Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nations 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations. Managing approximately 25% of federal lands, it is the major national land agency that is outside the U. S. Department of the Interior. The concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, in 1876, Congress created the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Hough was appointed the head of the office, in 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry. The Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the domain as forest reserves. In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry, gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.
As of 2009, the Forest Service has a budget authority of $5.5 billion. The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters,737 law enforcement personnel, and 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is To sustain the health and its motto is Caring for the land and serving people. As the lead agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nations forest, rangeland. The agencys ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current, the everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, and providing recreation.5 billion trees per year. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007, the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry.
Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions, the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee who oversees the entire agency. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, there are five deputy chiefs for the following areas, National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, and Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five stations, the Forest Products Laboratory. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief, Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, and Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States, there are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908, many sites are more than 50 years old
Grants Pass, Oregon
Grants Pass is a city in, and the county seat of, Josephine County, United States. The city is located on Interstate 5, northwest of Medford, attractions include the Rogue River, famous for its rafting, and the nearby Oregon Caves National Monument located 30 miles south of the city. Grants Pass is 256 miles south of Portland, the largest city in Oregon, the population was 34,533 at the 2010 census. Early Hudsons Bay Company hunters and trappers, following the Siskiyou Trail, in the late 1840s, settlers following the Applegate Trail began traveling through the area on their way to the Willamette Valley. The city states that the name was selected to honor General Ulysses S. Grants success at Vicksburg, Grants Pass post office was established on March 22,1865. The city of Grants Pass was incorporated in 1887, the Oregon-Utah Sugar Company was created, leading to a sugar beet factory being built in Grants Pass in 1916. Before the factory opened, Oregon-Utah Sugar was merged into the Utah-Idaho Sugar Company, due to labor shortages and low acreage planted in sugar beets, the processing machinery was moved to Toppenish, Washington in 1918 or 1919.
Grants Pass is located in the Rogue Valley, the Rogue River runs through the city, U. S. Route 199 passes through the city, and joins Interstate 5. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 11.03 square miles. True to its motto, “It’s the climate. ”, Grants Pass has a Zone 7 climate, according to the Köppen climate classification system, Grants Pass has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate. Summer days are sunny and hot but it cools down dramatically at night, the average August high temperature is 88.8 °F or 31.6 °C but the low is only 53.7 °F or 12.1 °C. Winters are cool and fairly rainy with occasional snow, the average January high temperature is 46.6 °F or 8.1 °C. Grants Pass receives roughly 31 inches or 790 millimetres precipitation per year, the record high temperature of 114 °F or 45.6 °C was on July 23,1928. The record low temperature of −1 °F was on December 9,1972 until 1990 when it reached −3 °F, measurable precipitation falls on an average of 110 days annually.
The wettest “rain year” was from July 1955 to June 1956 with 50.69 inches of precipitation, there is an average of only 4.6 inches or 0.12 metres of snow annually. The most snowfall in one month was 34.1 inches in February 1917, as of the census of 2010, there were 34,533 people,14,313 households, and 8,700 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,176.9 inhabitants per square mile, there were 15,561 housing units at an average density of 1,431.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 90. 9% White,0. 5% African American,1. 2% Native American,1. 1% Asian,0. 3% Pacific Islander,2. 3% from other races, and 3. 7% from two or more races
Jackson County, Oregon
Jackson County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 203,206, the county is named for Andrew Jackson, the seventh president of the United States. Jackson County comprises the Medford, OR Metropolitan Statistical Area, there are 11 incorporated cities and 34 unincorporated communities in Jackson County, the largest is Medford, which has been the county seat since 1927. Modoc, Takelma and Umpqua Indian tribes are all native to the region of present Jackson County, in the early 1850s, both the Klickitats from the north and the Deschutes from the south raided and settled the area. The Territorial Legislature created Jackson County on January 12,1852, from the portion of Lane County. It included lands now lie in Coos, Josephine, Klamath. Jacksonville was designated as the first county seat in 1853, Jacksonville declined due to diminishing returns in the local goldfields and the construction in the 1880s of the Oregon and California Railroad. This railroad bypassed Jacksonville and instead went through Medford, located five miles east of Jacksonville, medfords prospects improved because of the location of the railroad and the accompanying commerce and development as Jacksonville continued its steady decline.
