Fashion design is the art of applying design and natural beauty to clothing and its accessories. It is influenced by cultural and social attitudes, has varied over time and place. Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories such as bracelets and necklaces; because of the time required to bring a garment onto the market, designers must at times anticipate changes to consumer tastes. Designers interpret them for their audience, their specific designs are used by manufacturers. This is the essence of a designer’s role. Fashion designers attempt to design clothes, they consider, to wear a garment and the situations in which it will be worn, they work within a wide range of materials, colors and styles. Though most clothing worn for everyday wear falls within a narrow range of conventional styles, unusual garments are sought for special occasions such as evening wear or party dresses; some clothes are made for an individual, as in the case of haute couture or bespoke tailoring.
Today, most clothing is designed for the mass market casual and every-day wear are called ready to wear. Fashion designers may work full-time for one fashion house, as'in-house designers', which owns the designs, or they work alone or as part of a team. Freelance designers work for themselves, selling their designs to fashion houses, directly to shops, or to clothing manufacturers; the garments bear the buyer's label. Some fashion designers set up their own labels; some fashion designers design for individual clients. Other high-end fashion designers cater to high-end fashion department stores; these designers create original garments, as well as those. Most fashion designers, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of men's, women's, children's fashions for the mass market. Large designer brands which have a'name' as their brand such as Abercrombie & Fitch, Justice, or Juicy are to be designed by a team of individual designers under the direction of a design director. Fashion designers work in different ways.
Some sketch their ideas on paper. When a designer is satisfied with the fit of the toile, he or she will consult a professional pattern maker who makes the finished, working version of the pattern out of card or via a computerized system. A sample garment is made up and tested on a model to make sure it is an operational outfit. Fashion design is considered to have started in the 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth, the first designer to have his label sewn into the garments that he created. Before the former draper set up his maison couture in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by anonymous seamstresses, high fashion descended from that worn at royal courts. Worth's success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done; the term couturier was in fact first created in order to describe him. While all articles of clothing from any time period are studied by academics as costume design, only clothing created after 1858 is considered as fashion design.
It was during this period that many design houses began to hire artists to sketch or paint designs for garments. The images were shown to clients, much cheaper than producing an actual sample garment in the workroom. If the client liked their design, they ordered it and the resulting garment made money for the house. Thus, the tradition of designers sketching out garment designs instead of presenting completed garments on models to customers began as an economy; the garments produced by clothing manufacturers fall into three main categories, although these may be split up into additional, more specific categories Until the 1950s, fashion clothing was predominately designed and manufactured on a made-to-measure or haute couture basis, with each garment being created for a specific client. A couture garment is made to order for an individual customer, is made from high-quality, expensive fabric, sewn with extreme attention to detail and finish using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques. Look and fit take priority over the cost of materials and the time it takes to make.
Due to the high cost of each garment, haute couture makes little direct profit for the fashion houses, but is important for prestige and publicity. Ready-to-wear, or prêt-à-porter, clothes are a cross between haute mass market, they are not made for individual customers, but great care is taken in the choice and cut of the fabric. Clothes are made in small quantities to guarantee exclusivity, so they are rather expensive. Ready-to-wear collections are presented by fashion houses each season during a period known as Fashion Week; this occurs twice a year. The main seasons of Fashion Week include: spring/summer, fall/winter, resort and bridal. Half-way garments are an alternative to "off-the-peg", or prêt-à-porter fashion. Half-way garments are intentionally unfinished pieces of clothing that encourages co-design between the "primary designer" of the garment, what would be considered, the passive "cons
Créteil is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 11.5 km from the centre of Paris. Créteil is the préfecture of the Val-de-Marne department as well as the seat of the Arrondissement of Créteil; the city is, the seat of a Roman Catholic diocese and of one of France's 30 nationwide académies of the Ministry of National Education. The name Créteil was recorded for the first time as Cristoilum in the martyrology written by a monk named Usuard in 865; the name Cristoilum is made of the Celtic word ialo suffixed to a pre-Latin radical crist- whose meaning is still unclear. Some believe crist is a Celtic word meaning "ridge", a cognate of Latin crista and modern French crête, in which case the meaning of Cristoilum would be "clearing on the ridge" or "place on the ridge." A more traditional etymology was that crist referred to Jesus Christ, due to the ancient presence of Christianity in Créteil and the veneration of Saint Agoard and Saint Aglibert, martyred in Créteil around AD 400.
