Nasir-ud-Din Muḥammad Shah was Mughal emperor from 1719 to 1748. He was son of Khujista Akhtar, the fourth son of Bahadur Shah I. With the help of the Sayyid brothers, he ascended the throne at the young age of 17, he got rid of them with the help of Asaf Jah I – Syed Hussain Ali Khan was murdered at Fatehpur Sikri in 1720 and Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha was fatally poisoned in 1722. Muhammad Shah was a great patron of the arts, including musical and administrative developments, his pen-name was Sada Rangila and he is referred to as "Muhammad Shah Rangila" sometimes as "Bahadur Shah Rangila" after his grand father Bahadur Shah I. Although he was a patron of the arts, Muhammad Shah's reign was marked by rapid and irreversible decline of the Mughal Empire; the Mughal Empire was decaying, but the invasion by Nader Shah of Persia and the subsequent sacking of Delhi, the Mughal capital accelerated the pace. The course of events not only shocked and mortified the Mughals themselves, but other foreigners, including the British.
Muhammad Shah was born in 1702 in Ghazna to Prince Khujista Akhtar, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. His grandfather Bahadur Shah I defeated and eliminated his own brother Muhammad Azam Shah on 19 June 1707 at the Battle of Jajau. During another war of succession, following the death of Bahadur Shah, his father was killed, the 12-year-old prince and his mother were imprisoned by his uncle Jahandar Shah but spared from death; the prince was handsome and quick to learn, his mother took good care of his education, while his father enhanced his administrative abilities. After the overthrow of Farrukhsiyar in 1719, several Mughal Emperors ascended the throne, but the Sayyid Brothers chose the 17-year-old Muhammad Shah as emperor. On 29 September 1719, Muhammad Shah was given the title Abu Al-Fatah Nasir-ud-Din Roshan Akhtar Muhammad Shah and enthroned in the Red Fort, his mother was given an allowance of 15 thousand rupees monthly for her needs, but the Sayyid Brothers kept the new emperor under strict supervision.
The Mughal Grand Vizier Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha and his brother the Mughal commander and chief Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha were well aware that Asaf Jah I and his companions Qamaruddin Khan, Zain ud-din Ahmad Khan intended to dissolve their administration. The Sayyid Brothers nominated an amateur, Prince Muhammad Ibrahim, who proclaimed himself Mughal Emperor, but he was defeated by the new loyalists of the young Muhammad Shah on 13 November 1720. On 9th of October 1720, Syed Hussain Ali Khan Barha, the commander and chief of the most elite Mughal Army, was assassinated in his encampment in Toba Bhim; the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah took direct command of his forces. Asaf Jah I was dispatched to gain complete control of six Mughal provinces in the Deccan, Muhammad Amin Khan Turani was assigned as the Mansabdar of 8,000, he was sent to pursue the Mughal Grand Vizier Syed Hassan Ali Khan Barha, defeated at the Battle of Hasanpur by Turani, Mir Muhammad Amin Irani and Muhammad Haider Beg. He was executed two years later.
The emperor had to fight Muhammad Ibrahim, but young Muhammad Shah defeated him on 13 November 1720. The fall of the Sayyid Brothers marked the beginning of the end of the Mughal Empire's direct control over its dominions in the Deccan. In the year 1721, young Muhammad Shah married the daughter of the deposed Mughal Emperor Farrukhsiyar. On 21 February 1722, Muhammad Shah appointed the Asaf Jah I as Grand Vizier, he advised Muhammad Shah to be "as cautious as Akbar and as brave as Aurangzeb". Asaf Jah I resigned his post as the Grand Vizier when Muhammad Shah expressed negligence towards his administration. Asaf Jah I appointed commander Ewaz Khan as the master of the garrison at Aurangabad, much of his logistical duties were carried out by Inayatullah Kashmiri. Asaf Jah I left the imperial court in disgust and appointed his deputy Qamaruddin Khan as the next Grand Vizier. In 1723 he set out on an expedition to the Deccan, where he fought Mubariz Khan, the Mughal Subedar of the Deccan, who kept the ravaging Marathas at bay.