Jacksonville fended off suggestions to move the county seat until 1927 when Medford was finally selected as the county seat and this requires homeowners to maintain a 30 or greater firebreak around their structures, and affects 12,000 homeowners. In 2007 this plan becomes mandatory for many landowners, under threat of liability if their property is involved in a fire. On May 15,2007, residents voted not to reopen the countys 15 libraries and this was the largest library closure in the history of the United States. The libraries were reopened, with reduced hours, on October 24,2007. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 2,802 square miles. A portion of the Umpqua National Forest is in Jackson County, located entirely within Jackson County is Bear Creek and its watershed, a tributary of the Rogue River. The population centers of Medford, Phoenix, Talent and it connects with the Rogue River near the Upper and Lower Table Rock lava formations. The population density was 65 people per square mile, there were 75,737 housing units at an average density of 27 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 91. 65% White,0. 40% Black or African American,1. 09% Native American,0. 90% Asian,0. 18% Pacific Islander,2. 88% from other races, and 2. 91% from two or more races. 6. 69% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,17. 4% were of German,12. 9% English,10. 2% Irish and 8. 8% United States or American ancestry
Klamath National Forest
The forest contains continuous stands of ponderosa pine, Jeffrey pine, Douglas fir, red fir, white fir and incense cedar. Old growth forest is estimated to cover some 168,000 acres of the forest land, Forest headquarters are located in Yreka, California. There are local district offices located in Fort Jones, Happy Camp. Klamath was established on May 6,1905 and this park includes the Kangaroo Lake. There are four designated wilderness areas in Klamath National Forest that are part of the National Wilderness Preservation System. Two of them extend into neighboring national forests, and one of those into land managed by the Bureau of Land Management
Illinois River (Oregon)
The Illinois River is a tributary, about 56 miles long, of the Rogue River in the U. S. state of Oregon. It drains part of the Klamath Mountains in northern California and southwestern Oregon, the rivers main stem begins at the confluence of its east and west forks near Cave Junction in southern Josephine County. Its drainage basin includes Sucker Creek, which rises in the Red Buttes Wilderness, the main stem flows generally northwest in a winding course past Kerby and through the Siskiyou National Forest and Kalmiopsis Wilderness. It joins the Rogue River from the south at Agness on the Curry–Josephine county line,27 miles from the Pacific Ocean. The rivers lower 50.4 miles, from where it enters the Rogue River–Siskiyou National Forest downstream from Kerby to its confluence with the Rogue River, were designated Wild and Scenic in 1984. Of this,28.7 miles is protected as wild,17.9 miles as scenic, Sucker Creek is named after the state of Illinois, one of whose nicknames is the Sucker State.
Miners from Illinois named the creek, in 2011, the United States Forest Service worked on a project to improve the creek. The project is a rehabilitation project. The Illinois River is a river that tests both the skill and strength of boaters. For the 31-mile run along the Wild and Scenic part of the river between upper Oak Flat near Kerby and lower Oak Flat, boaters are far from trails, in fact, it is the most inaccessible river canyon in the lower 48 states. With sections that are inaccessible, even by trail, depending on the water flow, this stretch of the river has eight class IV to IV+ rapids. Green Wall, a class V, is more difficult and longer than the others. The river is generally run by raft or kayak during the rainy season, at flows below 800 cubic feet per second, boating is difficult because of exposed rocks, and flows above 3,000 cubic feet per second turn the river into boiling holes and rapids. A heavy rain can turn an ordinary trip into a high-water nightmare, permits from the U. S.
Forest Service are required for river trips on the Wild Section of the river and groups are limited to no more than twelve. However, the permits for non-commercial groups are free and are self issued 24/7, since there is no dam on the Illinois River, river flows are highly dependent upon weather conditions. Changing weather can often result in water levels being too high or too low for safe, since water levels can rise rapidly, potential bad weather can be the cause for cancelled or postponed trips. Nevertheless, even under conditions, the Illinois River can still cause casualties
Curry County, Oregon
Curry County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 22,364, the county seat is Gold Beach. The county is named for George Law Curry, a governor of the Oregon Territory, Curry County comprises the Brookings, OR Micropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,988 square miles. The westernmost point in Oregon is in Curry County at Cape Blanco located at 42. 835508°N124. 565939°W /42.835508, the county contains significant forests, with occurrence of black oak, big leaf maple and Douglas-fir. The blue oak, prevalent slightly further south does not reach into Curry County, the population density was 13 people per square mile. There were 11,406 housing units at a density of 7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92. 89% White,0. 15% Black or African American,2. 14% Native American,0. 70% Asian,0. 11% Pacific Islander,1. 11% from other races, and 2. 90% from two or more races. 3. 60% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,20.
