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Roland Freisler

Roland Freisler was a German Nazi jurist and politician who served as the State Secretary of the Reich Ministry of Justice from 1934 to 1942 and President of the People's Court from 1942 to 1945. Freisler was a prominent ideologist of National Socialism who influenced the Nazification of Germany's legal system as a jurist, attended the Wannsee Conference which set in motion the Holocaust. Freisler was appointed President of the People's Court in 1942, overseeing the prosecution of notable political crimes as a judge, for which he became infamous for his aggressive personality, humiliation of defendants, frequent sentencing with the death penalty. Roland Freisler was born on 30 October 1893 in Celle, Lower Saxony, the son of Julius Freisler, an engineer and teacher, Charlotte Auguste Florentine Schwerdtfeger. Freisler was baptized as a Protestant on 13 December 1893. Freisler had Oswald. Freisler was attending law school upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914 which interrupted his studies. Freisler saw active service in the German Imperial Army during the war after enlisting as an officer cadet in 1914 with the Ober-Elsässisches Infanterie-Regiment Nr.167 in Kassel, by 1915 he was a lieutenant.

Whilst in the front-line with the 22nd Division, Freisler was awarded the Iron Cross both 2nd and 1st Class for heroism in action. In October 1915, Freisler was wounded in action on the Eastern Front and taken prisoner of war by Russian forces. While a prisoner, Freisler learned to speak Russian and developed an interest in Marxism after the Russian Revolution had commenced; the Bolshevik provisional authority which took over responsibility for Freisler's prisoner of war camp made use of him as a "Commissar" administratively organizing the camp's food supplies from 1917 to 1918. It is possible that, after the Russian prisoner of war camps were emptying in 1918, with their internees being repatriated to Germany after the Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers had been signed, Freisler for a brief period became attached in some way to the Red Guards, though this is not supported by any known documentary evidence. Another possibility is that after the Russian Revolution the description "Commissar" was an administrative title given by the Bolshevik authority for anyone employed in an administrative post in the prison camps without the political connotations that the title acquired.

However, in the early days of his National Socialist German Workers' Party career in the 1920s, Freisler was a part of the movement's left wing. In the late 1930s, during Joseph Stalin's Great Purge in the Soviet Union, Freisler attended the Moscow Trials to watch the proceedings against the condemned. Freisler rejected any insinuation that he had co-operated with the Soviets, the ideological nemesis of Nazi Germany, but his subsequent career as a political official in Germany was overshadowed by rumours about his time as a "Commissar" with the "Reds". Freisler returned to Germany in 1919 to complete his law studies at the University of Jena, qualified as a Doctor of Law in 1922. From 1924, Freisler worked as a solicitor in Kassel, was elected as a city councillor as a member of the Völkisch-Sozialer Block, an ultranationalist splinter party. Freisler joined the NSDAP in July 1925 as Member #9679, gained authority within the organisation by using his legal training to defend members of it who were facing prosecutions for acts of political violence.

As the Party transitioned from a fringe political beer-hall and street fighting movement into a genuine political party, Freisler was elected to the Prussian Landtag, he became a Member of the Reichstag. In 1927, Karl Weinrich, a Nazi member of the Prussian Landtag along with Freisler, characterised his reputation in the expanding Nazi movement in the late 1920s: "Rhetorically Freisler is equal to our best speakers, if not superior. Party Comrade Freisler is only usable as a speaker though and is unsuitable for any position of authority because of his unreliablity and moodiness." In February 1933, after Adolf Hitler had seized power over the German state, Freisler was appointed Director of the Prussian Ministry of Justice. He was Secretary of State in the Prussian Ministry of Justice in 1933–1934, in the Reich Ministry of Justice from 1934 to 1942. Freisler's mastery of legal texts, mental agility, dramatic courtroom verbal dexterity and verbal force, in combination with his zealous conversion to National Socialist ideology, made him the most feared judge in Germany during the Third Reich, the personification of Nazism in domestic law.