Créteil is a city in the south-eastern suburbs of Paris. It is watered by the Marne river which carries out its last loop before the junction with the Seine at the Charenton-le-Pont; the area is an alluvial plain eroded by the action of the Seine. Bordering communes include Maisons-Alfort, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, Bonneuil-sur-Marne, Limeil-Brévannes, Choisy-le-Roi and Alfortville; the climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Créteil has a marine west coast climate, abbreviated "Cfb" on climate maps; some rare flints from the Palaeolithic age are still being found in modern times in the area. It is, however, a two-ton, Neolithic-era polishing machine, the prehistoric pride of Créteil; the first documents referring to Créteil are from the Merovingian era, when it was known as Vicus Cristoilum' The name comes from the prefix crist and oilum. These two terms are thought to be Gallic: "clearing" for oilum and "ridge" for crist.
The "clearing" of the "ridge" of the Mont-Mesly is on the road connecting Paris and Sens. In 1406, the place name "Créteil" makes its appearance after successive deformations from Cristoill, Cresteul Creteuil. During the French Wars of Religion, the Huguenots plundered the church and burned the local charters. New disorders in 1648 forced the evacuation of the inhabitants of Créteil; the end of Louis XIV's reign was marked by a great food shortage throughout the whole of France after a terrible winter in 1709 that resulted in 69 recorded deaths in Créteil. Registers of grievances from the French Revolution in 1789 mention Créteil 15 times. At the beginning of the 18th century, construction of the first middle-class "Parisian" houses began. In 1814, the east of Créteil was taken by Russian troops; the bridge which spans the Marne between Creteil and Saint-Maur-des-Fossés was inaugurated on 9 April 1841, replacing an ancient ferry. The Franco-Prussian War of 1870 was cruel for Créteil; the borough was plundered and left in ruins by the Prussians, while the nearby battle of Mont-Mesly on 30 November 1870, left 179 dead.
Créteil gave up its pastoral character after World War II. The population subsequently rose from 13,800 in 1954 to 30,654 in 1962. In 1965, the city became a Préfecture of the new department of the Val-de-Marne. Créteil Lake began as a gravel quarry. Once the groundwater was reached, forming deep ponds, the quarry was abandoned and allowed to fill with water; the lake area is now a popular recreational site attracting fishermen, wind surfers, etc... As of 1 January 2006, 27 pharmacies, about 60 dentists, about 60 general practitioners, 10 pediatricians, a half-dozen ophthalmologists and dermatologists constitute the general medical staff of the city. Health facilities include: CHU Henri Mondor, a publicly owned hospital inaugurated on 2 December 1969. Conceived for 1,300 beds, its capacity today is 958 beds, it employs more than 3,000 people including more than 2,600 looking after patients. Its expenditure in 2004 was 241M€. Centre hospitalier intercommunal de Créteil, inaugurated on 3 November 1937.