Taking advantage of Mubariz Khan's conventional weaknesses, Asaf Jah I defeated and eliminated his opponent during the Battle of Shakar kheda. Asaf Jah I established the Nizam of Hyderabad in 1725. During this time, the Mughal-Maratha Wars would cause irreparable devastation to the inhabitants of the ill-administered Mughal Empire. Despite efforts to counter the rise of rebellions in 1724, by the Nawab of Awadh Saadat Ali Khan and the Mughal Subedar in Bangalore, Dilawar Khan, who established a well-protected bastion in the Malabar Coast. Muhammad Ali Khan the Mughal Faujdar of Rangpur and his stern ally Deena Narayan were ambushed out of Koch Bihar by Upendra Narayan a Hindu Bihari and Mipham Wangpo the ruler of Bhutan. Ali Muhammad Khan Rohilla had established the barons of Rohilakhand; the Nawab of Bhopal, Yar Muhammad Khan Bahadur ratified by the Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah in 1728, countered ceaseless raids by the Marathas in Malwa and nearly began to lose half of his territories in the year 1742.
Muhammad Shah learned the skills of statesmanship after removing his three incompetent advisors, namely Koki Jee, Roshan-ud-Daula and Sufi Abdul Ghafur of Thatta. In the Punjab region, the Sikhs were at war with Mughal Subedars, the hit-and-run tactics of the Sikh warriors caused devastation. In Ajmer, Ajit Singh allied himself with the renegade Marathas. While in the Decc
The Hindu Kush known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus or Paropamisadae, is an 800-kilometre-long mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border, from central Afghanistan to northern Pakistan. It forms the western section of the Hindu Kush Himalayan Region, it divides the valley of the Amu Darya to the north from the Indus River valley to the south. The Hindu Kush range has numerous high snow-capped peaks, with the highest point in the Hindu Kush being Tirich Mir or Terichmir at 7,708 metres in the Chitral District of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To the north, near its northeastern end, the Hindu Kush buttresses the Pamir Mountains near the point where the borders of China and Afghanistan meet, after which it runs southwest through Pakistan and into Afghanistan near their border; the eastern end of the Hindu Kush in the north merges with the Karakoram Range. Towards its southern end, it connects with the Spin Ghar Range near the Kabul River; the Hindu Kush range region was a significant centre of Buddhism with sites such as the Bamiyan Buddhas.
The range and communities settled in it hosted ancient monasteries, important trade networks, travelers between Central Asia and South Asia. The Hindu Kush range has been the passageway during the invasions of the Indian subcontinent, continues to be important during modern-era warfare in Afghanistan. Geologically, the range is rooted in the formation of a subcontinent from a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period; the Indian subcontinent and islands of the Indian Ocean rifted further, drifting northeastwards, with the Indian subcontinent colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Palaeocene. This collision created the Himalayas, including the Hindu Kush; the Hindu Kush range is still rising. It is prone to earthquakes; the origins of the name Hindu Kush are uncertain, with various theories being propounded by different scholars and writers. According to Hobson-Jobson, the name might be a possible corruption of Indicus Caucasus, with another explanation mentioned first by Ibn Batuta remaining popular despite doubts upon it, the modification of the name by some writers into Hindu Koh is factitious and throws no light on the name's origin.
In the time of Alexander the Great, the Hindu Kush range was referred to as the Caucasus Indicus or the "Caucasus of the Indus River", in the time of Islam in India, the regular invasions derived Hind Kash as Hindu Kush Hindū Kūh and Kūh-e Hind applied to the entire range separating the basins of the Kabul and Helmand Rivers from that of the Amu Darya, or, more to that part of the range lying northwest of Kabul. Sanskrit documents refer to the Hindu Kush as Hind kshetra in short Hind Kash as frontier lands of India. "Kash as in Kashmir" word synonym of frontier part of a "Kusha" grass. Hind Kash all around from Amu Darya to Kashmir was Kshetra for meditation and teaching by founders of Hinduism; the mountain range was called "Paropamisadae" by Hellenic Greeks in the late first millennium BC. The word Koh or Kuh means "mountain" in Khowar. According to Nigel Allan, Hindu Kush meant both "mountains of India" and "sparkling snows of India", as he notes, from a Central Asian perspective. A Persian-English dictionary indicates that the suffix'koš' is the present stem of the verb "to kill".
