Overhead valve engine
An overhead valve engine, or "pushrod engine", is a reciprocating piston engine whose poppet valves are sited in the cylinder head. An OHV engine's valvetrain operates its valves via a camshaft within the cylinder block, cam followers and rocker arms; the OHV engine was an advance over the older flathead engine, whose valves were sited within the cylinder block. Some early "OHV" engines known as "F-heads" used both side-valves and overhead valves. A variation over the OHV design is the overhead camshaft, or "OHC", whose camshaft lies in the cylinder head itself, above the valves. To avoid confusion, OHC engines are not referred to as OHV despite having their valves in the head. In early 1894, Rudolf Diesel's second Diesel engine prototype was built with a cylinder head featuring push rods, rocker arms, poppet valves. Diesel had published this design in 1893. In 1896, U. S. patent 563,140, awarded to William F. Davis, illustrated a gasoline engine with the same head configuration, patenting his solution to the problem of how to cool the head, which problem had made the overhead valve engine difficult before then.
Henry Ford's Quadricycle of 1896 had valves in the head, with push rods for exhaust valves only, the intake using suction valves. In 1898, Detroit bicycle manufacturer Walter Lorenzo Marr built a motor-trike with a one-cylinder OHV engine with push rods for both exhaust and intake. In 1900, David Buick hired Marr as chief engineer at the Buick Auto-Vim and Power Company in Detroit, where he worked until 1902. Marr's engine employed pushrod-actuated rocker arms, which in turn pushed valves parallel to the pistons. Marr left Buick to start his own automobile company in 1902, the Marr Auto-Car, made a handful of cars with overhead valve engines, before coming back to Buick in 1904; the OHV engine was patented in 1902 by Buick's second chief engineer Eugene Richard, at the Buick Manufacturing Company, precursor to the Buick Motor Company. The world's first production overhead valve internal combustion engine was put into the first production Buick automobile, the 1904 Model B, which used a 2-cylinder Flat twin engine, with 2 valves in each head.
The engine was designed by David Buick. Eugene Richard of the Buick Manufacturing Company was awarded US Patent #771,095 in 1904 for the valve in head engine, it included rocker arms and push rods, a water jacket for the head which communicated with the one in the cylinder block, lifters pushed by a camshaft with a 2-to-1 gearing ratio to the crankshaft. Arthur Chevrolet was awarded US Patent #1,744,526 for an adapter that could be applied to an existing engine, thus transforming it into an Overhead Valve Engine; the Wright Brothers built their own airplane engines, starting in 1906, they used overhead valves for both exhaust and intake, with push rods and rocker arms for the exhaust valves only, the intake valves being "automatic suction" valves. They built a V-8 engine with this valve configuration in 1910. In 1949, Oldsmobile introduced the Rocket V8, the first V-8 engine with OHV's to be produced on a wide scale. General Motors is the world's largest pushrod engine producer, producing I4, V6 and V8 pushrod engines.
Most other companies use overhead cams. Nowadays, automotive use of side-valves has disappeared, valves are all "overhead". However, most are now driven more directly by the overhead camshaft system. Few pushrod-type engines remain in production outside of the United States market; this is in part a result of some countries passing laws to tax engines based on displacement, because displacement is somewhat related to the emissions and fuel efficiency of an automobile. This has given OHC engines a regulatory advantage in those countries, which resulted in few manufacturers wanting to design both OHV and OHC engines. However, in 2002, Chrysler introduced a new pushrod engine: a 5.7-litre Hemi engine. The new Chrysler Hemi engine presents advanced features such as variable displacement technology and has been a popular option with buyers; the Hemi was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines list for 2003 through 2007. Chrysler produced the world's first production variable-valve OHV engine with independent intake and exhaust phasing.
The system is called CamInCam, was first used in the 600 horsepower SRT-10 engine for the 2008 Dodge Viper. Early air-cooled ohv BMW boxer motorcycle engines had long pushrods and a single centrally-mounted camshaft; the pushrods were short, allowing higher rpm and more power. For instance, the BMW R1100S could achieve an output of 98 hp at 8,400 rpm, with no risk of valve bounce. Since 2013, BMW flat-twin motorcycle engines have had OHC valve actuation. OHV engines have some advantages over OHC engines: Smaller overall packaging: because of the camshaft's location inside the engine block, OHV engines are more compact than an overhead cam engine of comparable displacement. For example, Ford's 4.6 L OHC modular V8 is larger than the 5.0 L I-head Windsor V8. GM's 4.6 L OHC Northstar V8 is taller and wider than GM's larger displacement 5.7 to 7.0 L I-head LS V8. The Ford Ka uses the Kent Crossflow/Endura-E OHV engine to fit under its low bonnet line; because of the more compact size of an engine of a given displacement, a pushrod engine of given external dimensions can have greater displacement than an OHC engine of the same external size.