However, despite his talents and loyalty, Adolf Hitler never appointed him to any post beyond the legal system. That might have been because he was a lone figure, lacking support within the senior echelons of the Nazi hierarchy, but he had been politically compromised by his brother, Oswald Freisler a lawyer. Oswald had acted as a defence counsel against the regime's authority several times during the politically-driven trials by which the Nazis sought to enforce their tyrannical control of German society, he had the habit of wearing his Nazi Party membership badge in court whilst doing so. Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels reproached Oswald Freisler and reported his actions to Adolf Hitler who, in response, ordered Freisler's expulsion from the Party. In 1941 in a d

French Dressing (1964 film)

French Dressing is a 1964 British comedy film directed by Ken Russell, his first feature film, which stars James Booth, Roy Kinnear and Marisa Mell. Its plot concerns a deckchair attendant in the run-down seaside resort of Gormleigh-on-Sea, promoted to publicity officer. In an effort to drum up interest in the town he organises a film festival and invites a major French film star; the event is soon thrown into chaos by the machinations of jealous mayors from rival towns. Russell called it "a unhappy film as far as I was concerned". Jim Stephens is a deckchair attendant working in the flagging seaside resort town of Gormleigh in a job secured for him by his friend, the entertainments manager, Henry Liggott. Jim enjoys his easy life in the town with Judy, a young reporter on the local paper. Things are soon turned upside down when Judy writes an article at Jim's suggestion calling for a film festival featuring Brigitte Bardot to revitalise the town and bring in tourists; the three of them are summoned to see the Mayor to explain Jim's conduct the following morning.

When Jim admits he can't get Bardot the Mayor threatens him with dismissal. This leads Jim to suggest that instead of getting Bardot, they try and secure the French film star, Françoise Fayol, whose latest New Wave film Pavements of Boulogne is premiering in Boulogne. With the Mayor's approval and Liggott travel across the Channel to persuade her to attend the planned film festival. Once in France they spend a great deal of time trying to locate her before running into her by accident, they find that Fayol is frustrated by being typecast as a sex symbol rather than being given more intellectual roles and wishes to break free from her domineering mentor. The two Englishman are able to win her friendship by helping to destroy a large consignment of inflatable replica models of her which she hates, she accompanies them back to Britain, where the people of Gormleigh organise a pageant to welcome her which descends into farce. Fayol's introduction to life in Gormleigh is not a happy one, includes being soaked first in the sea by rain and in a puddle.

She refuses to leave her hotel room and has to be coaxed out by Jim, for whom she has developed a liking. Jim and Fayol's publicity campaign sets about shaking up the staid town and its old-fashioned inhabitants; as Jim grows closer to Françoise Fayol, Judy becomes upset. When the film festival opens, it turns out to be a roaring success as tourists and the media flock in attracted entirely by Fayol's presence and the glamour that comes in her wake; the finale of the festival features the screening of Fayol's new film Pavements of Boulogne, followed the next morning by the opening of a new nudist beach. Fayol is nervous about her new film, as she hates seeing herself on screen, is eager to win the main prize at the festival – the golden cockle. Things at first seem to be going well at the screening until the show is disrupted by a violent brawl organised by the jealous mayors of rival towns; the next morning Fayol, distraught by the fight and the savage reviews of her film by newspapers, including Judy's, decides to go back to the Continent where her domineering mentor has found her a brilliant new film to star in.

Despite a desperate rush to the railway station by Liggott to prevent her, she catches the train leaving the heroes urgently needing to find someone to take her place at the beach's opening. James Booth – Jim Stephens Roy Kinnear – Henry Liggott Marisa Mell – Françoise Fayol Alita Naughton – Judy Bryan Pringle – The Mayor Sandor Elès – Vladek Robert Robinson – Himself Norman Pitt – Mayor of Westbourne Henry McCarthy – Mayor of Bridgemouth Lucille Soong – French starlet Germaine Delbat – French woman In the early 1960s Ken Russell had established a strong reputation in television, notably with Elgar. Producer Kenneth Harper said he "was tremendously impressed with his work on television and thought he would make a first class director." Harper offered him the job of directing the Cliff Richard musical Summer Holiday, but Russell turned it down. The film became a big hit. Harper asked Russell to direct French Dressing and promised it would not be a musical. Harper said he wanted Russell to make a Jacques Tati style comedy set at a "seedy English seaside resort."