According to Francis Joseph Steingass, the word and suffix "-kush" means "a male. A Practical Dictionary of the Persian Language gives the meaning of the word kush as "hotbed". According to one interpretation, the name Hindu Kush means "kills the Hindu" or "Hindu killer" and is a reminder of the days when slaves from the Indian subcontinent died in the harsh weather typical of the Afghan mountains while being taken to Central Asia; the World Book Encyclopedia states that the word kush means death, was given to the mountains because of their dangerous passes. In his travel memoirs about India, the 14th century Moroccan traveller Muhammad Ibn Battuta mentioned crossing into India via the mountain passes of the Hindu Kush. In his Rihla, he mentions the history of the range in slave trading. Alexander von Humboldt stated that it can be learned from his work that the name only referred to a single mountain pass upon which many Indian slaves died of the cold weather. Battuta wrote, After this I proceeded to the city of Barwan, in the road to, a high mountain, covered with snow and exceedingly cold.
The name Hindu Kush is young, states Ervin Grötzbach, it is "missing from the accounts of the early Arab geographers and occurs for the first time in Ibn Baṭṭuṭa". Ibn Baṭṭuṭa, states Grötzbach, saw the "origin of the name Hindu Kush in the fact that numerous Hindu slaves died crossing the pass on their way from India to Turkestan". In contrast, state Fosco Maraini and Nigel Allan, the earliest known usage occurs on a map published about 1000 CE. According to Allan, the term Hindu Kush has been seen to mean "Hindu killer", but two other meaning
Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad known by the sobriquet Aurangzeb or by his regnal title Alamgir, was the sixth Mughal emperor, who reigned for a period of 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. Considered to be the last effective Mughal emperor, Aurangzeb was one of the most influential rulers of the 17th century; as a memorizer of the Quran, he was one of the few powerful rulers who established Sharia law and Islamic ethics in India. Described as a military paragon,although Aurangzeb has never claimed to be a caliph of the Muslim community, he has been variously called as a Caliph of The Merciful, Monarch of Islam, Living Custodian of God, he was an Islamic economist. During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to 4 million square kilometres, he ruled over a population estimated to be over 158 million subjects, with an annual yearly revenue of $450 million, or £38,624,680 in 1690. Under his reign, India surpassed China to become the world's largest economy and manufacturing power, worth over $90 billion, nearly a quarter of global GDP and more than the entirety of Western Europe.
Unlike his predecessors, including his father Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb considered the royal treasury to be held in trust for the citizens of his empire. He did not enjoy a luxurious life and his personal expenses and constructions of small mosques were covered by his own earnings, which included the sewing of caps and trade of his written copies of the Quran. Aurangzeb has been subject to controversy and criticism for his policies that abandoned his predecessors' legacy of pluralism and religious tolerance, citing his introduction of the Jizya tax, destruction of Hindu temples, the executions of Maratha Kingdom ruler Sambhaji and the ninth Sikh guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur. Various historians question the historicity of the claims of his critics, arguing that his destruction of temples has been exaggerated, noting that he built temples, paid for the maintenance of temples, employed more Hindus in his imperial bureaucracy than his predecessors did, opposed bigotry against Hindus and Shia Muslims. Aurangzeb's other criticisms include the prohibition and supervision of behaviour and activities that are forbidden in Islam, such as the bowing to the king, drinking of alcohol, sexual immorality, human drawings, servitude, music and the use of narcotic and addictive substances,which have been argued to have violated rights to freedom of enjoyment.