Capacity of reception of 530 in-patients as against 264 in 1937. The construction of this establishment was decided in 1932 by grouping the communes of the Bonneuil-sur-Marne and Joinville-le-Pont within an inter-communal syndicate. Saint-Maur-des-Fossés joined this syndicate later. A number of the hospital personnel were religious sisters. In 2004, 38,037 hospitalizations were listed, with 2,551 childbirths and 12,838 surgical interventions. ] It employs 2,000 people with about 1,600 of them caring for patients in medical or other capacities. Centre de Transfusion sanguine; the Blood Transfusion Centre of Creteil is run by the inter-communal Hospital. This service treats from 600 to 1,000 requests per day. Albert Chenevier Hospital. A publicly owned hospital, with a 463-bed capacity. There are 118 beds in the psychiatric ward. Public schools: 24 preschools 24 elementary schools Eight junior high schools: Clément Guyard, Victor Hugo, Louis Issaurat, Amédée Laplace, Louis Pasteur, Albert Schweitzer, Simone-de-Beauvoir Four high schools: Lycée Léon Blum, Lycée Édouard Branly, Lycée Gutenberg, Lycée Antoine de Saint-ExuperyPrivate schools: Ozar Hatorah De Maillé Lycée général et technologique de l'ensemble Sainte-Marie Lycée d'enseignement supé
Saïd M'Roumbaba, better known by his stage name Soprano, is a French singer and rapper of Comorian descent. He is a part of the rap group Psy 4 de la Rime. After leaving the group to make his first solo album he recorded his solo debut Puisqu'il Faut Vivre which made the Billboard European Top 100, he returned in 2010 with a new solo album called La Colombe, which included collaborations with numerous artists such as Indila and Amadou & Mariam. He has continued to work with Psy4 de la Rime: their third album, Les Cités d'Or, was released in 2008, their fourth album 4eme Dimension came out in April 2013. *Did not appear in the official Belgian Ultratop 50 charts, but rather in the bubbling under Ultratip charts. *Did not appear in the official Belgian Ultratop 50 charts, but rather in the bubbling under Ultratip charts. 2000Psy 4 De La Rime - La Pluie D'Un Desert sur la B. O. du film Comme un aimant Soprano Feat Sako - Pour de meilleurs... sur la mixtape Sad Hill Impact Psy 4 De La Rime - La fierté sur la mixtape Sad Hill Impact Psy 4 De La Rime - Pour mes gens sur la mixtape Sad Hill Impact 45 Niggaz Feat Psy 4 De La Rime - Mon Micro Et Mon Glaive sur l'album de 45 Niggaz, Les guerriers de Mars2001Psy 4 De La Rime - Le départ sur la mixtape Sur un air positif Soprano - Sugar sur la B.
O. du film Comme un aimant2002Akhenaton Feat Soprano - Paranoia sur l'album d'Akh, Black Album2003IAM Feat Soprano - La Violence sur l'album d'IAM, Revoir un printemps Psy 4 de La Rime - L'assemblee sur la mixtape TSE Music Vol.1 45 Niggaz Feat Soprano - 5 éléments sur l'album de 45 Niggaz, Justice Sauvage2004La Swija Feat Soprano - En bas sur l'album de La Swija, Des racines et des ailes La Swija Feat Psy 4 De La Rime - Au sourire levant sur l'album de La Swija, Des racines et des ailes Soprano - S. O. P. R. A. Sur la mixtape Têtes Brulées Soprano Feat L'algérino & Kalash - Réseaux Pas Hallal sur la mixtape Street Lourd Hall Stars Kery James Feat Soprano & Rohff - La Force sur la mixtape Savoir Et Vivre Ensemble Psy 4 De La Rime - L'Assemblée sur la mixtape TSE Music Bouchées Double Feat Psy 4 De La Rime - Micro trottoir sur le EP de Bouchées Double, Matière grise Soprano Feat Mino - L'enfer du devoir sur la mixtape Projet Ares Psy 4 De La Rime - Marseillais sur la mixtape OM All Stars Beretta Feat Soprano - Animaux dans les mots sur l'album de Beretta, Rimes 2 Zone Beretta Feat Soprano & L'algerino - Aussi Profond que l'ocean sur l'album de Beretta, Rimes 2 Zone2005L'algérino Feat Soprano - Etoile D'un Jour sur l'album de L'algérino, Les Derniers Seront Les Premiers L'algérino Feat Psy 4 De La Rime & IAM - M.
A. R. S. Sur l'album de L'algérino, Les Derniers Seront Les Premiers Medine Feat Soprano - Anéanti sur l'album de Médine, Jihad Psy 4 De La Rime - Lova sur la mixtape Illicite Projet Psy 4 De La Rime Feat Mystik & Mino - J'reste au front sur la mixtape Hematom Resurrection Soprano - Fréro tiens l'coup sur la mixtape Haute Tension Psy 4 De La Rime - De la paix a la haine sur la mixtape Neochrome Vol.3 Soprano Feat Mino & La Swija - Stallag 13 sur la mixtape Stallag 13 Soprano Feat Mino - On est les autres sur la mixtape Stallag 13 Soprano Feat Cesare - Freestyle radio sur la mixtape Stallag 13 Soprano Feat Vincenzo - Bootleg sur la mixtape Rap Performance2006Akhenaton Feat Psy 4 De La Rime - Vue De La Cage sur l'album d'Akh, Soldats De Fortune Psy 4 De La Rime - Bienvenue A Massilia sur la mixtape Mixtape Evolution Soprano Feat Sako & Akhenaton - Tant Que Dieu... sur la mixtape La Cosca Team Vol.2 Psy 4 De La Rime - Fou sur la mixtape La Cosca Team Vol.2 La Cosca Team - La Ronde sur la mixtape, La Cosca Team Vol.2 Kayna Samet Feat Soprano - Besoin De Renaître sur l'album de Kayna Samet, Entre Deux Je Soprano - Moi J'Ai Pas sur la mixtape Hostile 2006 Soprano - Mars Vice sur la mixtape Illégal Radio Moubaraka Feat Soprano - Espérance sur le Street CD de Moubaraka, L'envie de percer Psy 4 De La Rime Feat Le Rat Luciano, L'algérino & Bouga - Marseille all star sur la mixtape Crise des banlieues Soprano Feat L.