Russell said the treatment "was promising" and agreed to direct. Associated British agreed to finance a script by Myers. (Russell said "one of Ken's great weaknesses is that he' loyal to his friends, irrespective of their talent."Harper wanted to shoot the film in Herne Bay, best known at the time for having the second longest pier in the country. Russell called it "a miserable resort on the Thames Estuary."He went there with the writers "to soak up the atmosphere and inspiration" but Russell found the resulting script "uninspired". He called it "a script of such monumental unfunniness as to make the Crucifixion seem like a Mack Sennett farce, it was in the style of the old Ealing comedies... but more forced an artificial."Russell requested work be done on it by an actor friend of his, Peter Brett, in Elgar. This was done but Russell says "the script remained uninspired. We shot it all the same. I learned a lot." He said the final script "had not one funny line in it and hardly any comic scenes, because he wasn't a jokey writer and most of my scenes were forlorn rather than funny."Alita Naughton had worked with Russell in television.

Filming started in May 1963. The movie was shot at

Clover yellow mosaic virus

Clover yellow mosaic virus is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potexvirus and the virus family Alphaflexiviridae. Its flexous rod-shaped particles measure about 539 nm in length. Like other members of the Potexvirus genus, ClYMV is a monopartite strand of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA surrounded by a capsid made for a single viral encoded protein; the genome has been sequenced and is 7015 nucleotides long. No insect vector is known; this virus is transmitted by mechanical inoculation, sometime by dodder. Potexviruses make banned inclusions made up of layers of parallel virus particles; these inclusions are can be seen in the light microscope in leaf strips of infected plant tissue stained with Azure A or Orange-Green stains. For many potexviruses these inclusions can be disrupted during the staining procedures; the banded inclusions of ClYMV however, therefore can be diagnostic. Antiserum is available for this virus and. Figure 1. Banned inclusions body of Clover yellow mosaic virus in Vicia faba cells, stained with Azure A.

The major host of ClYMV is clover. It was first reported in white clover as early as 1939. However, in 1942 the virus in white clover called Trifolium virus 1 or white-clover mosaic was found to be two different viruses when one proved to be transmitted by dodder and did not infect cowpea; the one that systemically infected cowpea became known first as pea wilt virus and as White clover mosaic virus. The one, transmitted by dodder became known as pea mottle virus and Clover yellow mosaic virus. ClYMV is now known to infect several other species of clover, faba beans, green beans and snapdragons. ClYMV can infect cowpea but it does not spread as fast as WClMV or at all beyond the inoculated leaves; until the year 2004, ClYMV was found only in north western regions of the United States and south western regions of Canada. In 2004 it was reported in the eastern United States for, it was found in a new host, the ornamental plant, Verbena canadensis variety ‘homestead purple’. In 2005, it was reported in England in another verbena variety.

Verbena varieties are propagated by cuttings. ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Clover yellow mosaic virus Descriptions of Plant Viruses Family Groups - The Baltimore Method

Speaker Denison's rule

Speaker Denison's rule is a constitutional convention established by John Evelyn Denison, Speaker of the British House of Commons from 1857 to 1872, regarding how the Speaker decides on their casting vote in the event of a tie in the number of votes cast in a division. Speaker Denison in 1867, when a tie arose on a motion on Fellowships at Trinity College, gave his casting vote against the motion, declaring that any decision must be approved by the majority; the rule as subsequently adopted is that the Speaker, in any division upon a bill, should vote to leave a bill in its existing form. The principle is always to vote in favour of further debate, or, where it has been decided to have no further debate or in some specific instances, to vote in favour of the status quo. Thus, the Speaker will vote: against the final reading of a bill in favour of earlier readings of bills against amendments to bills against motions of no confidence in favour of disagreeing with amendments made by the House of LordsThe thinking behind the rule is that change should only occur if an actual majority vote is in favour of the change.

Speaker Denison's rule is now a guiding principle in many other bodies that have neutral chairpersons. List of all votes decided by the Speaker's casting vote since 1801

Radegunda, Mozirje

Radegunda is a settlement in the Municipality of Mozirje in northern Slovenia. Traditionally the area was part of the Styria region; the municipality is now included in the Savinja Statistical Region. The name of the settlement was changed from Sveta Radegunda to Radegunda in 1955; the name was changed on the basis of the 1948 Law on Names of Settlements and Designations of Squares and Buildings as part of efforts by Slovenia's postwar communist government to remove religious elements from toponyms. The local church, from which the settlement gets its name, is dedicated to Saint Radegund and belongs to the Parish of Šmihel nad Mozirjem, it was first mentioned in written documents dating to 1241. Much of the current building dates to a 1903 major rebuilding of the church. Radegunda at Geopedia