The downfall of the Mughal Empire is sometimes thought to have begun after his due to his political and religious intolerance. Aurangzeb died by natural causes at his military camp in 1707, his funeral was ascetically decent and his personal earnings that were left was given to charity as per his instructions, his death marks the end of Medieval India, the start of modern Indian history and the domination of European powers in India. Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Gujarat, he was the third son and sixth child of Mumtaz Mahal. In June 1626, after an unsuccessful rebellion by his father and his brother Dara Shukoh were kept as hostages under their grandparents' Lahore court. On 26 February 1628, Shah Jahan was declared the Mughal Emperor, Aurangzeb returned to live with his parents at Agra Fort, where Aurangzeb received his formal education in Arabic and Persian, his daily allowance was fixed at Rs. 500, which he spent on religious education and the study of history. On 28 May 1633, Aurangzeb escaped death when a powerful war elephant stampeded through the Mughal Imperial encampment.
He rode against the elephant and struck its trunk with a lance, defended himself from being crushed. Aurangzeb's valour was appreciated by his father who conferred him the title of Bahadur and had him weighed in gold and presented gifts worth Rs. 200,000. This event was celebrated in Persian and Urdu verses, Aurangzeb said: If the fight had ended fatally for me, it would not have been a matter of shame. Death drops the curtain on Emperors; the shame lay in what my brothers did! Aurangzeb was nominally in charge of the force sent to Bundelkhand with the intent of subduing the rebellious ruler of Orchha, Jhujhar Singh, who had attacked another territory in defiance of Shah Jahan's policy and was refusing to atone for his actions. By arrangement, Aurangzeb stayed in the rear, away from the fighting, took the advice of his generals as the Mughal Army gathered and commenced the Siege of Orchha in 1635; the campaign was successful and Singh was removed from power. Aurangzeb was appointed viceroy of the Deccan in 1636.
After Shah Jahan's vassals had been devastated by the alarming expansion of Ahmednagar during the reign of the Nizam Shahi boy-prince Murtaza Shah III, the emperor dispatched Aurangzeb, who in 1636 brought the Nizam Shahi dynasty to an end. In 1637, Aurangzeb married the Safavid princess Dilras Banu Begum, posthumously known as Rabia-ud-Daurani, she was his first chief consort as well as his favourite. He had an infatuation with a slave girl, Hira Bai, whose death at a young age affected him. In his old age, he was under the charms of Udaipuri Bai; the latter had been a companion to Dara Shukoh. In the same year, 1637, Aurangzeb was placed in charge of annexing the small Rajput kingdom of Baglana
The Pashtuns known as ethnic Afghans and Pathans, are an Iranian ethnic group who live in Pakistan and Afghanistan in South-Central Asia. They speak the Pashto language and adhere to Pashtunwali, a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct; the ethnogenesis of the Pashtun ethnic group is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC, who may be their early ancestors. Their history is spread amongst the present-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, centred on their traditional seat of power in that region. Globally, the Pashtuns are estimated to number around 50 million, but an accurate count remains elusive due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979; the majority of the Pashtuns live in the region regarded as Pashtunistan, split between the two countries since the Durand Line border was formed after the Second Anglo-Afghan War. There are significant Pashtun diaspora communities in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan, in particular in the cities of Karachi and Lahore.
A recent Pashtun diaspora has developed in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf in the United Arab Emirates. The Pashtuns are a significant minority group in Pakistan, where they constitute the second-largest ethnic group or about 15% of the population; as the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, Pashtuns have been the dominant ethno-linguistic group for over 300 years. During the Delhi Sultanate era, the 15th–16th century Lodi dynasty replaced the preexisting rulers in North India until Babur deposed the Lodi dynasty. Other Pashtuns fought the Safavids and Mughals before obtaining an independent state in the early 18th century, which began with a successful revolution by Mirwais Hotak followed by conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrani; the Barakzai dynasty played a vital role during the Great Game from the 19th century to the 20th century as they were caught between the imperialist designs of the British and Russian empires. The Pashtuns are the world's largest segmentary lineage ethnic group. Estimates of the number of Pashtun tribes and clans range from about 350 to over 400.