E. A - Derniere Chance sur la mixtape Block 4 Life Soprano Feat Médine - Ils Disent sur la mixtape Block 4 Life Psy 4 De La Rime - La Cosco sur la mixtape Independenza Labels Psy 4 De La Rime - Paix à la haine sur la mixtape 1Konito Vol.3 Samat Feat Soprano - Réfléchi sur l'album de Samat, Just Milieu Larsen Feat Soprano - Dis leur sur le Street CD de Larsen, Dark Album: En Parallele Soprano - Au-dela des codes postaux sur la mixtape Dans les rues de Marseille2007S. Teban Feat Soprano & Segnor Alonzo - The World Needs You sur la mixtape, TSE Music L'Apéro Tony P Feat Soprano & Don Choa - Les Clés De La Reussite sur l'album éponyme de Tony P K.ommando Toxic Feat Soprano & Tonino - Au taquet sur le Street CD du K.ommando Toxic, Cocktail explosif Psykopat Feat Soprano - Qui sur le Street CD des Psykopat, Antholopsy Melissa Feat Soprano - Jour de pluie sur l'album de Melissa, Avec tout mon amour Kalash L'afro Feat Soprano - Armadeus & Ghettoven sur l'album de Kalash, Cracheur de flammes2009La Fouine feat Soprano & Sefyu - Ca fait mal2010Soprano feat Afrob, Skero & Greis - Starting Block Exklusive for the German Rap Mag CD ZPU feat Soprano - Primera Clase Delahoja feat Soprano - Nuestra B.
S. O.2011Fabri Fibra featuring Redman and Soprano - Rap Futuristico C'est ma life featuring DJ Abdel BET Hip Hop Awards 2011 Cypher2012Sadek feat Soprano Au bout du chemin Redk feat Soprano Meskine and Avant de s'en aller
The Comoros the Union of the Comoros, is an island country in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique, the French region of Mayotte, northwestern Madagascar. The capital and largest city in Comoros is Moroni; the religion of the majority of the population is Sunni Islam. At 1,660 km2, excluding the contested island of Mayotte, the Comoros is the fourth-smallest African nation by area; the population, excluding Mayotte, is estimated at 795,601. As a nation formed at a crossroads of different civilisations, the archipelago is noted for its diverse culture and history; the archipelago was first inhabited by Bantu speakers who came from East Africa, supplemented by Arab and Austronesian immigration. The sovereign state is an archipelago consisting of three major islands and numerous smaller islands, all in the volcanic Comoro Islands; the major islands are known by their French names: northwestern-most Grande Comore, Mohéli, Anjouan.
In addition, the country has a claim on a fourth major island, southeastern-most Mayotte, though Mayotte voted against independence from France in 1974, has never been administered by an independent Comoros government, continues to be administered by France. France has vetoed United Nations Security Council resolutions that would affirm Comorian sovereignty over the island. In addition, Mayotte became an overseas department and a region of France in 2011 following a referendum passed overwhelmingly, it became part of the French colonial empire in the end of 19th century before becoming independent in 1975. Since declaring independence, the country has experienced more than 20 coups d'état or attempted coups, with various heads of state assassinated. Along with this constant political instability, the population of the Comoros lives with the worst income inequality of any nation, with a Gini coefficient over 60%, while ranking in the worst quartile on the Human Development Index; as of 2008 about half the population lived below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day.
