Equestrianism, more known as horse riding or horseback riding, refers to the skill and sport of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, competitive sport. Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes, such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch, they are used in competitive sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing and rodeo. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows where horses perform in a wide variety of disciplines. Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding, or hacking. There is public access to horse trails in every part of the world. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes both in specialized para-equestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve human health and emotional development.
Horses are driven in harness racing, at horse shows, in other types of exhibition such as historical reenactment or ceremony pulling carriages. In some parts of the world, they are still used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in public service: in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols and for mounted search and rescue. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding. Though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests. There is some evidence that about 3,000 BC, near the Dnieper River and the Don River, people were using bits on horses, as a stallion, buried there shows teeth wear consistent with using a bit. However, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct hard evidence of horses used as working animals.
In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as heavy cavalry. The horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses died out at the end of the Ice Age. Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493. Equestrianism was introduced in the 1900 Summer Olympics as an Olympic sport with jumping events. Humans appear to have long expressed a desire to know which horse or horses were the fastest, horse racing has ancient roots. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a long history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a racing breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide. In the UK, it is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom. In the USA, horse racing is governed by The Jockey Club.
Steeplechasing involves racing on a track where the horses jump over obstacles. It is most common in the UK, where it is called National Hunt racing. American Quarter Horse racing—races over distances of a quarter-mile. Seen in the United States, sanctioned by the American Quarter Horse Association. Arabian horses, Akhal-Teke, American Paint Horses and other light breeds are raced worldwide. Endurance riding, a sport in which the Arabian horse dominates at the top levels, has become popular in the United States and in Europe; the Federation Equestre International governs international races, the American Endurance Ride Conference organizes the sport in North America. Endurance races take place over a given, measured distance and the horses have an start. Races are 50 to 100 miles, over mountainous or other natural terrain, with scheduled stops to take the horses' vital signs, check soundness and verify that the horse is fit to continue; the first horse to finish and be confirmed by the veterinarian as fit to continue is the winner.
Additional awards are given to the best-conditioned horses who finish in the top 10. Limited distance rides of about 25–20 miles are offered to newcomers. Ride and Tie. Ride and Tie involves three equal partners: one horse; the humans alternately ride. Show jumping: Show jumping is when a horse carries a rider over an obstacle commonly known as a jump. There are multiple jumps in a show, if the horse hits or refuses a jump, points will be deducted from the rider score; this is a timed event, the rider is expected to complete the course in a certain amount of time, without error. There are the hunter divisions. In the hunters, riders have to make their horses look good; the judges look at the quality of the course, if there are two or more riders who had put down amazing courses the judge or judges looks at how the horse looks and acts with the rider. In harness: Both light and heavy breeds as well as ponies are raced in harness with a sulk
Rolling Hills Estates, California
Rolling Hills Estates is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. On the northern side of the Palos Verdes Peninsula, facing Torrance, Rolling Hills Estates is residential. Incorporated in 1957, Rolling Hills Estates has a large number of horse paths; the population was 8,067 at the 2010 census, up from 7,676 at the 2000 census. In 2017 the population rose to 8,226, it was Los Angeles County’s 60th municipality, incorporated on September 18, 1957. Rolling Hills Estates is located on the Palos Verdes Peninsula. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.359 square kilometers, 0.115 km2 of it is water. The 2010 US Census reported that Rolling Hills Estates had a population of 8,067; the population density was 2,232.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Rolling Hills Estates was 5,463 White, 109 African American, 19 Native American, 2,007 Asian, 8 Pacific Islander, 120 from other races, 341 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 499 persons.
The Census reported that 8,067 people lived in households, 0 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 2,965 households, out of which 1,023 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 2,100 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 192 had a female householder with no husband present, 83 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 45 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 23 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 512 households were made up of individuals and 353 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.72. There were 2,375 families; the population was spread out with 1,890 people under the age of 18, 417 people aged 18 to 24, 1,211 people aged 25 to 44, 2,680 people aged 45 to 64, 1,869 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.2 males. There were 3,100 housing units at an average density of 857.9 per square mile, of which 2,714 were owner-occupied, 251 were occupied by renters.
The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.8%. 7,302 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 765 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Rolling Hills Estates had a median household income of $143,958, with 3.5% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 7,676 people, 2,806 households, 2,334 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,139.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 2,880 housing units at an average density of 802.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 73.9% White, 20.3% Asian, 1.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.0% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.8% of the population. There were 2,806 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 74.6% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 16.8% were non-families.