There have been many notable Pashtun people throughout history: Ahmad Shah Durrani is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan, while Bacha Khan was a Pashtun independence activist against the rule of the British Raj. Some others include Malala Yousafzai, Shah Rukh Khan, Zarine Khan, Imran Khan, Farhad Darya, Abdul Ahad Mohmand, Ahmad Zahir, Zakir Husain, Hamid Karzai, Ashraf Ghani, Mullah Mohammed Omar; the vast majority of the Pashtuns are found in the traditional Pashtun homeland, located in an area south of the Amu Darya in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan, which includes Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern part of Balochistan. Additional Pashtun communities are located in Western and Northern Afghanistan, the Gilgit–Baltistan and Kashmir regions and northwestern Punjab province, Pakistan. There are sizeable Muslim communities in India, which are of Pashtun ancestry. Throughout the Indian subcontinent, they are referred to as Pathans. Smaller Pashtun communities are found in the countries of the Middle East, such as in the Khorasan Province of Iran, the Arabian Peninsula, North America and Australia.
Important metropolitan centres of Pashtun culture include Peshawar, Quetta, Mardan and Jalalabad. In Pakistan, the city of Karachi in Sindh province has the largest Pashtun diaspora communities in the world, with as much as 7 million Pashtuns living in Karachi according to some estimates. Several cities in Pakistan's Punjab province have sizeable Pashtun populations, in particular Lahore. About 15% of Pakistan's nearly 200 million population is Pashtun. In Afghanistan, they are the largest ethnic group and make up between 42–60% of the 32.5 million population. The exact figure remains uncertain in Afghanistan, affected by the 1.3 million or more Afghan refugees that remain in Pakistan, a majority of which are Pashtuns. Another one million or more Afghans live in Iran. A cumulative population assessment suggests a total of around 49 million individuals all across the world. A prominent institution of the Pashtun people is the intricate system of tribes; the Pashtuns remain a predominantly tribal people, but the trend of urbanisation has begun to alter Pashtun society as cities such as Kandahar, Peshawar and Kabul have grown due to the influx of rural Pashtuns.
Despite this, many people still identify themselves with various clans. The tribal system has several levels of organisation: the tribe, tabar, is divided into kinship groups called khels, in turn divided into smaller groups, each consisting of several extended families called kahols. Pashtun tribes are divided into four'greater' tribal groups: the Sarbani, the Bettani, the Gharghashti, the Karlani. Excavations of prehistoric sites suggest that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago. Since the 2nd millennium BC, cities in the region now inhabited by Pashtuns have seen invasions and migrations, including by Ancient Indian peoples, Ancient Iranian peoples, the Medes and Ancient Macedonians in antiquity, Hephthalites, Turks and others. In recent times, people of the Western world have explored the area as well. Most historians acknowledge that the origin of the Pashtuns is some
Suriname known as the Republic of Suriname, is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers, it is the smallest sovereign state in South America. Suriname has a population of 558,368, most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo. Suriname was long inhabited by various indigenous people before being invaded and contested by European powers from the 16th century coming under Dutch rule in the late 17th century; as the chief sugar colony during the Dutch colonial period, it was a plantation economy dependent on African slaves and, following the abolition of slavery in 1863, indentured servants from Asia. Suriname was ruled by the Dutch-chartered company Sociëteit van Suriname between 1683 and 1795. In 1954, Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
On 25 November 1975, the country of Suriname left the Kingdom of the Netherlands to become an independent state, nonetheless maintaining close economic and cultural ties to its former colonizer. Suriname is considered to be a culturally Caribbean country, is a member of the Caribbean Community. While Dutch is the official language of government, business and education, Sranan Tongo, an English-based creole language, is a used lingua franca. Suriname is the only sovereign nation outside Europe where Dutch is spoken by a majority of the population; as a legacy of colonization, the people of Suriname are among the most diverse in the world, spanning a multitude of ethnic and linguistic groups. The name Suriname may derive from an indigenous people called Surinen, who inhabited the area at the time of European contact. British settlers, who founded the first European colony at Marshall's Creek along the Suriname River, spelled the name as "Surinam"; when the territory was taken over by the Dutch, it became part of a group of colonies known as Dutch Guiana.