Ethics in religion

Ethics involves systematizing and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior. A central aspect of ethics is "the good life", the life worth living or life, satisfying, held by many philosophers to be more important than traditional moral conduct. Most religions have an ethical component derived from purported supernatural revelation or guidance; some assert. Simon Blackburn states that there are those who "would say that we can only flourish under the umbrella of a strong social order, cemented by common adherence to a particular religious tradition". Ethics in Buddhism are traditionally based on the enlightened perspective of the Buddha, or other enlightened beings who followed him. Moral instructions are handed down through tradition. Most scholars of Buddhist ethics thus rely on the examination of Buddhist scriptures, the use of anthropological evidence from traditional Buddhist societies, to justify claims about the nature of Buddhist ethics. According to traditional Buddhism, the foundation of Buddhist ethics for laypeople is the Pancasila: no killing, lying, sexual misconduct, or intoxicants.

In becoming a Buddhist, or affirming one's commitment to Buddhism, a layperson is encouraged to vow to abstain from these negative actions. Buddhist monks and nuns take; the sole reliance on traditional formulae or practices, can be questioned by Western Buddhists whose main concern is the practical solution of complex moral problems in the modern world. To find a justifiable approach to such problems it may be necessary not just to appeal to the precepts or the vinaya, but to use more basic Buddhist teachings to aid interpretation of the precepts and find more basic justifications for their usefulness relevant to all human experience; this approach avoids basing Buddhist ethics on faith in the Buddha's enlightenment or Buddhist tradition, may allow more universal non-Buddhist access to the insights offered by Buddhist ethics. The Buddha provided some basic guidelines for acceptable behavior that are part of the Noble Eightfold Path; the initial percept is non-injury or non-violence to all living creatures from the lowest insect to humans.

This precept defines a non-violent attitude toward every living thing. The Buddhist practice of this does not extend to the extremes exhibited by Jainism, but from both the Buddhist and Jain perspectives, non-violence suggests an intimate involvement with, relationship to, all living things. Theravada monk Bhikkhu Bodhi has observed: "Buddhist ethics, as formulated in the five precepts, is sometimes charged with being negative.... T has to be pointed out that the five precepts, or the longer codes of precepts promulgated by the Buddha, do not exhaust the full range of Buddhist ethics; the precepts are only the most rudimentary code of moral training, but the Buddha proposes other ethical codes inculcating definite positive virtues. The Mangala Sutta, for example, commends reverence, contentment, patience, etc. Other discourses prescribe numerous family and political duties establishing the well being of society, and behind all these duties lie the four attitudes called the "immeasurables"—loving-kindness, sympathetic joy, equanimity."

Christian ethics in general has tended to stress the need for love, grace and forgiveness because of sin. With divine assistance, the Christian is called to become virtuous in both thought and deed, see the Evangelical counsels. Conversely, the Christian is called to abstain from vice. Christian ethical principles are based on the teachings within the Bible, they begin with the notion of inherent sinfulness. Sin is estrangement from God, the result of not doing God's will. God's will can be summed up by the precept: "Love God with all your heart, soul and strength, your neighbor as yourself" called the Great Commandment. Christian ethics are founded upon the concept of grace which transforms a person's life and enable's one to choose and act righteously; as sin is both individual and social, so is grace applied to both the individual and society. Christian ethics has a teleological aspect—all ethical behavior is oriented towards a vision of the Kingdom of God—a righteous society where all live in peace and harmony with God and nature, as envisioned in the Book of Isaiah.

Specific ethical behaviors originate in the Old Testament’s Ten Commandments, are enriched by teachings in the Psalms and morals contained in historical accounts, see Biblical law in Christianity. Christian ethics is not different from Jewish ethics, except in the exhortation to love one's enemy; the greatest contribution of Christian ethics is this command to love one's enemies. It has been argued that Jesus was waging a non-violent campaign against the Roman oppressors and many of his sayings relate to this campaign--turn the other cheek, go the second mile, etc. Understanding these commands as part of a larger campaign makes it impossible to interpret Christian ethics as an individual ethic, it is a social ethic concerned with life here on earth. Other tenets include maintaining personal integrity and the absence of hypocrisy, as well as honesty and loyalty and forgiveness, rejection of materialism and the desire for wealth and power, teaching others in your life through personal joy and Godly devotion.

There are several different schema of virtue. Aquinas adopted the four cardinal virtues of Ari