California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Douglas County, Oregon
Douglas County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 107,667; the county seat is Roseburg. It is named after an American politician who supported Oregon statehood. Douglas County comprises OR Micropolitan Statistical Area; the area was inhabited by the Umpqua Indians, who speak a language in the Athabaskan language family. Following the Rogue River Indian War in 1856, most of the remaining natives were moved by the government to the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation. However, seven families of Umpqua hid in eluding capture for many decades, they are now federally recognized as the Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians. The tribe manages a small reservation in Canyonville and has a Casino/Hotel named Seven Feathers to represent the seven families who refused forced removal to the Grand Ronde Reservation. Douglas County was created on January 7, 1852, from the portion of Umpqua County which lay east of the Coast Range summit. In 1856 the Camas Valley was annexed to Douglas County from Coos County.
In 1862, the rest of Umpqua county was absorbed into Douglas County, some say due to the loss of population following the end of the early gold boom, while others attribute the absorption to politics. Further boundary adjustments were made with Jackson and Lane Counties in 1915. In 2017, after the defeat of a referendum, all public libraries in Douglas County were closed. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,134 square miles, of which 5,036 square miles is land and 98 square miles is water, it is the fifth-largest county in Oregon by area. A portion of the Umpqua National Forest is in Douglas County. Douglas County is one of two Oregon counties that extend from the Pacific Ocean to the Cascade Range. Crater Lake National Park Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest Siuslaw National Forest Umpqua National Forest Willamette National Forest Lane County Klamath County Jackson County Josephine County Curry County Coos County As of the census of 2000, there were 100,399 people, 39,821 households, 28,233 families residing in the county.
The population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 43,284 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.86% White, 0.18% Black or African American, 1.52% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.02% from other races, 2.70% from two or more races. 3.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.4 % were of 13.2 % American, 12.6 % English and 10.2 % Irish ancestry. 96.5% spoke English and 2.2% Spanish as their first language. There were 39,821 households out of which 29.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.2% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.1% were non-families. 23.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.9. In the county, the population was spread out with 24% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,223, the median income for a family was $39,364. Males had a median income of $32,512 versus $22,349 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,581. About 9.6% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.6% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 107,667 people, 44,581 households, 29,839 families residing in the county; the population density was 21.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 48,915 housing units at an average density of 9.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.4% white, 1.8% American Indian, 1.0% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.2% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.7% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 25.6% were German, 16.7% were Irish, 15.8% were English, 5.7% were American. Of the 44,581 households, 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.2% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.1% were non-families, 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age was 46.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,711 and the median income for a family was $48,729. Males had a median income of $39,308 versus $28,176 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,342. About 10.6% of families and 15.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.1% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over. In contrast to the Willamette Valley, Douglas County is powerfully conservative and Republican, being akin to Josephine County to the south, or to Eastern Oregon. No Democratic presidential nominee has carried Douglas County since Lyndon Johnson’s landslide win in 1964: indeed the last Democrat to crack forty percent of the county’s vote was Michael Dukakis in 1988 during an election influenced by a major drought.
The county, like all of Western Oregon north of the Rogue Valley leaned strongly
Siskiyou County, California
Siskiyou County is a county in the northernmost part of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 44,900, its county seat is Yreka and its highest point is Mount Shasta. Siskiyou County is in the Shasta Cascade region along the Oregon border; because of its outdoor recreation opportunities and Gold Rush era history, it is an important tourist destination within the state. Siskiyou County was created on March 22, 1852, from parts of Shasta and Klamath Counties, named after the Siskiyou mountain range. Parts of the county's territory were given to Modoc County in 1855; the county is the site of the central section of the Siskiyou Trail, which ran between California's Central Valley and the Pacific Northwest. The Siskiyou Trail followed Native American footpaths, was extended by Hudson's Bay Company trappers in the 1830s, its length was increased by "Forty-Niners" during the California Gold Rush. After the discovery of an important gold strike near today’s Yreka, California in 1851, prospectors flooded the area.
This was described in detail by Joaquin Miller in his semi-autobiographical novel Life Amongst the Modocs. In the mid 1880s, the construction of the Central Pacific Railroad along the Siskiyou Trail brought the first wave of tourism. Visitors were drawn by the county’s many summer resorts, to hunt or fish in the untouched region; the Southern Pacific railroad, the successor to the Central Pacific, called its rail line “The Road of A Thousand Wonders.” In the early 1940s, Siskiyou County was home to the semi-serious State of Jefferson movement, which sought to create a new state from several counties of northern California and the adjoining counties of southern Oregon. The movement has seen a revival in recent years; the origin of the word Siskiyou is not known. It may be Chinook word for a "bob-tailed horse", or as was argued before the State Senate in 1852, from the French Six Cailloux, a name given to a ford on the Umpqua River by Michel LaFrambois and his Hudson's Bay Company trappers in 1832.