The official spelling of the country's English name was changed from "Surinam" to "Suriname" in January 1978, but "Surinam" can still be found in English. A notable example is Surinam Airways; the older English name is reflected in the English pronunciation. In Dutch, the official language of Suriname, the pronunciation is, with the main stress on the third syllable and a schwa terminal vowel. Indigenous settlement of Suriname dates back to 3,000 BC; the largest tribes were a nomadic coastal tribe that lived from hunting and fishing. They were the first inhabitants in the area; the Carib settled in the area and conquered the Arawak by using their superior sailing ships. They settled in Galibi at the mouth of the Marowijne River. While the larger Arawak and Carib tribes lived along the coast and savanna, smaller groups of indigenous people lived in the inland rainforest, such as the Akurio, Trió, Wayana. Beginning in the 16th century, French and English explorers visited the area. A century Dutch and English settlers established plantation colonies along the many rivers in the fertile Guiana plains.
The earliest documented colony in Guiana was an English settlement named Marshall's Creek along the Suriname River. After that there was another short-lived English colony called Willoughbyland that lasted from 1650 to 1674. Disputes arose between the English for control of this territory. In 1667, during negotiations leading to the Treaty of Breda, the Dutch decided to keep the nascent plantation colony of Suriname they had gained from the English; the English were able to keep New Amsterdam, the main city of the former colony of New Netherland in North America on the mid-Atlantic coast. A cultural and economic hub in those days, they renamed it after the Duke of York: New York City. In 1683, the Society of Suriname was founded by the city of Amsterdam, the Van Aerssen van Sommelsdijck family, the Dutch West India Company; the society was chartered to defend the colony. The planters of the colony relied on African slaves to cultivate and process the commodity crops of coffee, sugar cane and cotton plantations along the rivers.
Planters' treatment of the slaves was notoriously bad—historian C. R. Boxer wrote that "man's inhumanity to man just about reached its limits in Surinam"—and many slaves escaped the plantations. With the help of the native South Americans living in the adjoining rain forests, these runaway slaves established a new and unique culture in the interior, successful in its own right, they were known collectively in English as Maroons, in French as Nèg'Marrons, in Dutch as Marrons. The Maroons developed several independent tribes through a process of ethnogenesis, as they were made up of slaves from different African ethnicities; these tribes include the Saramaka, Ndyuka or Aukan, Aluku or Boni, Matawai. The Maroons raided plantations to recruit new members from the slaves and capture women, as well as to acquire weapons and supplies, they sometimes killed their families in the raids. The colonists mounted armed campaigns against the Maroons, who escaped through the rain forest, which they knew much better than did the colonis
Rohillas is a community of Urdu-speaking people of Pashtun ethnicity found in Rohilkhand, a region in the state of Uttar Pradesh, North India. It forms the largest Pashtun diaspora community in India, has given its name to the Rohilkhand region; the terms Pashtun and Afghan were synonymous, but the present-day Indian constitution does not recognise Pathan as being synonymous with Afghan. The Rohillas are found all over Uttar Pradesh, but are more concentrated in the Rohilkhand regions of Bareilly and Rampur district. After the Partition of India in 1947, some members of the Rohilla migrated to Pakistan and settled in Karachi; the term Rohilla is derived from the word Roh. Roh was the homeland of the Pashtuns now known as Pashtunistan, in the southern foothills of the Hindu Kush; the region of Roh has been called "Pashtunkhwa" and "Afghanistan". Pashtuns the Mandarr Yousafzai tribe living in this valley were known as Rohillas when they settled the area known as Katehr, it became known as Rohilkhand which means the land of the Rohillas.
A majority of Rohillas migrated from Pashtunistan to North India between the 18th century. The founders of the Pashtun state of Rohilkhand were Daud Khan and his adopted son Ali Muhammad Khan Bangash. Daud Khan arrived in South Asia in 1705, he brought along a band of the Barech. Daud Khan was awarded the Katehr region in the northern India by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb to suppress Rajput uprisings, which had afflicted this region; some 20,000 soldiers from various Pashtun tribes such as were hired by Mughals to provide mercenary soldier for the Mughal armies. This was appreciated by Aurangzeb and since this force of 25,000 men was given respected positions in the Mughal Army. Daud Khan was succeeded by Ali Muhammad Khan in 1721, he became so powerful. Safdar Jang, the Nawab of Oudh, warned the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah of the growing power of the Rohillas; this caused Mohammed Shah to send an expedition against him as a result of which he surrendered to imperial forces. He was taken to Delhi as a prisoner, but was pardoned and appointed governor of Sirhind.