The French insular region of Mayotte, the more prosperous territory in the Mozambique Channel, is the major destination for Comorian illegal migrants who flee their country. The Comoros is a member state of the African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Arab League and the Indian Ocean Commission. Other countries near the Comoros are the Seychelles to the northeast, its capital is Moroni, on Grande Comore. The Union of the Comoros has three official languages—Comorian and French; the name "Comoros" derives from the Arabic word قمر qamar. The first human inhabitants of the Comoro Islands are thought to have been Austronesian settlers travelling by boat from islands in Southeast Asia; these people arrived no than the sixth century AD, the date of the earliest known archaeological site, found on Nzwani, although settlement beginning as early as the first century has been postulated. The islands of the Comoros were populated by a succession of peoples from the coast of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and the Persian Gulf, the Malay Archipelago, Madagascar.
Bantu-speaking settlers reached the islands as a part of the greater Bantu expansion that took place in Africa throughout the first millennium. According to pre-Islamic mythology, a jinni dropped a jewel; this became the Karthala volcano. Development of the Comoros is divided into phases; the earliest reliably recorded phase is the Dembeni phase, during which each island maintained a single, central village. From the eleventh to the fifteenth centuries, trade with the island of Madagascar and merchants from the Middle East flourished, smaller villages emerged, existing towns expanded. Many Comorians can trace their genealogies to ancestors from Yemen Hadhramaut, Oman. According to legend, in 632, upon hearing of Islam, islanders are said to have dispatched an emissary, Mtswa-Mwindza, to Mecca—but by the time he arrived there, the Prophet Muhammad had died. Nonetheless, after a stay in Mecca, he returned to Ngazidja and led the gradual conversion of his islanders to Islam. Among the earliest accounts of East Africa, the works of Al-Masudi describe early Islamic trade routes, how the coast and islands were visited by Muslims including Persian and Arab merchants and sailors in search of coral, ivory, tortoiseshell and slaves.
They brought Islam to the people of the Zanj including the Comoros. As the importance of the Comoros grew along the East African coast, both small and large mosques were constructed. Despite its distance from the coast, the Comoros is situated along the Swahili Coast in East Africa, it was a major hub of trade and an important location in a network of trading towns that included Kilwa, in present-day Tanzania, Sofala, in Mozambique, Mombasa in Kenya. After the arrival of the Portuguese in the early 15th century and subsequent collapse of the East African sultanates, the powerful Omani Sultan Saif bin Sultan began to defeat the Dutch and the Portuguese, his successor Said bin Sultan increased Omani Arab influence in the region, moving his administration to nearby Zanzibar, which came under Omani r
"Mystik" is a song by Australian alternative rock artist Tash Sultana. It was released on 6 October 2017 as the second single from Sultana's debut studio album Flow State; the song peaked at number 77 on the ARIA Singles Chart and was certified gold in 2018. Sultana told Triple J they wrote the song "..about the death of my ego, really. Tried to just come back down and connect to myself and just be present, because when you're busy all the time you kind of get caught up in this whole mist and you forget to stop and be still and you get carried away thinking that you have to do all these things all the time when you just should be instead of do. Digital download"Mystik" – 4:09
Youssef Soukouna, better known by his stage name Sefyu, is a French rapper of Senegalese descent. He comes from Aulnay-sous-Bois, a city in the French department of Seine-Saint-Denis of, located within the northern suburbs of Paris. Sefyu aspired to become a professional soccer player, but his dream was derailed after he sustained an injury whilst playing for English club Arsenal, he emerged upon the hip-hop scene in the early 2000s to critical acclaim. Born in Paris, Sefyu played football for a great deal of time in the role of a left-winger, he went on to England to feature for London club Arsenal where he got an injury which ended his playing days. As so he changed his focus towards a career in hip hop. A member of the crews “NCC” and “G-Huit”, he started his ascent to fame by rapping with Rohff on his album La Fierté des nôtres, released in June 2004, he has worked with a vast array of French rappers, including Moystaff du Bengale, Ritmo, La K-Bine crew, Passi and Daddy Lord C. He performed publicly in 2001 at the Francofolies de la Rochelle.