Others claim the Six Cailloux name was appropriated by Stephen Meek, another Hudson's Bay Company trapper who discovered Scott Valley, for a crossing on the Klamath River near Hornbrook. The County is home to the Black Bear Ranch, a commune started in 1968 with the slogan "Free Land for free people." On September 4, 2013, the Siskiyou County Board of Supervisors voted 4 to 1 to secede from the State of California. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 6,347 square miles, of which 6,278 square miles is land and 69 square miles is water, it is the fifth-largest county by area in California. Siskiyou County is geographically diverse. From towering Mount Shasta near the center of the county, to lakes and dense forests, as well as desert and memorable waterfalls, the county is home to world-famous trout-fishing rivers and streams, such as the Sacramento and McCloud Rivers; the county is dotted as well with reservoirs, such as Castle Lake and Lake Siskiyou. Mount Shasta itself has a winter sports center.
Pastoral Scott Valley in the western part of the county has many wide, tree-lined meadows, supporting large cattle ranches. The basins of northeastern Siskiyou County, including Butte Valley, Lower Klamath and Tule Lake basins, have some of the deepest and richest soils in the state, producing alfalfa, potatoes and brewing barley. Butte Valley nurseries are the leading source of premium strawberry plants in North America. Much of the county is densely forested with pine, incense-cedar and madrone; the county's natural resources are most used these days for skiing, hiking, mountain biking and wilderness recreation, as historic logging practices have been discontinued due to Federal and State environmental regulations. The county’s water is viewed as sufficiently pure and abundant that the county is a source of significant amounts of bottled water, distributed throughout the country. A large Crystal Geyser plant is near Weed. Substantial amounts of the county are forested within the Siskiyou and Cascade Ranges, including significant oak woodland and mixed conifer forests.
Siskiyou County is the northern extent of the range for California Buckeye, a widespread California endemic. The Klamath National Forest occupies 1,700,000 acres of land which includes elements in Siskiyou County as well as Jackson County, Oregon. Josephine County, Oregon - northwest Jackson County, Oregon - north Klamath County, Oregon - northeast Modoc County - east Shasta County - southeast Trinity County - south Humboldt County - southwest Del Norte County - west Siskiyou Transit And General Express operates buses connecting the more populated areas of the county. Amtrak trains stop in Dunsmuir. Amtrak California motorcoaches operate from Sacramento and Medford, OR, with stops in Yreka, Mount Shasta, Dunsmuir, for passengers connecting to and from Amtrak trains in Sacramento or Stockton. Siskiyou County owns and operates Butte Valley Airport, Happy Camp Airport, Scott Valley Airport, Siskiyou County Airport and Weed Airport. Dunsmuir Municipal-Mott Airport and Montague-Yreka Rohrer Field are within the county.
The closest airports for commercial domestic plane departures are Rogue Valley International-Medford Airport north of the county in Medford, Crater Lake–Klamath Regional Airport, northeast of the county in Klamath Falls and Redding Municipal Airport south of the county in Redding, Californ
Southern Oregon Coast Range
The Southern Oregon Coast Range is the southernmost section of the Oregon Coast Range, in the Pacific Coast Ranges, located in the southwest portion of the state of Oregon, United States between the Umpqua River and the middle fork of the Coquille River, beyond which are the Klamath Mountains. To the east is the Umpqua Valley and to the west the Pacific Ocean; this 55-mile -long mountain range contains mountains as high as 3,547 feet for Bone Mountain. The mountains are known locally in the Roseburg area as the Callahan Mountains, or as The Callahans; as with the Oregon Coast Range as a whole, the Southern Oregon Coast Range began as an ocean island chain that collided with the continental tectonic plate of North America more than 60 million years ago. In the Southern Range the 64‑million-year-old Roseburg volcanics that formed this section are the oldest portions of the entire range; the range is part of a forearc basin that has rotated about 51 degrees since the Eocene period. Much of the mountain structures are pillow basalt formations created during the volcanic period and uplifted with the collision into the continental plate.
