Washington County, Oklahoma
Washington County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 50,976, its county seat is Bartlesville. Named for President George Washington, it is the second smallest county in Oklahoma in total area, adjacent to the largest county in Oklahoma, Osage County. Washington County comprises the Bartlesville, OK Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Tulsa-Muskogee-Bartlesville, OK Combined Statistical Area, it is located along the border with Kansas. The Osage ceded their land claims in 1825, the Federal Government allowed the Western Cherokee to settle in this area in 1828; the 1835 Treaty of New Echota confirmed Cherokee ownership of the land. The area now covered by Washington County was part of the Cherokee Saline District between 1840 and 1856 and the Cooweescoowee District from 1856 to 1906; the first post office was established in 1859 at the confluence of Butler Creek and the Caney River by James L. Butler. Known as Little Verdigris, the settlement had a trading post and a school.
The Civil War caused most of the inhabitants to move away and the post office closed in 1866. In 1867, the Cherokees sold 157,600 acres to the Eastern Delaware In 1870, Nelson Carr built a grist mill along the Caney River, which he used to grind seed corn. In 1875, he sold the mill to Jacob Bartles. Other important agricultural crops included potatoes and oats, as well as prairie hay and pecans. Cotton production was attempted in the early 1900s, but the soil proved unsuitable and this crop was soon discontinued; the first commercial oil well in Oklahoma, designated as Nellie Johnstone Number One, was drilled near Bartlesville in 1897. According to the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, the industry developed because of communal land ownership by the Cherokees, the lack of crude oil markets, lack of reliable transportation. Bartlesville became an oil boom town only after 1900, when the nearby Osage County oil fields were developed and railroads were built into the area. In 1900, Phoenix Oil Company built a pipeline from Osage County to Bartlesville's Atchison and Santa Fe Railway depot, where there was an oil loading facility.
Oil was shipped from there to a refinery in Kansas in the same year. Washington County fields were developed soon after; the Bartlesville Field reached peak development during 1904 to 1906. Several oil companies set up headquarters in the county, most notably Phillips Petroleum in Bartlesville. Railroads came to this area at the turn of the 20th Century; the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway opened a line from Owen to Owasso, Oklahoma in 1899. The Missouri and Texas Railroad opened a line from Stevens, Kansas to Dewey, Oklahoma in 1901-2 and another line from Hominy, Oklahoma to Bartlesville in 1903–04. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 424 square miles, of which 415 square miles is land and 8.8 square miles is water. It is the second-smallest county in smallest by total area, it lies in the Eastern Lowlands physiographic region, is drained by the Caney River. Lakes and reservoirs include Silver Lake and Bar-Dew Lake. Montgomery County, Kansas Nowata County Rogers County Tulsa County Osage County Chautauqua County, Kansas As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 50,976 people, 21,036 households, 14,123 families residing in the county.
The population density was 45/km². There were 23,451 housing units at an average density of 55.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.9% white, 2.4% black or African American, 10.3% Native American, 1.1% Asian, less than 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.7% from other races, 6.1% from two or more races. Five percent of the population were Latino of any race. There were 21,036 households, out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.1% were married couples living together, 11% had a female householder with no husband present, 4% had a male householder with no husband present, 32.9% were non-families. Individuals living alone accounted for 28.7% of households and individuals who were 65 years of age or older living alone accounted for 12.9%. The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 22.8% from 25 to 44, 27.9% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,816, the median income for a family was $43,514. Males had a median income of $34,201 versus $22,389 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,250. About 8.70% of families and 11.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.70% of those under age 18 and 7.80% of those age 65 or over. Bartlesville Copan Dewey Ochelata Ramona Vera The following sites in Washington County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places Bartlesville Downtown Historic District, Bartlesville Bartlesville Civic Center, Bartlesville Dewey Hotel, Dewey LaQuinta, Bartlesville Nellie Johnstone No. 1, Bartlesville Old Washington County Courthouse, Bartlesville Frank and Jane Phillips House, Bartlesville Price Tower, Bartlesville Washington County's website Washington County History Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Coll
Ed Galloway's Totem Pole Park
Ed Galloway's Totem Pole Park consists of eleven objects and one building on 14 acres in Rogers County, in northeastern Oklahoma. The park is ten miles north-east of Claremore and is located 3.5 miles east of historic U. S. Route 66 and Foyil, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places on March 30, 1999. It is operated by the Rogers County Historical Society and the Foyil Heritage Association; the park's main totem pole is claimed to be the "World’s Largest Concrete Totem Pole." The park was constructed by Ed Galloway, a retired manual arts teacher who had taught for more than 20 years at the Children's Home orphanage in Sand Springs, Oklahoma. Upon his retirement, Galloway moved to a small farm near Foyil, his property is located ten miles north-east of Claremore and is located 3.5 miles east of historic U. S. Route 66 He soon began work there on a totem pole, which he built using modern building materials, including six tons of steel, 28 tons of cement, 100 tons of sand and rock.
