom more than half live on the Avalon Peninsula; the province is Canada's most linguistically homogeneous, with 97.0% of residents reporting English as their mother tongue in the 2016 census. Newfoundland was home to unique varieties of French and Irish, as well as the extinct Beothuk language. In Labrador, the indigenous languages Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are spoken. Newfoundland and Labrador's capital and largest city, St. John's, is Canada's 20th-largest census metropolitan area and is home to 40 percent of the province's population. St. John's is the seat of government, home to the House of Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador and to the highest court in the jurisdiction, the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal.
A former colony and dominion of the United Kingdom, Newfoundland gave up its independence in 1933, following significant economic distress caused by the Great Depression and the aftermath of Newfoundland's participation in World War I. It became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as "Newfoundland". On December 6, 2001, an amendment was made to the Constitution of Canada to change the province's name to Newfoundland and Labrador; the name "New founde lande" was uttered by King Henry VII in reference to the land explored by the Cabots. In Portuguese it is Terra Nova, which means "new land", the French name for the Province's island region; the name "Terra Nova" is in wide use on the island. The influence of early Portuguese exploration is reflected in the name of Labrador, which derives from the surname of the Portuguese navigator João Fernandes Lavrador. Labrador's name in the Inuttitut language is Nunatsuak, meaning "the big land". Newfoundland's Inuttitut name is Ikkarumikluak meaning "place of many shoals".
Newfoundland and Labrador is the most easterly province in Canada, is at the north-eastern corner of North America. The Strait of Belle Isle separates the province into two geographical parts: Labrador, a large area of mainland Canada, Newfoundland, an island in the Atlantic Ocean; the province includes over 7,000 tiny islands. Newfoundland is triangular; each side is about 400 km long, its area is 108,860 km2. Newfoundland and its neighbouring small islands have an area of 111,390 km2. Newfoundland extends between latitudes 46°36′N and 51°38′N. Labrador is an irregular shape: the western part of its border with Quebec is the drainage divide of the Labrador Peninsula. Lands drained by rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are part of Labrador, the rest belongs to Quebec. Most of Labrador's southern boundary with Quebec follows the 52nd parallel of latitude. Labrador's extreme northern tip, at 60°22′N, shares a short border with Nunavut. Labrador's area is 294,330 km2. Together and Labrador make up 4.06% of Canada's area, with a total area of 405,720 km2.
Labrador is the easternmost part of the Canadian Shield, a vast area of ancient metamorphic rock comprising much of northeastern North America. Colliding tectonic plates have shaped much of the geology of Newfoundland. Gros Morne National Park has a reputation as an outstanding example of tectonics at work, as such has been designated a World Heritage Site; the Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland's west coast are the northeasternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains. The north-south extent of the province, prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate, while most of Newfoundland has a humid continental climate: cool summer subtype. Newfoundland and Labrador has a wide range of climates and weather, due to its geography; the island of Newfoundland spans 5 degrees of latitude, comparable to the Great Lakes.
The province has been divided into six climate types, but broadly Newfoundland has a cool summer subtype of a humid continental climate, influenced by the sea since no part of the island is more than 100 km from the ocean. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate. Monthly average temperatures and snowfall for four places are shown in the attached graphs. St. John's represents the east coast, Gander the interior of the island, Corner Brook the west coast of the island and Wabush the interior of Labrador. Climate data for 56 places in the province is available from Environment Canada; the data for the graphs is the average over thirty years. Error bars on the temperature graph indicate the range of daytime highs and night time lows. Snowfall is the total amount that fell during the month, not the amount accumulated on the ground; this distinction is important for St. John's, where a heavy snowfall can be followed by rain, so no snow remains on the ground.