Other geologic features are the result of erosion and weather forces carving steam beds and valleys out of the rock formations. The Oregon Coast Range is home to over 50 mammals, 100 species of birds, nearly 30 reptiles or amphibians that spent a significant portion of their life cycle in the mountains. Birds living in the Southern Coast Range include a variety of larger bird species; these include northern goshawks, peregrine falcons, pileated woodpeckers, olive-sided flycatcher, western bluebirds. The northern spotted owl, listed as a threatened species by the United States inhabit the mountain forests. Aquatic life includes river lamprey, Pacific lamprey, coastal cutthroat trout, Millicoma longnose dace, Umpqua chub, red-legged frogs, southern seep salamander, western pond turtles, coho salmon, Chinook salmon, steelhead trout, others. Other wildlife includes fringed myotis bats, long-legged myotis bats, Townsend’s big-eared bat and sharptail snakes, northern flying squirrels, red tree voles, Roosevelt elk, among others.
Other small animals include shrews, deer mice, ermine. Plants include large stands of Douglas-fir trees, western hemlock forests, cedar trees, with portions of these forests including old-growth stands. Other flora include Sitka spruce, salal and western azalea. Portions of the range are in the Elliott State Forest; the range begins around the Umpqua River with the Central Oregon Coast Range to the north. Oregon Route 38 is the general divide between the two sections. On the southern end the Coquille River’s middle fork provides the general dividing line between the Central Range and the Klamath Mountains to the south and east; the climate of the mountains is of the mild maritime variety. It is characterized by cool dry summers followed by wet winters. Most precipitation falls in the form of rain, with snow during the winter months at the higher elevations. Annual precipitation varies with more in the higher elevations; the average high temperature in January is 36.3 °F, the average high in July is 61.9 °F with temperature varying by elevation.
All peaks in the range are over 3,000 feet in elevation. The following rivers have portions of their headwaters in the Southern Oregon Coast Range: Drains to Pacific Ocean: Coos River Coquille River Umpqua River U. S. Route 101 Media related to Oregon Coast Range at Wikimedia Commons
Rogue River (Oregon)
The Rogue River in southwestern Oregon in the United States flows about 215 miles in a westward direction from the Cascade Range to the Pacific Ocean. Known for its salmon runs, whitewater rafting, rugged scenery, it was one of the original eight rivers named in the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Beginning near Crater Lake, which occupies the caldera left by the explosive volcanic eruption of Mount Mazama, the river flows through the geologically young High Cascades and the older Western Cascades, another volcanic province. Further west, the river passes through multiple exotic terranes of the more ancient Klamath Mountains. In the Kalmiopsis Wilderness section of the Rogue basin are some of the world's best examples of rocks that form the Earth's mantle. Near the mouth of the river, the only dinosaur fragments discovered in Oregon were found in the Otter Point Formation, along the coast of Curry County. People have lived along its tributaries for at least 8,500 years. European explorers made first contact with Native Americans toward the end of the 18th century and began beaver trapping and other activities in the region.
Clashes, sometimes deadly, occurred between the natives and the trappers and between the natives and European-American miners and settlers. These struggles culminated with the Rogue River Wars of 1855–56 and removal of most of the natives to reservations outside the basin. After the war, settlers expanded into remote areas of the watershed and established small farms along the river between Grave Creek and the mouth of the Illinois River, they were isolated from the outside world until 1895, when the Post Office Department added mail-boat service along the lower Rogue. As of 2010, the Rogue has one of the two remaining rural mail-boat routes in the United States. Dam building and removal along the Rogue has generated controversy for more than a century. By 2009, all but one of the main-stem dams downstream of a huge flood-control structure 157 miles from the river mouth had been removed. Aside from dams, threats to salmon include high water temperatures. Although sometimes too warm for salmonids, the main stem Rogue is clean, ranking between 85 and 97 on the Oregon Water Quality Index.
Although the Rogue Valley near Medford is urban, the average population density of the Rogue watershed is only about 32 people per square mile. Several historic bridges cross the river near the more populated areas. Many public parks, hiking trails, campgrounds are near the river, which flows through forests, including national forests. Biodiversity in many parts of the basin is high; the Rogue River begins at Boundary Springs on the border between Klamath and Douglas counties near the northern edge of Crater Lake National Park. Although it changes direction many times, it flows west for 215 miles from the Cascade Range through the Rogue River – Siskiyou National Forest and the Klamath Mountains to the Pacific Ocean at Gold Beach. Communities along its course include Union Creek, Trail, Shady Cove, Gold Hill and Rogue River, all in Jackson County. Significant tributaries include the South Fork Rogue River, Elk Creek, Bear Creek, the Applegate River, the Illinois River. Arising at 5,320 feet above sea level, the river loses more than 1 mile in elevation by the time it reaches the Pacific.