In 2005, he released an EP entitled Molotov 4, produced by Kore et Skalp. In April 2006, Sefyu released his first album, titled Qui Suis-je?. Sefyu’s style of rap is characterised by a few features: a deep, husky voice, a range of unique phrases; these include Crrr!, an onomatopoeia imitating the sound of a gun being cocked and Crouille, French slang for riffraff or undercover. Some of his songs belong to the hardcore hip-hop genre such as “La vie qui va avec”, whereas others are inspired by R’n’B music like that of “Un point c’est tout”, his 2007 song ``". Authentik as well garnered gold status. On May 12, 2008, Sefyu released his second album, Suis-je le gardien de mon frère? Prior to its release, Sefyu made public the acclaimed singles “Mon Public”, “Molotov 4” and “Au pays du zahef” which contributed to the album’s commercial success. According to Planète Rap Magazine, 106,453 copies of Sefyu’s second LP were sold in France in 2008. Suis-je le gardien de mon frère? was certified gold. On March 1, 2009, Sefyu went on to win the Victoire de la Musique Award, in the category “Revelation of the year”.
Sefyu shows his face, hides it by wearing a hoody or covering it with his fist, a ski mask, or his fitted hat. The reason for this is twofold, firstly out of respect for those struggling to be noticed within the music industry as well so that persons would comprehend that one's image is of little note within such altogether. Albums2005: Molotov 4 2006: Qui suis-je? 2008: Suis-je le gardien de mon frère?'Collaborations 2001Sefyu - "La lutte libère" on "Sachons dire NON Vol.1" La K-Bine Feat Sefyu - "Des hommes en kolère" on "Le Rap est mort" 2002Gentlemen Feat Sefyu - "Vision 200" on The Gentlemen's album, "Mortelle Saint-Valentin" 2003Sefyu Feat Rohff, Zesau & Dry - "Baiser" on "Talents fâchés Vol.1" La K-Bine Feat Sefyu - "Crimes impunis" on La K-Bine's album, "Rapport de force" 2004Rohff Feat Sefyu, Alibi Montana & Kamel L'ancien - "Code 187" on Rohff's album, "La fierté des nôtres" Sefyu - "Flow du Malawi" on "Talents fâchés Vol.2" 2005Ol' Kainry & Dany Dan Feat Sefyu, Alibi Montana & Nubi - "Crie mon nom Remix" on the street CD of the same name K.ommando Toxic Feat Sefyu - "Pucc fiction Remix" on K.ommando Toxic' album, "Retour vers le futur" Seth Gueko Feat Sefyu - "Patate de forain" on Seth Gueko's street CD, "Barillet plein" Sefyu - "Interlude explicit" on "De la poudre au Rap" Samat Feat Sefyu, Larsen & Alibi Montana - "Ghetto guerrier" on Samat's mixtape, "Samat Feat Hip Hop de rue" Mic Fury Feat Sefyu & Alonzo - "Street zoologie" on Mic Fury's album, "Au bout du tunnel" Sefyu Feat Kuamen - "On vit comme on peut" on "Patrimoine du ghetto" Gentlemen Feat NCC - "Sourire de la haine" on The Gentlemen's mixtape, "Cobra" 2006Sefyu Feat RR & A.
P. - "On va te douiller" on "Illegal radio Alibi " 2007Aketo Feat Sefyu, Tunisiano & Six Coups Mc - "Style certifié" on Aketo's street CD, "Cracheur 2 venin" Rim'K Feat Sefyu - "Parloir fantôme" on Rim'K's album, "Famille nombreuse" Kenzah Farah Feat Sefyu - "Lettre du front" on Kenza's album, "Authentik" Alibi Montana Feat Sefyu&LIM - "Honneur aux ghettos" 2008Participated in Urban Peace 2, a hip-hop concert in 2008 2009La Fouine Feat Sefyu & Soprano - "Ça fait mal Remix" Sefyu Feat RR - "L'œil du ghetto" on "Les yeux dans la banlieue Vol.2" 2009: Artiste ou révélation du public aux Victoires de la musique avec son album « Suis-je le gardien de mon frère? ». Sefyu upon Discogs.com
Saint-Maur-des-Fossés is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 11.7 kilometres from the center of Paris. Saint-Maur-des-Fossés owes its name to an abbey founded in 638 by Queen Nanthild, regent for her son Clovis II, at a place called Fossati in Medieval Latin, Les Fossés in modern French, meaning "the moats"; this place, located at the narrow entrance of a loop where the Marne River made its way round a rocky outcrop, was named after the moats of an ancient Celtic oppidum and a Roman castrum. Massive foundations, sited so far from a Roman frontier, were attributed by C. Jullian to a temple or a villa instead. In Merovingian times, Gallo-Roman villas in the royal fisc were donated as sites for monasteries under royal patronage; the abbey, dedicated to Saint Peter, Saint Paul and the Virgin Mary, was called Sanctus Petrus Fossatensis in Medieval Latin, meaning "Saint Peter of the Moats". In 868, King Charles the Bald invited the monks of the Abbey of Saint-Maur de Glanfeuil, who had fled their abbey due to Viking invasion, to relocate to Saint Pierre des Fossés with their precious relics of Saint Maurus.
