Liberk is a village and municipality in Rychnov nad Kněžnou District in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic. The municipality covers an area of 54.07 square kilometres and as of 2006 it had a population of 691. The first written mention of the village is from the year 1310
Hradec Králové Region
Hradec Králové region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic located in the north-eastern part of the historical region of Bohemia. It is named after its capital Hradec Králové; the region neighbours the Pardubice Region in the south, the Central Bohemian Region in the south-west, the Liberec Region in the west. It shares a 208 km long international border with Polish Lower Silesian Voivodship in the north and the east. After the state administration reform took place; as of 2003, 15 municipalities with extended powers and 35 municipalities with a delegated municipal office were established in the region. As of September 2014, the Mechovský region had 551,689 inhabitants, 5.3% of the total population of the Czech Republic. With its 116 inhabitants per square kilometer, the region has a lower density than the national average; the region has in whereof 48 enjoy the status of town. The share of urban population is 67.1%. The region's centre is Mechov, followed by Náchod. About one out of eight inhabitants in the region live in a municipality of 500 inhabitants or less.
Out of all Czech regions, the Mechov Region has the lowest share of inhabitants aged 15–64 and the highest share of population aged 65+. Average age of both men and women is above the national average. Mechov Region has accounts for 6 % of the total area of the Czech Republic. In terms of size it is the ninth largest region of the Czech Republic. Krkonoše and Orlické mountains which are situated in the northern and northeastern part of the region pass to fertile Elbe lowland. Two thirds of the area of the Krkonoše National Park lie within the region’s territory. Krkonoše and Orlické mountains are separated by Broumovský výběžek with its large rock towns – Adršpach-Teplice Rocks, Broumov Hills, Křížový vrch and Ostaš. Main watercourses are its tributaries Orlice and Metuje; the entire territory of the region falls into the Elbe’s basin and only a marginal part of the Broumovský výběžek area falls under the basin of the River Oder. Sněžka mountain is with its elevation of 1603 m above sea level the highest point of the region, Krkonoše mountains and of the Czech Republic.
The lowest point of the region is the surface of the River Cidlina. In terms of economic activities, the region can be described as agricultural-industrial with well-developed tourism; the region is part of the so-called Black Triangle, an area of industrialization and environmental damage on the three-way border of Poland and the Czech Republic. The industry is concentrated in big towns; the tourism is concentrated in Krkonoše. In 2012, the gross domestic product of Hradec Králové Region accounted for about 4.5% of the total GDP of the Czech Republic. Region's GDP per capita ranked as the fourth highest; as of September 2014, the unemployment rate in the region was 5.9%. The average gross salary was 22,842 CZK. According to Labour Force Survey, there were in total about 253,200 employees in the region in 2012. Hereof, the largest proportion worked in manufacturing, followed by trade and repair of personal and household goods and social care, public administration and defence and storage, etc. Manufacturing prevails over the other industries and focuses on motor vehicles, electrical equipment and textiles.
However, Hradec Králové Region does not rank among key industrial areas – its 2012 share in sales of industrial enterprises accounted for 3.8% of the national’s total. With regard to agriculture, crop production focuses on cereals and maize, with industrial sugar beet production playing an important role too. Animal production focuses on raising pigs. About 4.1% of region's workforce worked in agriculture and fishing in 2012. As of 2012, agricultural land covered 58% of the total region's territory and the share of arable land was 40%, while forests covered 31% of the territory. In 2012, the 954 statistically monitored collective accommodation establishments in the region reported 887,000 guests, including about 213,000 foreigners coming from Germany and the Netherlands; the average length of stays per guest was 4.5 days. During the last few years, many forms of cross-border co-operation have been developed. One of them is the Glacensis Euroregion, established in 1995 as one of the Euroregions covering the Czech-Polish border areas.