It was one of the original eight rivers named in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968, which included 84 miles of the Rogue, from 7 miles west of Grants Pass to 11 miles east of the mouth at Gold Beach. In 1988, an additional 40 miles of the Rogue between Crater Lake National Park and the unincorporated community of Prospect was named Wild and Scenic. Of the river's total length, 124 miles, about 58 percent is Scenic; the Rogue is one of only three rivers that start in or east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and reach the Pacific Ocean. The others are the Umpqua Klamath River; these three Southern Oregon rivers drain mountains south of the Willamette Valley. The United States Geological Survey operates five stream gauges along the Rogue River, they are located, from uppermost to lowermost, near Prospect, Eagle Point, Central Point, Grants Pass, Agness. Between 1960 and 2007, the average discharge recorded by the Agness gauge at river mile 29.7 or river kilometer 47.8 was 6,622 cubic feet per second.
The maximum discharge during this period was 290,000 cubic feet per second on December 23, 1964, the minimum discharge was 608 cubic feet per second on July 9 and 10, 1968. This was from a drainage basin of 3,939 square miles, or about 76 percent of the entire Rogue watershed; the maximum flow occurred between December 1964 and January 1965 during the Christmas flood of 1964, rated by the National Weather Service as one of Oregon's top 10 weather events of the 20th century. Draining 5,156 square miles, the Rogue River watershed covers parts of Jackson, Curry and Klamath counties in southwestern Oregon and Siskiyou and Del Norte counties in norther
Cave Junction, Oregon
Cave Junction, incorporated in 1948, is a city in Josephine County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 1,883, its motto is the "Gateway to the Oregon Caves", the city got its name by virtue of its location at the junction of Redwood Highway and Caves Highway. Cave Junction is located in the Illinois Valley, starting in the 1850s, the non-native economy depended on gold mining. After World War II, timber became the main source of income for residents; as timber income has since declined, Cave Junction is attempting to compensate with tourism and as a haven for retirees. Tourists visit the Oregon Caves National Monument and Preserve, which includes the Oregon Caves Chateau, as well as the Out'n'About treehouse resort and the Great Cats World Park zoo. For thousands of years, the Takelma Indians inhabited the Illinois Valley, their culture was destroyed when gold was discovered in the early 1850s, causing the subsequent Rogue River Wars. After an 1853 treaty, most of the Takelmas lived on the Table Rock Reservation.
In 1856, after the wars ended, they were moved to the Grand Ronde Reservation and the Siletz Reservation. The first gold in Oregon history was found in the Illinois Valley, as well as the largest gold nugget. In 1904, more than 50 years after prospectors had started combing the valley for gold, an 18-year-old named Ray Briggs discovered what newspapers at the time called "the most wonderful gold discovery reported in Oregon history." While hunting along Sucker Creek, he discovered gold lying on the ground. He called it the "Wounded Buck Mine," which produced 1,777 ounces of gold; the "mine" was a small vein of gold 12 feet long and 7 feet deep. As gold mining in the Illinois Valley became exhausted in the 1860s and 1870s, the residents diversified into ranching, logging and agriculture. In 1874, Elijah Davidson found a cave while on a hunting trip, is now credited with discovering the Oregon Caves. In 1884, Walter C. Burch heard about the cave from Davidson, staked a squatter's claim at the mouth of the caves.
He and his brothers-in-law charged one dollar for a guided tour. According to their advertisement in the Grants Pass Courier, this included camping, plentiful pasture land and "medicinal" cave waters, they attempted to acquire title to the land, but as the land was unsurveyed, they abandoned the idea a few years later. President William Howard Taft established the 480-acre Oregon Caves National Monument on July 12, 1909, to be administered by the U. S. Forest Service. In 1923, the Forest Service subcontracted the building of a hotel and guide services to a group of Grants Pass businessmen. By 1926, the monument had seven two-bedroom cabins. Traffic into the caves led to a community developing at the junction of the Redwood Highway and the branch highway to the caves. Cave Junction known as Cave City, was established in 1926 on land donated by Elwood Hussey. In 1935, a post office was applied for and was named "Caves City", however postal authorities disapproved of the name because "City" implied the place was incorporated.
Among the other names suggested was "Cave Junction", adopted by the United States Board on Geographic Names in 1936 with the post office being renamed the same year. The locality was incorporated as Cave Junction in 1948, is the only incorporated area in the Illinois Valley. In 1950 Cave Junction had a population of 283, which decreased to 248 in 1960 and increased to 415 in 1970, its growth was fast in the 1960s, increasing at an average of 6.8 percent annually. The city population's primary growth period occurred in the 1970s, with an average annual increase of 9.9 percent. Growth slowed in the 1980s; the rate fell further between 1990 and 1998, averaging 1.6 percent, less than the state and county averages. A number of wildfires have threatened Cave Junction over the years; the Longwood Fire in 1987, part of the 150,000-acre Silver Fire complex, was ignited by lightning strikes following a three-year drought. Numerous residents of Cave Junction evacuated. In 2002, the Florence and Sour Biscuit fires converged.