Most of his soldiers has settled in the Katehar region during Nadir Shah's invasion of northern India in 1739 increasing the Rohilla population in the area to 100,000. Due to the large settlement of Rohilla Afghans, this part Katehar region came to be known as Rohilkhand. Bareilly was made the capital of this newly formed Rohilkhand state; when Ali Muhammad Khan died, leaving six sons. However, two of his elder sons were in Afghanistan at the time of his death while the other four were too young to assume the leadership of Rohilkhand; as a result, power transferred to other Rohilla Sardars, the most important being Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech, Najib-ud-Daula and Dundi Khan. According to the 1901 census of India, the total Pathan population of Bareilly District was 40,779, while the total population was 1,090,117. In the third battle of Panipat one of the Rohilla Sardars, Najib-ul-Daula, allied himself with Ahmad Shah Abdali against the Marathas, he not only provided 40,000 Rohilla troops but 70 guns to the allied.
He convinced Shuja-ul-Daula, the Nawab of Oudh, to join Ahmad Shah Abdali's forces against the Marathas. In this battle, the Marathas were defeated and as a consequence the Rohilla increased in power; the Marathas invaded Rohilkhand to retaliate against the Rohillas' participation in the Panipat war. The Marathas under the leadership of the Maratha ruler Mahadji Shinde entered the land of Sardar Najib-ud-Daula, held by his son Zabita Khan after the sardar's death. Zabita Khan resisted the attack but was defeated by the Marathas and forced to flee to the camp of Shuja-ud-Daula and his country was ravaged by Marathas; the Maratha ruler Mahadji Shinde captured the family of Zabita Khan, desecrated the grave of Najib ad-Dawlah and looted his fort. The principal remaining Rohilla Sardar was Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech and through him an agreement was formed with the Nawab of Oudh, Shuja-ud-Daula, by which the Rohillas agreed to pay four million rupees in return for military help against the Marathas.
However, after Oudh attacked the Rohillas, they refused to pay. Rohillas were attacked by the neighbouring kingdom of Oudh, who received assistance from the British East India Company forces under Colonel Alexander Champion; this conflict is known as the Rohilla War. When Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech was killed, in April 1774, Rohilla resistance crumbled, Rohilkhand was annexed by the kingdom of Oudh. Rohillas fled into the dense forests across the Ganges, began a guerrilla war. In response, many Rohillas were hunted down by the troops of British East India company and subsequently scattered in the countryside, they settled in cities. Charges of ethnic cleansing and genocide were brought against Warren Hastings of the East India Company, by Edmund Burke and were taken up by Thomas Babington Macaulay. From 1774 to 1799, the region was administered by Khwaja Almas Khan, a Meo from Haryana, as representative of the Awadh rulers; this period was tough for the Rohillas, as Almas Khan made every effort to weaken the Rohillas.
In 1799, British East India company annexed the territory, started to pay a pension to the family of Hafiz Rahmat Khan Barech. While most of Rohilkhand was annexed, the Rohilla State of Rampur was established by Nawab Faizullah Khan on 7 October 1774 in the
The Afrīdī is a Pashtun tribe present in Pakistan, with substantial numbers in Afghanistan. The Afridis are most dominant in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas, inhabiting about 100p mi² of rough hilly area in the Zarlash eastern Spin Ghar range west of Peshawar, covering most of Khyber Agency, FR Peshawar and FR Kohat, their territory includes Maidan in Tirah. Afridi migrants are found in India in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir; the Afridis are known for the strategic location they inhabit and their belligerence against outside forces. The clashes against British expeditions comprised the most savage fighting of the Anglo-Afghan Wars. After the creation of Pakistan, Afridi tribesmen helped attack Jammu and Kashmir for Pakistan during the Indo-Pakistani war of 1947. Today, Afridis make use of their dominant social position in FATA and areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa by controlling transport and various businesses, including trade in arms and other goods; the Afridi are Pashtuns, part of the Karlani tribal confederacy, who fought both against and with the British in Afghanistan during all three Anglo-Afghan wars.