In 1948, Galloway completed the totem pole, which had a completed height of 90 ft. At its base, the totem pole is 30 ft wide, it rests on the back of a turtle, referring to a Native American creation story about the world; the entire totem pole is decorated with 200 bas relief images, which include brightly colored Native American portraits and animal figures. The park features Galloway's eleven-sided "Fiddle House", supported inside and out by 25 concrete totem poles, it housed his hand-carved fiddles, handmade furniture, bas relief portraits of all of the US Presidents up to John F. Kennedy. Many of the items in the Fiddle House were never recovered; the park contains four smaller concrete totems, two ornate concrete picnic tables with animal-form seats, a barbecue, four sets of animal-form gateposts. Galloway worked on the park every day up to his death in 1962 of cancer; some say that he hoped to use his work to educate young people about Native Americans, but others say that he thought the park would be a good place for youngsters, Boy Scouts in particular, to visit.
In the decades following Galloway's death, the sculptures began to deteriorate from weather and neglect. In the 1990s, the Kansas Grassroots Art Association led an extensive restoration effort; the outdoor sculptures were restored and repainted, the Fiddle House was brought back from the brink of collapse. It was adapted as the Fiddle House Gift Shop; the park and its structures are owned and operated by the Rogers County Historical Society and the Foyil Heritage Association. Ed Galloway's Totem Pole Park - Rogers County Historical Society Ed Galloway's Totem Pole Park - Ed Galloway's Totem Pole Park Totem Pole Park info and video on TravelOK.com - Official travel and tourism website for the State of Oklahoma Roadside American Report on Ed Galloway's Totem Pole Park
Craig County, Oklahoma
Craig County is a county in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 15,029, its county seat is Vinita. The county was organized in 1907, shortly before statehood, named for Granville Craig, a prominent Cherokee farmer who lived in the Bluejacket area. In the early 1800s, this area was part of the hunting grounds of the Osage nation and other Plains tribes, some of whom had migrated west from other areas. Members of the Cherokee Nation began moving into the area during the 1830s after Indian Removal by the US government, which forced them on the "Trail of Tears" to west of the Mississippi River, when they were given land by the United States in exchange for their territory in the Southeast; the area was sparsely populated until after the Civil War. The Texas Road and the East Shawnee Cattle Trail, used for cattle drives from Texas, ran through the eastern part of the present-day Craig County. Between 1867 and 1870, the U. S. government moved the Shawnee and Delaware tribes into this area from Kansas, another section of Indian Territory.
The area was assigned as part of the Delaware and Cooweescoowee districts of the Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory, after the US government had made new treaties with the tribes that had allied with the Confederacy during the Civil War. In 1871, the federal government took Cherokee land for the Missouri and Texas Railroad to construct a north-south railroad through this area, while the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad was allowed to build an east-west line that ran through Vinita in the same year; this line was extended through Tulsa, Oklahoma in 1881-2. Coal mining began in this area after the Civil War. Mine companies used both tunnel and strip mines, but they did not begin major production until about 1900. Production has continued into the 21st century. Other resource exploitation was based on oil, the first oil refinery began operations by 1911. Otherwise and ranching were the mainstays of the county economy; the county was organized at the Oklahoma Statehood Convention. It was named for Granville Craig, a prominent Cherokee farmer of mixed race who had property near Bluejacket.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 763 square miles, of which 761 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles is water. The county lies in the Osage Plains, on the western edge of the Ozark Plateau, drains into several tributaries of the Neosho River. Labette County, Kansas Cherokee County, Kansas Ottawa County Delaware County Mayes County Rogers County Nowata County As of the census of 2006, there were 14,880 people, 5,620 households, 3,945 families residing in the county; the population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 6,459 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.54% White, 16.31% Native American, 3.09% Black or African American, 0.18% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 11.37% from two or more races. 1.20% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 5,620 households out of which 30.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.30% were married couples living together, 9.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.80% were non-families.
27.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.90% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 27.90% from 25 to 44, 24.30% from 45 to 64, 16.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 101.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,997, the median income for a family was $36,499. Males had a median income of $26,704 versus $20,082 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,539. About 10.90% of families and 13.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.30% of those under age 18 and 11.90% of those age 65 or over. Vinita Big Cabin Bluejacket Ketchum Welch Centralia White Oak The following sites in Craig County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places: Craig County Courthouse, Vinita First Methodist Episcopal Church, Vinita Hotel Vinita, Vinita McDougal Filling Station, Vinita Randall Tire Company, Vinita Spraker Service Station, Vinita "Craig County," Vertical File, Research Division, Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City.