This fire threatened Cave Junction, Selma and a number of Northern California communities. The Biscuit Fire lasted 120 days, burned 499,965 acres in southern Oregon and northern California, destroyed four homes and nine outbuildings in the Cave Junction area. In 2003, a wildfire destroyed a home in Cave Junction. In 2004, a downed power line caused a fire that threatened over 100 homes and forced 200 people to evacuate. One person died of stress related to the fire. Cave Junction is located on U. S. Route 199 at its junction with Oregon Route 46, it is about 30 miles or 48 kilometres southwest of Grants Pass, Oregon and 53 miles or 85 kilometres northeast of Crescent City, California. The city lies in the Illinois Valley, on the northwest slope of the Siskiyou Range, at an elevation of about 480 metres above MSL. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.82 square miles, of which, 1.81 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. Cave Junction has a Mediterranean climate with summers featuring cool mornings and hot afternoons, chilly, rainy winters.
Cave Junction has an average low of 32.5 °F or 0.3 °C in January and high of 90.5 °F or 32.5 °C in July. The record hottest temperature is 114 °F on August 14, 2008.
Jacksonville is a city in Jackson County, United States 5 miles west of Medford. It was named for Jackson Creek, which flows through the community and was the site of one of the first placer gold claims in the area, it includes Jacksonville Historic District, designated a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1966; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 2,785, up from 2,235 at the 2000 census. Jacksonville was founded following discovery of gold deposits in 1851–1852. With the creation of Jackson County, it became the county seat, a role, transferred to nearby Medford in 1927. Jacksonville was home to the first Chinatown in Oregon, founded by immigrants from San Francisco. Physical evidence of this chapter of history was uncovered early in March 2004 when road work uncovered artifacts dating to the 1850s and 1860s. Construction was halted, their findings included broken Chinese bowls and tea cups, handmade bottles, fragments of opium paraphernalia and Chinese coins. As the gold deposits were worked out in the 1860s and the railway bypassed Jacksonville in 1884, the city's economy slowed.
This had the unintended benefit of preserving a number of structures, which led to Jacksonville's being designated a National Historic District in 1966, covering over 100 buildings. It was cited as a "mid-19th century inland commercial city significant for its magnificent group of surviving unaltered commercial and residential buildings; the city was the principal financial center of southern Oregon until it was bypassed by the railroad." Jacksonville is in west-central Jackson County, 5 miles west of Medford in the valley of Jackson Creek at the base of Miller Mountain. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.89 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,785 people, 1,377 households, 808 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,473.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,548 housing units at an average density of 819.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.6% White, 0.4% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.9% of the population. There were 1,377 households, of which 18.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.5% were married couples living together, 6.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.3% were non-families. 36.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.02 and the average family size was 2.62. The median age in the city was 54.9 years. 15.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 46.2% male and 53.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,235 people, 1,034 households, 661 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,230.7 people per square mile. There were 1,102 housing units at an average density of 606.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.11% White, 0.72% Native American, 0.36% Asian, 0.31% African American, 0.40% from other races, 2.10% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.46% of the population. The largest ancestry groups in Jacksonville, include: German, Irish and Italian. There were 1,034 households, out of which 22.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.4% were married couples living together, 7.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.0% were non-families. 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.15 and the average family size was 2.68. Jacksonville's population is spread out with 18.9% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 20.1% from 25 to 44, 32.0% from 45 to 64, 24.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $41,250, the median income for a family was $57,333. Males had a median income of $42,917 versus $28,661 for females.
Jacksonville's per capita income is $28,152. About 5.3% of families and 6.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.8% of those under age 18 and 8.6% of those age 65 or over. Jacksonville is home to Jacksonville Elementary School; the Great Northfield Minnesota Raid was filmed around Jacksonville. The 1946 Technicolor film Western Canyon Passage takes place in Jacksonville. Though it is fiction, the location itself, a small gold mining town, is important to the theme and plot. Jacksonville is home to the Britt Festival, a seasonal music festival that takes place at an open-air amphitheater; the site was selected in 1963 because of the acoustic qualities of the surrounding hills. The popular concert series draws national pop, country and contemporary music acts, it is named after a pioneer and owner of the land now used for Britt Park. The Southern Oregon Historical Society was formed in 1946 to save the endangered 1880s Jackson County Courthouse; the society opened the Jacksonville Museum in the courthouse building on July 10, 1950, operated it until it closed in 2006 because of lack of funding.