1% were of German,13. 8% English,10. 3% United States or American and 9. 9% Irish ancestry. 95. 9% spoke English and 2. 5% Spanish as their first language,29. 70% of all households were made up of individuals and 14. 70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the family size was 2.66. In the county, the population was out with 19. 20% under the age of 18,4. 80% from 18 to 24,20. 00% from 25 to 44,29. 40% from 45 to 64. The median age was 49 years, for every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.80 males, the median income for a household in the county was $30,117, and the median income for a family was $35,627. Males had an income of $31,772 versus $22,416 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,138, about 9. 70% of families and 12. 20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13. 60% of those under age 18 and 10. 60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 22,364 people,10,417 households, the population density was 13.7 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 12,613 housing units at a density of 7.8 per square mile
Gold Beach, Oregon
Gold Beach is a city in and the county seat of Curry County, United States, on the Oregon Coast. The population was 2,253 at the 2010 census, the community was originally named Ellensburg in the 1850s, but took the name Gold Beach after a beach near the mouth of the Rogue River where hundreds of placer mines extracted gold. An Ellensburgh post office was established in 1853, changed to Ellensburg in 1877, mailboats based in Gold Beach have been delivering mail upstream to Agness since 1895, one of only two rural mailboat routes remaining in the U. S. Although Gold Beach had been a community since the middle of the 19th century, and the county seat since 1859, its current incorporation charter only dates to 1945. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 2.76 square miles. Gold Beach is bordered to the north by the Rogue River and Barley Beach, Gold Beach has cool, very wet winters and mild, relatively dry summers. According to the Köppen climate classification system, Gold Beach has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, between 1948 and 2014, the average maximum temperature in January was about 54 °F or 12.2 °C, and the average minimum was about 41 °F or 5 °C.
The corresponding averages for July were 68 °F or 20 °C and 51 °F or 10.6 °C. Annually, there are high temperatures of 90 °F or 32.2 °C on an average of only 0.1 days, the record high temperature was 102 °F on September 10,1973. The record low temperature was 12 °F on January 21,1962, the average annual precipitation between 1948 and 2014 was about 80 inches or 2,030 millimetres, mostly falling between October and April. Measurable precipitation occurs on an average of 132 days, the wettest “rain year” was from July 1973 to June 1974 with 116.23 inches and the driest from July 1976 to June 1977 with 38.83 inches. The most precipitation in one month was 34.48 inches in November 1973, the most precipitation in 24 hours was 7.94 inches on December 3,1987. Snow is very rare in Gold Beach, averaging only 0.2 inches or 0.0051 metres annually, the most snow in one year was 9.0 inches in 1972, including 6.5 inches in January and 2.5 inches in December. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,253 people,1,070 households, the population density was 890.5 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 1,322 housing units at a density of 522.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91. 5% White,0. 3% African American,2. 0% Native American,0. 8% Asian,0. 6% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 4. 9% of the population. 37. 8% of all households were made up of individuals and 16. 1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.05 and the average family size was 2.60. The median age in the city was 50.6 years
Southern Oregon Coast Range
To the east is the Umpqua Valley and to the west the Pacific Ocean. This approximately 55-mile -long mountain range contains mountains as high as 3,547 feet for Bone Mountain, the mountains are known locally in the Roseburg area as the Callahan Mountains, or simply as The Callahans. In the Southern Range the 64‑million-year-old Roseburg volcanics that formed this section are the oldest portions of the entire range, the range is part of a forearc basin that has slowly rotated about 51 degrees since the Eocene period. Much of the structures are pillow basalt formations created during the volcanic period. Other geologic features are mainly the result of erosion and weather forces carving steam beds, the Oregon Coast Range is home to over 50 mammals,100 species of birds, and nearly 30 reptiles or amphibians that spent a significant portion of their life cycle in the mountains. Birds living in the Southern Coast Range include a variety of smaller and larger bird species and these include northern goshawks, peregrine falcons, pileated woodpeckers, olive-sided flycatcher, and western bluebirds.