The Heritage of Craig County and Cooweescoowee and Delaware Districts, Indian Territory, Vol. 3. The Story of Craig County: Its People and Places, 2 vols.. Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture - Craig County Oklahoma Digital Maps: Digital Collections of Oklahoma and Indian Territory
Oklahoma Historical Society
The Oklahoma Historical Society is an agency of the government of Oklahoma dedicated to promotion and preservation of Oklahoma's history and its people by collecting and disseminating knowledge and artifacts of Oklahoma. The mission of the OHS is to collect and share the history and culture of the state of Oklahoma and its people; the Society has the rare distinction of being both a Smithsonian Institution and National Archives and Records Administration affiliate. The OHS was formed in May 1893, 14 years before Oklahoma became a state, by the Oklahoma Territorial Press Association; the initial function of the OHS was to collect and distribute newspapers published in Oklahoma Territory. The society was declared an agency of the territorial government in 1895, it became an official state government agency when Oklahoma reached statehood in 1907; the OHS is both an Oklahoma government agency. The OHS Board of Directors is made up of 25 members, 12 of whom are appointed by the governor and 13 elected by OHS members to three-year terms.
The OHS today works statewide and nationally to preserve and nurture Oklahoma's history. The Oklahoma State Historic Preservation Office operated by the society, carries out federal preservation programs in Oklahoma under the National Historic Preservation Act, to preserve Oklahoma's significant buildings, parks and sites. Projects are carried out in partnership with the Department of the Interior and the National Park Service, as well as other state and local governments and interested people; the society posts markers at historical sites. The OHS has published The Chronicles of Oklahoma, the society's scholarly journal, since 1921 and continues to issue four editions per year; the society's monthly newsletter, Mistletoe Leaves, includes information about OHS activities and historical happenings throughout Oklahoma. Both publications and other historical works are available per issue; the OHS has published numerous other titles including The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma Culture and History. The Chronicles of Oklahoma through 1962 are available online through the Oklahoma State University Library Electronic Publishing Center.
The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma Culture and History is available on the society's website. The OHS Research Division houses more than 9 million photographs, more than 1 million pages of historical documents and manuscripts, 3,000 oral histories, historic film and video collections, more than 4,400 titles of newspapers on available microfilm. Many of the Oklahoma Historical Society's documents and materials are available online at little or no charge, including indexes to the Dawes Rolls, Oklahoma military deaths, the 1890 Oklahoma Territorial Census, Territorial Incorporation Records, Hastain's Township Plats of the Creek Nation, Oklahoma County marriage records 1889-1951, Daily Oklahoman obituaries, Smith’s First Directory of Oklahoma Territory; the online archives catalog contains some of the photographs in the OHS Research Division Collection. Historic newspapers are available free of charge on the Society's Gateway to Oklahoma History; the society operates the state's museum located in Oklahoma City.
The Oklahoma History Center occupies 215,000 ft² and contains more than 2,000 artifacts and exhibits featuring hands-on audio and activities. A museum store is available online or at the Oklahoma History Center, annual membership can be purchased for individuals and institutions. From 1919 to 1942, Czarina Conlan was in charge of collecting artifacts and documents for the museum from the various Native American tribes throughout the state; the History Center houses the OHS Research Division, which includes a large Research Center, free and open to the public. In May 2009 the OHS announced plans to build a second museum, to be called the Oklahoma Museum of Popular Culture, or OKPOP, located in Tulsa's Brady District, it is planned as the state museum of popular culture, including music, television and the performing arts. After lengthy delays, funding for the museum was obtained through a $25 million bond issue approved in 2015. In late 2016, the society announced that OKPOP will be located on North Main Street, across the street from Cain's Ballroom.
The Oklahoma Historical Society administers a number of state-owned properties either in their entirety or with interpretive centers.: Museums Cherokee Strip Museum Cherokee Strip Regional Heritage Center Museum of the Western Prairie Oklahoma Territorial Museum Route 66 Museum Pioneer Woman Museum Spiro Mounds Historic Homes Pawnee Bill Ranch Fred Drummond Home George M. Murrell Home Sod House Military Sites Cabin Creek Battlefield Fort Gibson Fort Supply Fort Towson Honey Springs Battlefield The Oklahoma Historical Society is under the supervision of the Secretary of Commerce and Tourism. Under Governor of Oklahoma Mary Fallin, Larry Parman is serving as the Secretary; the Society is governed by a 25-member Board of Directors. Thirteen of those members are elected by the members of the Society and twelve are appointed by the Governor of Oklahoma, with the approval of the Oklahoma Senate. All member serve three-year terms; the Governor serves as an ex officio member of the Board. The Board is responsible for appointing an Executive Director of the Society, who serves concurrently as the State Historic Preservation Officer.