15.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 21.2% from 25 to 44, 30.9% from 45 to 64, 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $109,010, the median income for a family was $119,974. Males had a median income of $100,000+ versus $52,295 for females; the per capita income for the city was $51,849. About 1.1% of families and 1.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.6% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. By 1992 many wealthier Korean Americans moved to the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Rolling Hills Estates was among five cities in the South Bay that had the largest increases in ethnic Koreans from 1980 to 1990.
In 1990, 200 ethnic Koreans lived in Rolling Hills Estates, a 160% increase from the 1980 figure of 77 ethnic Koreans. The city is served by Palos Verdes Peninsula Unified School District. PVPUSD schools have ranked among the best in California and the nation; the Washington Post once ranked Palos Verdes Peninsula High School as the 8th best public or private high school in the nation.. Rolling Hills Country Day School is a private school that serves grades K–8. Chadwick School, a well-known K–12 private school, is located on Academy Hill, an unincorporated neighborhood administered by the county, but is just blocks away from the Rolling Hills Estates city hall and serves the entire Palos Verdes Peninsula area, including Rolling Hills Estates; the Palos Verdes Library District operates the Peninsula Center Library in Rolling Hills Estates. Nishiyamato Academy of California opened in April 1993, it was located in the former Dapplegray School building in Rolling Hills Estates. It was founded by Ryotaro Tanose, a Japanese Diet member, as a sister school of the Nishiyamato Gakuen Junior High School and High School in Kawai, Nara Prefecture, Japan.
It is located in Lomita
Rancho Palos Verdes, California
Rancho Palos Verdes is a city in Los Angeles County, California atop the Palos Verdes Hills and bluffs of the Palos Verdes Peninsula. A suburb of Los Angeles, it is known for expensive homes amidst large tracts of open space with expansive views of the Pacific Ocean. Rancho Palos Verdes is translated as "Ranch of Green Sticks" referring to the willows in the northeastern part of Bixby Slough shown on earlier maps; the history of Rancho Palos Verdes dates back to the Tongva or Gabrielino Indians, who inhabited the site before the Age of Discovery. Spanish explorer Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo was credited as the first European to navigate the California Coast in 1542, which included the hills of Rancho Palos Verdes. Rancho de los Palos Verdes was established by a Mexican land grant given in 1846 by Governor Pío Pico to Jose Loreto and Juan Capistrano Sepulveda; the city's most notable geographic features are the Palos Verdes Hills and cliffs, with grand vistas of the Pacific Ocean and of Santa Catalina Island.
The city incorporated on September 7, 1973. The population was 41,643 at the 2010 census; the Point Vicente Interpretive Center is a premier whale-watching site that provides spectacular opportunities to view the annual migration of the Pacific gray whale from December through April. The center opened in 1984 with a mission to present and interpret the unique features and history of the Palos Verdes Peninsula; the 10,000-square-foot expanded Interpretive Center, reopened on July 15, 2006, features exhibits on the natural and cultural history of the peninsula, with a special emphasis on the Pacific gray whale. The Point Vicente Lighthouse, built in 1926, is adjacent to the center and is on the National Register of Historic Places. At another location along the coast, Wayfarers Chapel, designed by Lloyd Wright and built between 1949 and 1951, is on the National Register of Historic Places; the Portuguese Bend landslide, one of the largest continuously moving landslides in North America, is located along the southern coastal area.
Together with the Palos Verdes Peninsula Land Conservancy in 2009, the city completed the acquisition of a total of two square miles of open space, the Palos Verdes Nature Preserve, the largest preserve of coastal open space north of San Diego and south of Santa Barbara. The site of the former Marineland of the Pacific was redeveloped and is now occupied by the Terranea Resort, which opened in June 2009; the city is home to Trump National Golf Course, one of eleven in the Trump portfolio of courses. The Salvation Army's School for Officer Training is located in Rancho Palos Verdes; as with other cities on the Palos Verdes Peninsula, the city has had to find ways to control the population of wild peafowl. Frank A. Vanderlip spearheaded a group that bought 16,000 acres and began development of the peninsula, he is credited with introducing the birds here around 1910. Some residents say the birds ruin their gardens, wake them up in the middle of the night with screeching, defecate in their yards.