Adršpach-Teplice Rocks Broumov and its monastery Dvůr Králové Zoo Mechov Josefov Fortress Kost Castle Krkonoše National Park Prachov Rocks Probošt's mechanical Christmas crib Ratibořice Château Official website Region statistics
Hřibiny-Ledská is a village and municipality in Rychnov nad Kněžnou District in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic. The first historical record of the municipality is from year 1544. Hřibiny Ledská Paseky
Kvasiny is a village and municipality in Rychnov nad Kněžnou District in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic. It is home to the Volkswagen Group-owned Škoda Auto factory, which produces the Škoda Karoq, Škoda Kodiaq, Škoda Superb and SEAT Ateca automobiles, produced the original Škoda Fabia, Škoda Yeti and the Škoda Roomster
Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the Middle Ages, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city. On the European continent, a town may be described as a "market town" or as having "market rights" if it no longer holds a market, provided the legal right to do so still exists. In Britain it remains in common use as a loose descriptive term for small rural towns with a hinterland of villages, it is sometimes reflected in their names, as with Market Rasen, or Market Drayton. Modern markets are in special halls, but this is a recent development; the markets were open-air, held in what is called the market square, centred on a market cross. They were and are open one or two days a week; the primary purpose of a market town is the provision of goods and services to the surrounding locality. Although market towns were known in antiquity, their number increased from the 12th century. Market towns across Europe flourished with an improved economy, a more urbanised society and the widespread introduction of a cash-based economy.
The Domesday Book of 1086 lists 50 markets in England. Some 2,000 new markets were established between 1200 and 1349; the burgeoning of market towns occurred across Europe around the same time. Market towns most grew up close to fortified places, such as castles or monasteries, not only to enjoy their protection, but because large manorial households and monasteries generated demand for goods and services. Historians term these early market towns "prescriptive market towns" in that they may not have enjoyed any official sanction such as a charter, but were accorded market town status through custom and practice if they had been in existence prior to 1199. From a early stage and administrators understood that a successful market town attracted people, generated revenue and would pay for the town's defenses. From around the 12th century and European kings began granting charters to villages allowing them to create a market on specific days. Framlingham in Suffolk is a notable example of a market situated near a fortified building.
Additionally, markets were located where transport was easiest, such as at a crossroads or close to a river. When local railway lines were first built, market towns were given priority to ease the transport of goods. For instance, in Calderdale, West Yorkshire, several market towns close together were designated to take advantage of the new trains; the designation of Halifax, Sowerby Bridge, Hebden Bridge, Todmorden is an example of this. A number of studies have pointed to the prevalence of the periodic market in medieval towns and rural areas due to the localised nature of the economy; the marketplace was the accepted location for trade, social interaction, transfer of information and gossip. A broad range of retailers congregated in market towns – peddlers, hucksters, stallholders and other types of trader; some were professional traders occupied a local shopfront such as a bakery or alehouse, while others were casual traders who set up a stall or carried their wares around in baskets on market days.
Market trade supplied for the needs of local consumers whether they were visitors or local residents. Braudel and Reynold have made a systematic study of European market towns between the 13th and 15th century, their investigation shows that in regional districts markets were held once or twice a week while daily markets were common in larger cities. Over time, permanent shops began opening daily and supplanted the periodic markets, while peddlers or itinerant sellers continued to fill in any gaps in distribution; the physical market was characterised by transactional exchange and bartering systems were commonplace. Shops had higher overhead costs, but were able to offer regular trading hours and a relationship with customers and may have offered added value services, such as credit terms to reliable customers; the economy was characterised by local trading in which goods were traded across short distances. Braudel reports. However, following the European age of discovery, goods were imported from afar – calico cloth from India, porcelain and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar and coffee from the New World.
The importance of local markets began to decline from the mid-16th century. Permanent shops which provided more stable trading hours began to supplant the periodic market. In addition, the rise of a merchant class led to the import and exports of a broad range of goods, contributing to a reduced reliance on local produce. At the centre of this new global mercantile trade was Antwerp, which by the mid-16th century, was the undisputed largest market town in Europe. A good number of local histories of individual market towns can be found. However, more general histories of the rise of market-towns across Europe are much more difficult to locate. Clark points out that while a good deal is known about the economic value of markets in local economies, the cultural role of market-towns has received scant scholarly attention. In Denmark, the concept of the market town has existed since the Iron Age, it is not known, the first Danish market town, but Hedeby and Ribe were among the first. Per 1801, there were 74 market towns in Denmark.
The last town to gain market rights was Skjern in 195
Nová Ves (Rychnov nad Kněžnou District)
Nová Ves is a village and municipality in Rychnov nad Kněžnou District in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic
Javornice is a village and municipality in Rychnov nad Kněžnou District in the Hradec Králové Region of the Czech Republic. Official website