4K resolution called 4K, refers to a horizontal display resolution of 4,000 pixels. Digital television and digital cinematography use several different 4K resolutions. In television and consumer media, 3840 × 2160 is the dominant 4K standard, whereas the movie projection industry uses 4096 × 2160; the 4K television market share increased as prices fell during 2014 and 2015. By 2020, more than half of U. S. households are expected to have 4K-capable TVs, a much faster adoption rate than that of Full HD. The term "4K" is generic and refers to any resolution with a horizontal pixel count of 4,000. Several different 4K resolutions have been standardized by various organizations. In 2005, Digital Cinema Initiatives, a prominent standards organization in the cinema industry, published the Digital Cinema System Specification; this specification establishes standardized 2K and 4K container formats for digital cinema production, with resolutions of 2048 × 1080 and 4096 × 2160 respectively. The resolution of the video content inside follows the SMPTE 428-1 standard, which establishes the following resolutions for a 4K distribution: 4096 × 2160 3996 × 2160 4096 × 1716 2K distributions can have a frame rate of either 24 or 48 FPS, while 4K distributions must have a frame rate of 24 FPS.
Some articles claim that the terms "2K" and "4K" were coined by DCI and refer to the 2K and 4K formats defined in the DCI standard. However, usage of these terms in the cinema industry predates the publication of the DCI standard, they are understood as casual terms for any resolution 2000 or 4000 pixels in width, rather than names for specific resolutions. In 2007, the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers published SMPTE ST 2036-1, which defines parameters for two UHDTV systems called UHDTV1 and UHDTV2; the standard defines the following characteristics for these systems: A resolution of 3840 × 2160 or 7680 × 4320 Square pixels, for an overall image aspect ratio of 16∶9 A framerate of 23.976, 24, 25, 29.97, 30, 50, 59.94, 60, 100, 119.88, or 120 Hz with progressive scan RGB, Y′CBCR 4:4:4, 4:2:2, or 4:2:0 pixel encoding 10 bpc or 12 bpc color depth Colorimetry characteristics as defined in the standard, including color primaries, quantization parameters, the electro-optical transfer function.
These are the same characteristics standardized in ITU-R BT.2020. UHDTV1 systems are permitted to use BT.709 color primaries up to 60 Hz. In 2012, the International Telecommunication Union, Radiocommunication Sector published Recommendation ITU-R BT.2020 known as the Ultra High Definition Television standard. This standard adopts the same image parameters defined in SMPTE ST 2036-1. Although the UHDTV standard does not define any official names for the formats it defines, ITU uses the terms "4K", "4K UHD", or "4K UHDTV" to refer to the 3840 × 2160 system in public announcements and press releases. In some of ITU's other standards documents, the terms "UHDTV1" and "UHDTV2" are used as shorthand. In October 2012, the Consumer Electronics Association announced their definition of the term Ultra High-Definition for use with marketing consumer display devices. CEA defines an Ultra HD product as a TV, monitor, or projector with the following characteristics: A resolution of 3840 × 2160 or larger An aspect ratio of 1.77∶1 or wider Support for color depth of 8 bpc or higher At least one HDMI input capable of supporting 3840 × 2160 at 24, 30, 60 Hz progressive scan, HDCP 2.2 Capable of processing images according to the color space defined in ITU-R BT.709 Capable of upscaling HD content The CEA definition does allow manufacturers to use other terms—such as 4K—alongside the Ultra HD logo.
Since the resolution in CEA's definition is only a minimum requirement, displays with higher resolutions such as 4096 × 2160 or 5120 × 2880 qualify as "Ultra HD" displays, provided they meet the other requirements. Some 4K resolutions, like 3840 × 2160, are casually referred to as 2160p; this name follows from the previous naming convention used by HDTV and SDTV formats, which refer to a format by the number of pixels/lines along the vertical axis rather than the horizontal pixel count. The term "2160p" could be applied to any format with a height of 2160 pixels, but it is most used in reference to the 4K UHDTV resolution of 3840 × 2160 due to its association with the well-known 720p and 1080p HDTV formats. Although 3840 × 2160 is both a 4K resolution and a 2160p resolution, these terms cannot always be used interchangeably since not all 4K resolutions are 2160 pixels tall, not all 2160p resolutions are ≈4000 pixels wide. However, some companies have begun using the term "4K" to describe devices with support for a 2160p resolution if it is not close to 4000 pixels wide.
