A roller coaster is a type of amusement ride that employs a form of elevated railroad track designed with tight turns, steep slopes, sometimes inversions. People ride along the track in open cars, the rides are found in amusement parks and theme parks around the world. LaMarcus Adna Thompson obtained one of the first known patents for a roller coaster design in 1885, related to the Switchback Railway that opened a year earlier at Coney Island; the track in a coaster design does not have to be a complete circuit, as shuttle roller coasters demonstrate. Most roller coasters have multiple cars in which passengers are restrained. Two or more cars hooked together are called a train; some roller coasters, notably Wild Mouse roller coasters, run with single cars. The oldest roller coasters are believed to have originated from the so-called "Russian Mountains", specially constructed hills of ice located in the area, now Saint Petersburg, Russia. Built in the 17th century, the slides were built to a height of between 21 and 24 m, had a 50-degree drop, were reinforced by wooden supports.
In 1784, Catherine the Great is said to have constructed a sledding hill in the gardens of her palace at Oranienbaum in St. Petersburg; the name Russian Mountains to designate a roller coaster is preserved in many languages, but the Russian term for roller coasters is американские горки, which translates to "American mountains." The first modern roller coaster, the Promenades Aeriennes, opened in Parc Beaujon in Paris on July 8, 1817. It featured wheeled cars securely locked to the track, guide rails to keep them on course, higher speeds, it spawned half a dozen imitators. However, during the Belle Epoque they returned to fashion. In 1887 French entrepreneur Joseph Oller, co-founder of the Moulin Rouge music hall, constructed the Montagnes Russes de Belleville, "Russian Mountains of Belleville" with 656 feet of track laid out in a double-eight enlarged to four figure-eight-shaped loops. In 1827, a mining company in Summit Hill, Pennsylvania constructed the Mauch Chunk Switchback Railway, a downhill gravity railroad used to deliver coal to Mauch Chunk, Pennsylvania – now known as Jim Thorpe.
By the 1850s, the "Gravity Road" was selling rides to thrill seekers. Railway companies used similar tracks to provide amusement on days. Using this idea as a basis, LaMarcus Adna Thompson began work on a gravity Switchback Railway that opened at Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York, in 1884. Passengers climbed to the top of a platform and rode a bench-like car down the 600-foot track up to the top of another tower where the vehicle was switched to a return track and the passengers took the return trip; this track design was soon replaced with an oval complete circuit. In 1885, Phillip Hinkle introduced the first full-circuit coaster with a lift hill, the Gravity Pleasure Road, which became the most popular attraction at Coney Island. Not to be outdone, in 1886 Thompson patented his design of roller coaster that included dark tunnels with painted scenery. "Scenic Railways" were soon found in amusement parks across the county. By 1919, the first underfriction roller coaster had been developed by John Miller.
Soon, roller coasters spread to amusement parks all around the world. The best known historical roller coaster, was opened at Coney Island in 1927; the Great Depression marked the end of the golden age of roller coasters, theme parks, in general, went into decline. This lasted until 1972 when the instant success of The Racer at Kings Island began a roller coaster renaissance which has continued to this day. In 1959, Disneyland introduced a design breakthrough with Matterhorn Bobsleds, the first roller coaster to use a tubular steel track. Unlike wooden coaster rails, tubular steel can be bent in any direction, allowing designers to incorporate loops and many other maneuvers into their designs. Most modern roller coasters are made of steel, although wooden coasters and hybrids are still being built. There are several explanations of the name roller coaster, it is said to have originated from an early American design where slides or ramps were fitted with rollers over which a sled would coast. This design was abandoned in favor of fitting the wheels to the sled or other vehicles, but the name endured.