Rancho Palos Verdes is located at 33°45′30″N 118°21′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 13.5 square miles all of, land. The 2010 United States Census reported that Rancho Palos Verdes had a population of 41,643; the population density was 3,092.6 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Rancho Palos Verdes was 25,698 White, 1,015 African American, 80 Native American, 12,077 Asian, 41 Pacific Islander, 748 from other races, 1,984 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3,556 persons; the census reported that 41,303 people lived in households, 313 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 27 were institutionalized. There were 15,561 households, of which 5,187 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 10,465 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,218 had a female householder with no husband present, 460 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 85 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,936 households were made up of individuals, 1,810 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.65. There were 12,143 families; the population was diverse in age terms, with 9,248 people under the age of 18, 2,352 people aged 18 to 24, 7,045 people aged 25 to 44, 13,344 people aged 45 to 64, 9,654 people aged 65 or older. The median age was 47.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females aged 18 and over, there were 90.1 males. There were 16,179 housing units, at an average density of 1,201.5 per square mile, of which 12,485 were owner occupied and 3,076 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.6%. 33,015 people lived in owner-occupied housing units, 8,288 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Rancho Palos Verdes had a median household income of $118,893, with 4.5% of the population living below the federal poverty line. The city is served by the Palos Verdes Peninsula Unified School District, which includes Palos Verdes Peninsula High School and Palos Verdes High School, the Los Angeles Unified School District.
Children living in Eastview have the option of attendi
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
In its modern form, a gated community is a form of residential community or housing estate containing controlled entrances for pedestrians and automobiles, characterized by a closed perimeter of walls and fences. Similar walls and gates have separated quarters of some cities for centuries. Gated communities consist of small residential streets and include various shared amenities. For smaller communities, these amenities may include other common area. For larger communities, it may be possible for residents to stay within the community for most daily activities. Gated communities are a type of common interest development, but are distinct from intentional communities. Given that gated communities are spatially a type of enclave, Setha M. Low, an anthropologist, has argued that they have a negative effect on the net social capital of the broader community outside the gated community; some gated communities called guard-gated communities, are staffed by private security guards and are home to high-value properties, and/or are set up as retirement villages.
Some gated communities are intended as such. Besides the services of gatekeepers, many gated communities provide other amenities; these may depend on a number of factors including geographical location, demographic composition, community structure, community fees collected. When there are subassociations that belong to master associations, the master association may provide many of the amenities. In general, the larger the association the more amenities that can be provided. Amenities depend on the type of housing. For example, single-family-home communities may not have a common-area swimming pool, since individual home-owners have the ability to construct their own private pools. A condominium, on the other hand, may offer a community pool, since the individual units do not have the option of a private pool installation. Typical amenities offered can include one or more: Swimming pools Tennis courts Community centres or clubhouses Golf courses Marina On-site dining Playgrounds Exercise rooms including workout machines Spa In Brazil, the most widespread form of gated community is called "condomínio fechado" and is the object of desire of the upper classes.
Such a place is a small town with its own infrastructure. The purpose of such a community is to protect its residents from exterior violence; the same philosophy is seen on most shopping centres. In Pakistan, gated communities are located in big as well as small cities and are considered standard of high quality living. Defence Housing Authority and Bahria Town are major private gated community developers and administrators and one of the largest in the world; the assets of Bahria Town itself are worth $30 billion. Most gated communities in Pakistan have public parks, hospitals, shopping malls and country clubs. In Argentina, they are called "barrios privados" or just "countries" and are seen as a symbol of wealth. However, gated communities enjoy dubious social prestige. While most gated communities have only houses, some bigger ones, such as Nordelta, have their own hospital, shopping mall, more. In post-segregation South Africa, gated communities have mushroomed in response to high levels of violent crime.
They are referred to as "complexes" but broadly classified as "security villages" or "enclosed neighborhoods. Some of the newest neighborhoods being developed are entirely composed of security villages, some with malls and few other essential services. In part, property developers have adopted this response to counter squatting, which local residents fear due to associated crime, which results in a protracted eviction process, they are popular in southern China, namely the Pearl River Delta Region, the most famous of, Clifford Estates. In Saudi Arabia, gated communities have existed since the discovery of oil to accommodate families from Europe or North America. After threat levels have increased since the late 1990s against foreigners in general and U. S. citizens in particular gates have become armed and all vehicles have been inspected. Marksmen and Saudi Arabian National Guard armored vehicles appeared in certain times, markedly after recent terrorist attacks in areas near-by, targeting people from European or North American countries.
Gated communities are rare in continental Japan. Proponents of gated communities maintain that the reduction or exclusion of people who would be only passing through, or more of all non-local people, makes any "stranger" much more recognisable in the closed local environment, thus reduces crime danger. Since only a small proportion of all non-local people passing through the area are potential criminals, increased traffic should increase rather than decrease safety by having more people around whose presence could deter criminal behaviour or who could provide assistance during an incident. Another criticism is; some studies indicate that safety in gated communities may be more illusion than reality and that gated communities in suburban areas of the United States have no less crime than similar non-gated neighborhoods. A commentary in The New York Times blames the gated commu