In the Middle Ages, the relics of Saint Maurus became famous as they were supposed to heal gout and epilepsy, Saint Pierre des Fossés became one of the most famous pilgrimage centers of medieval France. The rededication to Saint Maurus, in which abbey was renamed Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, was justified by the story that during a drought in 1137, prayers to the Virgin and Saints Peter and Paul having been ineffective, prayer to Saint Maur brought the needed rainfall; the abbey was secularised in 1535, in 1541, for Cardinal Jean du Bellay, bishop of Paris, the architect Philibert Delorme designed a château on the site, on four ranges of building around a square central court. Catherine de' Medici was a frequent visitor. On September 23, 1568, her teenage son, King Charles IX, issued the Edict of Saint-Maur, which prohibited all religions but Catholicism, it prompted fierce religious intolerance in Paris and led to the 1572, St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. Building projects at the site were only interrupted by Catherine's death.
The Château de Saint-Maur, still in the possession of the Condé family, was nationalised during the French Revolution, emptied of its contents, its terrains divided up among real-estate speculators. The structure was demolished for the value of its materials; the little settlement that grew around the abbey, known as Saint-Maur-des-Fossés, developed a market during the thirteenth century. The present territory includes a distinct village, La Varenne-Saint-Hilaire, against the perimeter of the nearby game preserve of Saint-Hilaire, part of the abbey's domaines. In 1791, part of the territory of Saint-Maur-des-Fossés was detached and became the commune of La Branche-du-Pont-de-Saint-Maur renamed Joinville-le-Pont. After the abbey itself was abandoned, its church providing building materials in the town. During the French Revolution, Saint-Maur-des-Fossés was temporarily renamed Vivant-sur-Marne in a gesture of rejection of religion. After the Revolution, the official name of the commune was Saint-Maur.
In 1924, a few vestiges of the abbey were collected in the newly established Musée du vieux Saint-Maur. Vincenzo Peruggia, an Italian thief who stole the Mona Lisa on 21 August 1911, died in Saint-Maur-des-Fossés. Philippe Diolé, diver and explorer, was born in Saint-Maur-des-Fossés. Manu Katché is songwriter. Saint-Maur-des-Fossés is entirely surrounded by a loop of the river Marne. Saint-Maur-des-Fossés is served by four stations on Paris RER line A: Saint-Maur – Créteil, Le Parc de Saint-Maur, La Varenne – Chennevières. Saint-Maur-des-Fossés is served by many buses, like the TVM, where Saint-Maur-Créteil is one of the bus terminal. There are primary schools in the commune. Public junior high schools: Collège Le Parc Collège RabelaisPublic senior high schools: Lycée Marcelin Berthelot Lycée d'Arsonval Lycée CondorcetPrivate schools: Ensemble scolaire Saint-André Ecole et collège Jeanne D'Arc Lycée Teilhard de Chardin Saint-Maur-des-Fossés organize a Short Subject Festival. Prizes: "The Note" by Jon Greenhalgh and Anne-Élisabeth Blateau as best actress.
Saint-Maur-des-Fossés is twinned with: Ramat HaSharon, Israel Bognor Regis, United Kingdom Rimini, Italy La Louvière, Belgium Ziguinchor, Senegal Hamelin, Germany Leiria, Portugal Pforzheim, Germany Communes of the Val-de-Marne department INSEE Mayors of Essonne Association City Website "St Maur-des-Fossés". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. 1911. P. 31. Historical and Archaeological Association Site des conseillers municipaux de l'opposition