Another explanation is that it originated from a ride located in a roller skating rink in Haverhill, Massachusetts in 1887. A toboggan-like sled was raised to the top of a track; this Roller Toboggan took off down rolling hills to the floor. The inventors of this ride, Stephen E. Jackman and Byron B. Floyd, claim that they were the first to use the term "roller coaster"; the term jet coaster is used for roller coasters in Japan, where such amusement park rides are popular. In many languages, the name refers to "Russian mountains". Contrastingly, in Russian, they are called "American mountains". In the Scandinavian languages and German, the roller coaster is referred as "mountain-and-valley railway". German knows the word "Achterbahn", stemming from "Figur-8-Bahn", like Dutch "Achtbaan", relating to the form of the number 8; the cars on a typical roller coaster are not self-powered. Instead, a standard full circuit coaster is pulled up with a chain or cable along the lift hill to the first peak of the coaster track.
The potential energy accumulated by the rise in height is transferred to kinetic energy as the cars race down the first downward slope. Kinetic energy is converted back into potential energy as the train moves up again to the second peak; this hill is necessarily
Keith Hopwood is an English pop and rock musician, singer-songwriter, composer and record producer, who served as the rhythm guitarist and backing vocals for the 1960s pop band, Herman's Hermits. Hopwood served as a keyboardist and guitarist for the post-Peter Noone outfit, Sour Mash, which recorded an unreleased album, A Whale of a Tale for RCA. Born on 26 October 1946 at Park Hospital, Davyhulme area of Manchester, he attended Urmston Grammar School. A talented musician and composer, he continues to live and work in the music industry in the UK. Several rare demo recordings from his time in Herman's Hermits are available through his website. Peter Noone credits his old friend with coming up with the idea of recording "Mrs. Brown, You've Got a Lovely Daughter" as an afterthought, when Herman's Hermits were short of material for their first album. Noone's accented delivery, together with Hopwood's muted rhythm guitar work, propelled the track to number one on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart. Contrary to many reports, the song was not an old music hall number, the Hermits did play on the track as well as on many other Herman's Hermits records, including all of the band's number-one US and UK hits.
Ralph McTell recorded the theme tune to Cosgrove Hall Films's adaptation of The Wind in the Willows written by Hopwood and Malcolm Rowe, this was released as a single in 1984, after the series was aired on ITV. Hopwood co-wrote the music for Cosgrove Hall's adaptations of Terry Pratchett's Soul Music and "Wyrd Sisters" with Phil Bush. Soundtrack albums were released in 1997. Hopwood and Rowe co-wrote and produced the music to the 1989 film adaptation of Roald Dahl's The BFG. Other Cosgrove Hall shows he composed for were Creepy Crawlies, Alias the Jester with Malcolm Rowe, Andy Pandy, with Phil Bush, Albie, alone. In 2004 he composed the music for the remake of Pingu for HIT Entertainment, started work on Bob the Builder TV series and Specials, to last until production ceased in 2011. In 2013 he formed a music rights company, CHF Music, with Cosgrove Hall Fitzpatrick Entertainment, the newly launched company run by Brian Cosgrove and Simon Hall, to look after all the music content for their new shows.
In 1968, Keith Hopwood and Derek Leckenby founded Pluto Music, a company that composes musical scores for commercials and animation. Leckenby died in 1994. Pluto Studios has been successful, providing services to many top acts including The Clash. Hopwood has proved himself a fine soundtrack composer, working on animated television series including the hugely successful "Bob the Builder." Always a composer, he wrote and co-wrote numerous songs recorded by Herman's Hermits, other bands such as Brinsley Schwarz. Hopwood promoted the singer-songwriter, Helen Watson, he has helped create many tracks for his granddaughter, Izzy Hopwood, who has had great musical talent from a young age. On 21 January 1968 Keith Hopwood married Penny Pagni, in Scotland, they were married for 17 years and they had three children: Daxalen "Dax", Joel and Zhian. In 1989, Hopwood married Maria Verdellis, they had Daniel. Pluto Music official website Keith Hopwood mini-bio at the IMDb website
The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt was the former constitution of Egypt. It was adopted on 11 September 1971 through a public referendum, it was amended in 1980, 2005, 2007. It was proclaimed to update the democratic representative system in assertion of the rule of law, independence of the judiciary, party plurality. On 13 February 2011, the Constitution was suspended following the resignation of President Hosni Mubarak as a result of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. On 30 March 2011, it was voided after a new provisional constitution was passed by the country's ruling Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. Egypt is known for having one of legislative codes in history; the first modern codified form of a national constitution was adopted in 1923. After the revolution that led to the overthrow of the monarch, King Farouk, the declaration of the republic, President Nasser adopted the nation's first written constitution as a republic in 1956. During the short spell of the United Arab Republic, President Nasser adopted yet another constitution for the new merger, but this merger was dissolved in 1961.