The current Executive Director is Dr. Bob L. Blackburn, Ph. D. Oklahoma Historical Society official site The Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture OHS Gateway to Oklahoma History Oklahoma History Center official site OKPOP official site
Tulsa is the second-largest city in the state of Oklahoma and 45th-most populous city in the United States. As of July 2016, the population was 413,505, an increase of 12,591 over that reported in the 2010 Census, it is the principal municipality of the Tulsa Metropolitan Area, a region with 991,005 residents in the MSA and 1,251,172 in the CSA. The city serves as the county seat of Tulsa County, the most densely populated county in Oklahoma, with urban development extending into Osage and Wagoner counties. Tulsa was settled between 1836 by the Lochapoka Band of Creek Native American tribe. For most of the 20th century, the city held the nickname "Oil Capital of the World" and played a major role as one of the most important hubs for the American oil industry. A robust energy sector fueled Tulsa's economy. Two institutions of higher education within the city have sports teams at the NCAA Division I level, Oral Roberts University and the University of Tulsa, it is situated on the Arkansas River between the Osage Hills and the foothills of the Ozark Mountains in northeast Oklahoma, a region of the state known as "Green Country".
Considered the cultural and arts center of Oklahoma, Tulsa houses two art museums, full-time professional opera and ballet companies, one of the nation's largest concentrations of art deco architecture. The city has been called one of America's most livable large cities by Partners for Livable Communities and Relocate America. FDi Magazine in 2009 ranked the city no. 8 in the U. S. for cities of the future. In 2012, Tulsa was ranked among the top 50 best cities in the United States by BusinessWeek. People from Tulsa are called "Tulsans"; the area where Tulsa now exists was considered Indian Territory when it was first formally settled by the Lochapoka and Creek tribes in 1836. They established a small settlement under the Creek Council Oak Tree at the present day intersection of Cheyenne Avenue and 18th Street; this area and this tree reminded Chief Tukabahchi and his small group of the Trail of Tears survivors of the bend in the river and their previous Creek Council Oak Tree back in the Talisi, Alabama area.
They named their new settlement Tallasi, meaning "old town" in the Creek language, which became "Tulsa". The area around Tulsa was settled by members of the other so-called "Five Civilized Tribes", relocated to Oklahoma from the Southern United States. Most of modern Tulsa is located in the Creek Nation, with parts located in the Cherokee and Osage Nations. Although Oklahoma was not yet a state during the Civil War, the Tulsa area saw its share of fighting; the Battle of Chusto-Talasah took place on the north side of Tulsa and a number of battles and skirmishes took place in nearby counties. After the War, the tribes signed Reconstruction treaties with the federal government that in some cases required substantial land concessions. In the years after the Civil War and around the turn of the century, the area along the Arkansas River, now Tulsa was periodically home to or visited by a series of colorful outlaws, including the legendary Wild Bunch, the Dalton Gang, Little Britches. On January 18, 1898, Tulsa was incorporated and elected its first mayor, Edward Calkins.
Tulsa was still a small town near the banks of the Arkansas River in 1901 when its first oil well, named Sue Bland No. 1, was established. Much of the oil was discovered on land whose mineral rights were owned by members of the Osage Nation under a system of headrights. By 1905, the discovery of the large Glenn Pool prompted a rush of entrepreneurs to the area's growing number of oil fields. Unlike the early settlers of Northeastern Oklahoma, who most migrated from the South and Texas, many of these new oil-driven settlers came to Tulsa from the commercial centers of the East Coast and lower Midwest; this migration distinguished the city's demographics from neighboring communities and is reflected in the designs of early Tulsa's upscale neighborhoods. Known as the "Oil Capital of the World" for most of the 20th century, the city's success in the energy industry prompted construction booms in the popular Art Deco style of the time. Profits from the oil industry continued through the Great Depression, helping the city's economy fare better than most in the United States during the 1930s.
In the early 20th century, Tulsa was home to the "Black Wall Street", one of the most prosperous black communities in the United States at the time. Located in the Greenwood neighborhood, it was the site of the Tulsa Race Riot, one of the nation's worst acts of racial violence and civil disorder, with whites attacking blacks. Sixteen hours of rioting on May 31 and June 1, 1921, was ended only when National Guardsmen were brought in by the Governor. An official report claimed that 23 black and 16 white citizens were killed, but other estimates suggest as many as 300 people died, most of them black. Over 800 people were admitted to local hospitals with injuries, an estimated 10,000 black people were left homeless as 35 city blocks, composed of 1,256 residences, were destroyed by fire. Property damage was estimated at $1.8 million. Efforts to obtain reparations for survivors of the violence have been unsuccessful, but the events were re-examined by the city and state in the early 21st century, acknowledging the terrible actions that had taken place.
In 1925, Tulsa businessman Cyrus Avery, known as the "Father of Route 66," began his
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c