The northern spotted owl, listed as a species by the United States inhabit the mountain forests. Other wildlife includes fringed myotis bats, long-legged myotis bats, Townsend’s big-eared bat, other small animals include shrews, deer mice, and ermine. Plants include large stands of Douglas-fir trees, western forests, cedar trees. Other flora include Sitka spruce, salal, portions of the range are in the Elliott State Forest. The range begins around the Umpqua River with the Central Oregon Coast Range to the north, Oregon Route 38 is the general divide between the two sections. On the southern end the Coquille River’s middle fork provides the general dividing line between the Central Range and the Klamath Mountains to the south and east, the climate of the mountains is of the mild maritime variety. It is characterized by dry summers followed by mild and wet winters. Most precipitation falls in the form of rain, with snow during the months at the higher elevations. Annual precipitation varies from 60 to 120 inches, with more in the higher elevations, the average high temperature in January is 36.3 °F, and the average high in July is 61.9 °F with temperature varying by elevation.
All peaks in the range are over 3,000 feet in elevation
Ashland is a city in Jackson County, in the State of Oregon. It lies along Interstate 5 approximately 16 miles north of the California border, as of 2015, the citys population was approaching 21,000. The city is the home of Southern Oregon University and the Oregon Shakespeare Festival and these are important to Ashlands economy, which depends on restaurants and retail stores that cater to tourists. Lithia Park along Ashland Creek, historic buildings, and a paved intercity bike trail provide additional visitor attractions, Ashland has a mayor-council government assisted by citizen committees. Historically, its politics have differed, often sharply, with much of the rest of southwest Oregon. Prior to the arrival of settlers in mid-19th century, the Shasta people lived in the valley along Ashland Creek approximately where todays city is located. Early Hudsons Bay Company hunters and trappers following the Siskiyou Trail passed through the site in the 1820s, in the late 1840s, mainly American settlers following the Applegate Trail began passing through the area.
By the early 1850s, the Donation Land Act brought many to the Rogue Valley and these often violent clashes, known ultimately as the Rogue River Wars, continued until 1856. In 1851, gold was discovered at Rich Gulch, a tributary of Jackson Creek, settlers arrived in the Ashland area in January 1852, including Robert B. Hargadine, Sylvester Pease, Abel D Helman, Eber Emery and Hargadine filed the first donation land claims in Ashland. Helman and Emery built a sawmill along what was called Mill Creek to turn timber into lumber for settlers, in 1854, they and another settler, M. B. Morris, built a mill, Ashland Flouring Mills, to grind local wheat into flour. The community around the mill known as Ashland Mills. A post office was established in Ashland Mills in 1855 with Helman as postmaster, during the 1860s and 1870s the community grew, establishing a school, businesses, and a large employer, Ashland Woolen Mills, which produced clothing and blankets from local wool. In 1871, the Post Office dropped Mills from Ashlands name, in 1872 Reverend J. H.
Skidmore opened a college, Ashland Academy, a predecessor of Southern Oregon University. In 1887, Portland and San Francisco, were joined by rail at Ashland, until 1926, when most rail service began taking a different route, Ashland thrived on rail trade of local products, including pears and apples. In 1908 the Womens Civic Improvement Club petitioned for the creation of community space along Ashland Creek, the discovery of lithia water near Emigrant Lake around the same time led to a plan to establish a mineral spa at the park. Voters approved bonds to pay for the project, which included piping the water from its source to Ashland
Rogue River (Oregon)
The Rogue River in southwestern Oregon in the United States flows about 215 miles in a generally westward direction from the Cascade Range to the Pacific Ocean. Known for its runs, whitewater rafting, and rugged scenery, it was one of the original eight rivers named in the Wild. Further west, the passes through multiple exotic terranes of the more ancient Klamath Mountains. In the Kalmiopsis Wilderness section of the Rogue basin are some of the worlds best examples of rocks form the Earths mantle. Near the mouth of the river, the only dinosaur fragments ever discovered in Oregon were found in the Otter Point Formation, people have lived along the Rogue River and its tributaries for at least 8,500 years. European explorers made first contact with Native Americans toward the end of the 18th century and began beaver trapping, sometimes deadly, occurred between the natives and the trappers and between the natives and European-American miners and settlers. These struggles culminated with the Rogue River Wars of 1855–56 and removal of most of the natives to reservations outside the basin.