The British classified the peoples that they conquered with fixed personality or “racial” traits and regarded the Pashtun Afridi tribesmen as “warlike” peoples and one of the Martial Race. Different Afridi clans cooperated with the British forces in exchange for subsidies, some served with the Khyber Rifles, an auxiliary force of the British Indian Army. Afridis speak the Afridi Pashto; the Afridis, classically called the Abaörteans, have their original homeland as Tirah, in Khyber Agency. According to Pashtun folklore, the Afridi tribe traces its origin back to the eponymous ancestor of all Pashtuns, Qais Abdur Rashid, through his youngest son, Karlan. Thus, the Afridi tribe are one of the Karlani tribe. Herodotus mentions a tribe of the Pactyans as Aparytai. Scholars Grierson and Olaf Caroe equate these with modern Afridis on the basis of linguistic and geographic analysis; the Afridis and other Pashtuns of Afghanistan and Pakistan have been alleged to be the descendants of the lost Jewish tribes such as the Efraim.
However, DNA and other research towards validating such claims has been inconclusive. The Afridi Tribe is sub classified into eight sub tribes listed below. Kuki Khel Malik din Khel Qambar Khel Kamar Khel Zakha Khel Aka Khel Sepah Adam Khel All Afridi clans have their own areas in the Tirah Valley, most of them extend down into the Khyber Pass over which they have always exercised the right of toll; the Malikdin Khel live in the centre of the Tirah and hold Bagh, the traditional meeting place of Afridi jirgas or assemblies. The Aka Khel are scattered in the hills south of Jamrud. All of this area is included in the Khyber Agency; the Adam Khel live in the hills between Kohat. The Burki live in Kanigoram Valley and Peshawar, their preserve is the Kohat Pass in which several of the most important Afridi gun factories are located. All modern Afridis follow Islam, their conversion to Islam is attributed to Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni by Haroon Rashid. The Afridis and their allies Khalils were first mentioned in the memoirs of Mughal Emperor Babar as violent tribes in need of subduing.
The Afridi tribes controlled the Khyber Pass, which has served as a corridor connecting the Indian subcontinent with Afghanistan and Central Asia. Its strategic value was not lost on the Mughals to. Over the course of Mughal rule, Emperors Akbar and Jahangir both dispatched punitive expeditions to suppress the Afridis, to little success; the Afridis once destroyed two large Mughal armies of Emperor Aurangzeb: in 1672, in a surprise attack between Peshawar and Kabul, in the winter of 1673, in an ambush in the mountain passes. The emperor himself had to lead an army into the mountains to suffocate the revolt and liberate the mountain passes and then, another large army was "badly mauled" in Bajaur. Only five Mughals made it out of the battle alive; the British connection with the Adam Khel Afridis commenced after the annexation of the Peshawar and Kohat districts. Following the example of all the previous rulers, the British agreed to pay the tribe a subsidy to protect the pass. However, in 1850, 100p Afridis attacked a body of British sappers engaged in making a road, killing 12 and wounding 6.
It was supposed. An expedition of 3200 British troops was despatched, which punished them; when the Afridis of the Kohat Pass resisted, the Jowaki Afridis offered the use of their route instead. In 1854, the Aka Khels Afridis, not finding themselves admitted to a share of the allowances of the Kohat Pass, commenced a series of raids on the Peshawar border and attacked a British camp. An expedition of 1500 troops entered the country and inflicted severe punishment on the tribe, who made their submission and paid a fine. In 1877, the British government proposed to reduce the Jowaki allowance for guarding the Kohat Pass, the tribesmen showed their resentment of this by cutting the telegraph wire and raiding into British territory. A force of 1500 troops penetrated their country in three columns in the Jowaki Expedition and did considerable damage by way of punishment. However, the attitude of the Jowakis continued the same, their raids into British territory went on