In 1964, President Nasser once again introduced a new written constitution for the republic. In 1971, when President Anwar Sadat took office, he moved to the adoption of a new democratic constitution that would allow more freedoms, a return of a more sound parliamentary life and correct democratic practice with the return of political parties and a bicameral parliamentary system; the 1971 constitution is the fourth adopted constitution since the declaration of the republic and is known as "The Permanent Egyptian Constitution" although, since its ratification, it has been amended three times by two presidents. The last amendments were the most comprehensive with 34 articles of the constitution changed; these amendments were proposed by the National Democratic Party to move the country's political and economic tendencies further away from socialism and more towards capitalism. Nonetheless, these amendments represent a clear response to government opposition in light of the 2005 elections with articles 5, 88 and 179 adding constitutional permanence to the emergency law in place since 1981.
As of 2011, various political powers in Egypt have asked for yet more reforms. Proponents of a more complete constitution intend to shape a more robust, variegated political and economic landscape. Egyptian political life would diversify, whether through more comprehensive amendments or through the adoption of a new constitution. On 13 February 2011, following the resignation of Mubarak during the 2011 Egyptian revolution, the army suspended the constitution, it appointed the Egyptian constitutional review committee of 2011, on 26 February 2011, the committee published a proposal to amend Articles 76, 77, 88, 93, 139, 148, 189, as well as to remove Article 179. A referendum to accept or reject the changes was passed. Within days the constitution was re-declared; the Constitutional Proclamation of the constitution declares the main principles of the Egyptian Political system which are: Peace through Freedom Arab Unity National Development FreedomThe constitution establishes Egypt as a "Democratic State", deriving its sovereignty from the people, as part of the Arab World.
It proclaims the system of government as a multi-party Semi-presidential system within the framework of the basic principles and components of the Egyptian society. The Constitution upholds the concept of separation of powers. Within this scheme, the Parliament monitors the actions of Executive Authority through many mechanisms and instruments, in order to fulfill such monitoring role, members of the People's Assembly enjoy parliamentary immunity; the Constitution establishes party plurality as the foundation of the political system and so allows the formation of different political parties, but political parties are not allowed to be established based on any discriminatory basis such as religion, race, or sex. The Constitution sets out methods for its own amendment by the request of either the People's Assembly or the President, both of which have to be subjected to a public referendum, after being voted for by at least two-thirds of the Assembly. An entire chapter of the constitutional document is dedicated to defining the basic rights and freedoms to its citizens, to be provided by the state.
The Constitution upholds that "Individual freedom is a natural right" and regards all citizens as equals. It guarantees a set of freedoms including: The "right to protect the private life of citizens", "Freedom of belief and the freedom of practising religious rights", "Freedom of expression", Freedom of Press and other publications, Freedom of Artistic and literary creations and scientific research, Freedom of peaceful and unarmed private assembly, without the need for prior notice, Universal suffrage, as well as the right to form civil societies. However, the practice of such freedoms is hindered by the emergency laws that have been in effect for the past 3 decades. In order to elevate pressures from its 2-decade long usage of such laws and with the government's plans of stopping the use of the emergency laws, a new Anti-Terrorism amendment was added to allow the provisioning of new laws that would help fight terrorism, given that these laws would not affect the basic rights of citizens those in Articles.
This amendment in particular has