After the war, settlers expanded into areas of the watershed and established small farms along the river between Grave Creek and the mouth of the Illinois River. They were relatively isolated from the world until 1895, when the Post Office Department added mail-boat service along the lower Rogue. As of 2010, the Rogue has one of the two remaining rural mail-boat routes in the United States, Dam building and removal along the Rogue has generated controversy for more than a century, an early fish-blocking dam was dynamited by vigilantes, mostly disgruntled salmon fishermen. By 2009 all but one of the dams downstream of a huge flood-control structure 157 miles from the river mouth had been removed. Aside from dams, threats to salmon include high water temperatures, although sometimes too warm for salmonids, the main stem Rogue is relatively clean, ranking between 85 and 97 on the Oregon Water Quality Index. Although the Rogue Valley near Medford is partly urban, the population density of the Rogue watershed is only about 32 people per square mile.
Several historic bridges cross the river near the populated areas. Many public parks, hiking trails, and campgrounds are near the river, the Rogue River begins at Boundary Springs on the border between Klamath and Douglas counties near the northern edge of Crater Lake National Park. Significant tributaries include the South Fork Rogue River, Elk Creek, Bear Creek, the Applegate River, arising at 5,320 feet above sea level, the river loses more than 1 mile in elevation by the time it reaches the Pacific. In 1988, an additional 40 miles of the Rogue between Crater Lake National Park and the community of Prospect was named Wild and Scenic. Of the rivers length,124 miles, about 58 percent is Wild
Medford is a city in Jackson County, United States. As of July 1,2014, the city had a population of 78,557. Medford is the county seat of Jackson County, in 1883, a group of railroad surveyors headed by S. L. Dolson and David Loring arrived in Rock Point, near present-day Gold Hill. They were charged with finding the best route through the Rogue Valley for the Oregon, citizens of neighboring Jacksonville hoped that it would pass between their town and Hanley Butte, near the present day Claire Hanley Arboretum. Such a move would have all but guaranteed prosperous growth for Jacksonville, the response from Jacksonville was mixed, but the decision was final. By November 1883, a site had been chosen and a surveying team led by Charles J. Howard was hard at work platting the new town. They completed their work in early December 1883, laying out 82 blocks for development, others point out the farms of town founders Iradell Judson Phipps and Charles Wesley Broback, which were present before the town was platted.
Regardless, on February 6,1884, J. S. Howards store became Medfords first post office, with Howard serving as postmaster. The establishment of the post office led to the incorporation of Medford as a town by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on February 24,1885, Howard held the position of postmaster for Medfords first ten years, and again held the post upon his death on November 13,1919. The beginning of the 20th century was a transitional period, Medford built a new steel bridge over Bear Creek to replace an earlier one which washed away three years before. Without a bridge, those wanting to cross had to ford the stream, typically using a horse-drawn wagon, the first automobile did not arrive in Medford until 1903. Pharmacist George H. Haskins had opened a drugstore just after the town was platted, five years the library moved to Medfords new city hall, in another four years, Andrew Carnegies donation allowed a dedicated library to be built. Construction on the Medford Carnegie Library was completed in 1912, in 1927, Medford took the title of county seat of Jackson County away from nearby Jacksonville.
In 1967, Interstate 5 was completed adjacent to downtown Medford to replace the Oregon Pacific Highway. It has been blamed for the decline of businesses in downtown Medford since its completion. In fact, a study completed in 1999 found that 45% of vehicles entering I-5 from north Medford heading south exited in south Medford, the high volume of traffic on Interstate 5 led to the completion of a new north Medford interchange in 2006. The project, which cost about $36 million, improved traffic flow between I-5 and Crater Lake Highway, further traffic problems identified in south Medford prompted the construction of another new interchange, costing $72 million. The project began in 2006 and was completed in 2010, since the 1990s, Medford has dedicated an appreciable amount of resources to urban renewal in an attempt to revitalize the downtown area