For example, many "4K" dash cams only support a resolution of 2880 × 2160. Samsung released a 5120 × 2160 TV, but marketed it as a "4K" TV despite its 5K-class resolution. YouTube and the television industry have adopted 3840 × 2160 as their 4K standard; as of 2014, 4K content from major broadcasters remains limited. On April 11, 2013, Bulb TV created by Canadian serial entrepreneur Evan Kosiner became the first broadcaster to provide a 4K linear channel an
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, similar non-television services may be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation. A "cable channel" is a television network available via cable television; when available through satellite television, including direct broadcast satellite providers such as DirecTV, Dish Network and Sky, as well as via IPTV providers such as Verizon FIOS and AT&T U-verse is referred to as a "satellite channel". Alternative terms include "non-broadcast channel" or "programming service", the latter being used in legal contexts.
Examples of cable/satellite channels/cable networks available in many countries are HBO, Cinemax, MTV, Cartoon Network, AXN, E!, FX, Discovery Channel, Canal+, Fox Sports, Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, CNN International, ESPN. The abbreviation CATV is used for cable television, it stood for Community Access Television or Community Antenna Television, from cable television's origins in 1948. In areas where over-the-air TV reception was limited by distance from transmitters or mountainous terrain, large "community antennas" were constructed, cable was run from them to individual homes; the origins of cable broadcasting for radio are older as radio programming was distributed by cable in some European cities as far back as 1924. To receive cable television at a given location, cable distribution lines must be available on the local utility poles or underground utility lines. Coaxial cable brings the signal to the customer's building through a service drop, an overhead or underground cable. If the subscriber's building does not have a cable service drop, the cable company will install one.
The standard cable used in the U. S. is RG-6, which has a 75 ohm impedance, connects with a type F connector. The cable company's portion of the wiring ends at a distribution box on the building exterior, built-in cable wiring in the walls distributes the signal to jacks in different rooms to which televisions are connected. Multiple cables to different rooms are split off the incoming cable with a small device called a splitter. There are two standards for cable television. All cable companies in the United States have switched to or are in the course of switching to digital cable television since it was first introduced in the late 1990s. Most cable companies require a set-top box or a slot on one's TV set for conditional access module cards to view their cable channels on newer televisions with digital cable QAM tuners, because most digital cable channels are now encrypted, or "scrambled", to reduce cable service theft. A cable from the jack in the wall is attached to the input of the box, an output cable from the box is attached to the television the RF-IN or composite input on older TVs.
Since the set-top box only decodes the single channel, being watched, each television in the house requires a separate box. Some unencrypted channels traditional over-the-air broadcast networks, can be displayed without a receiver box; the cable company will provide set top boxes based on the level of service a customer purchases, from basic set top boxes with a standard definition picture connected through the standard coaxial connection on the TV, to high-definition wireless DVR receivers connected via HDMI or component. Older analog television sets are "cable ready" and can receive the old analog cable without a set-top box. To receive digital cable channels on an analog television set unencrypted ones, requires a different type of box, a digital television adapter supplied by the cable company. A new distribution method that takes advantage of the low cost high quality DVB distribution to residential areas, uses TV gateways to convert the DVB-C, DVB-C2 stream to IP for distribution of TV over IP network in the home.
In the most common system, multiple television channels are distributed to subscriber residences through a coaxial cable, which comes from a trunkline supported on utility poles originating at the cable company's local distribution facility, called the "headend". Many channels can be transmitted through one coaxial cable by a technique called frequency division multiplexing. At the headend, each television channel is translated to a different frequency. By giving each channel a different frequency "slot" on the cable, the separate television signals do not interfere with each other. At an outdoor cable box on the subscriber's residence the company's service drop cable is connected to cables distributing the signal to different rooms in the building. At each television, the subscriber's television or a set-top box provided by the cable company translates the desired channel back to its original frequency, it is displayed onscreen. Due to widespread cable theft in earlier analog systems, the signals are encrypted on m