As a result, the pushrod engine can sometimes produce just as much power as the OHC engine, but with greater torque (contrary to popular belief, this is due to the greater displacement of
Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a large multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. The company was founded by Robert Bosch in Stuttgart in 1886. Bosch is 92% owned by Robert Bosch Stiftung. Bosch's core operating areas are spread across four business sectors; the history of the company started in a backyard in Stuttgart-West as the Werkstätte für Feinmechanik und Elektrotechnik on 15 November 1886. One year Bosch presented the first low voltage magneto for gas engines. Twenty years the first magneto for automobiles followed; the first factory was opened by Bosch in Stuttgart in 1901. In 1906, the company produced its 100,000-th magneto. In the same year, Bosch introduced the 8-hours day for workers. In 1910, the Feuerbach plant was built close to Stuttgart. In this factory, Bosch started to produce headlights in 1913. In 1917, Bosch was transformed into a corporation. In 1926, Bosch started to produce windshield wipers, in 1927, injection pumps for diesel.
Bosch bought the gas appliances production from Junkers & Co. in 1932. In the same year, the company presented its first car radio; as early as the end of 1933, negotiations between Robert Bosch AG and the National Socialists began on relocating parts of armaments production to the interior of Germany. Bosch founded two such alternative plants in 1935 and 1937: Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH in Kleinmachnow near Berlin and Elektro- und Feinmechanische Industrie GmbH in Hildesheim. Both plants were used for armaments production; these "shadow factories" were built under great secrecy and in close cooperation with the Nazi authorities. In 1937, Bosch AG became a limited liability company; the Bosch subsidiary Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH in Kleinmachnow near Berlin employed around 5,000 people, more than half of whom were forced laborers, prisoners of war, female concentration camp prisoners, including many women from the Warsaw Uprising. They had to produce accessories for German Luftwaffe aircraft.
In Hildesheim, a secret plant for the entire electrical equipment of tanks and trucks of the Wehrmacht was built. In 1944, 4,290 men and women worked in the Trillke factory, 2,019 of whom were forced laborers, prisoners of war and military internees. During the Second World War, a total of 2,711 people, deported to Germany from the occupied countries had to work at the Bosch plant in Hildesheim. In the last years of the war, no new German tank drove without the starter elements from the Bosch factory in Hildesheim. Bosch had a monopoly position in the outfitting of German Luftwaffe aircraft. During the war, production was further decentralized, Bosch produced in an larger number of factories, relocated parts of its production to 213 plants in more than 100 locations. On 12 March 1942, the company's founder, Robert Bosch, died at the age of 80. Angela Martin and Ewa Czerwiakowski interviewed numerous former forced laborers and concentration camp prisoners of Dreilinden Maschinenbau GmbH and Trillke-Werke as part of a Berliner Geschichtswerkstatt project, researched the history of the two shadow factories, published several books and exhibitions on the subject.
In 2016, they published the website z. B. Bosch. Zwangsarbeit im Hildesheimer Wald. After the second world war, Bosch established a partnership with the Japanese company Denso. In 1964, the Robert Bosch Stiftung was founded. Bosch founded a new development center in Schwieberdingen in 1968, headquarters moved to Gerlingen in 1970. In 1981, the company participated on an equity basis in the Telefonbau & Normalzeit GmbH, renamed Telenorma in 1985, acquired in 1987. In 1994, this part of the company was renamed as Bosch Telecom GmbH; the most relevant inventions of the company until 2000 were the oxygen sensor, the electric motor control, the traction control system, the xenon light for cars, the electronic stability control, the common rail direct fuel injection, the direct fuel injection. In 2000, Bosch sold the Private Networks area. In 2001, Bosch acquired the Mannesmann Rexroth AG, which they renamed to Bosch Rexroth AG. In the same year, the company opened a new testing centers in Vaitoudden close to Arjeplog in north Sweden.
A new developing center in Abstatt, Germany followed in 2004. In 2002, Bosch acquired Philips CSI, which at the time was manufacturing a broad range of professional communication and security products and systems including CCTV, congress and public address systems. Important inventions in these years were the electric hydraulic brake in 2001, the common rail fuel injection with piezo-injectors, the digital car radio with a disc drive, the cordless screwdriver with a lithium-ion battery in 2003. Bosch received the Deutsche Zukunftspreis from the German president in 2005 and 2008. A new development center was planned in 2008 in Renningen. In 2014, the first departments moved to the new center, while the remaining departments followed in 2015. In 2006, Bosch acquired Electro-Voice. In 2009, Bosch invested about 3.6 billion Euro in research. 3900 patents are published per year. In addition to increasing energy efficiency by employing renewable energies, the company plans to invest into new areas such as biomedical engineering.
China has developed into an important manufacturing base for Bosch. In 2
A carburetor or carburettor is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper air–fuel ratio for combustion. It is sometimes colloquially shortened to carby in Australia. To carburate or carburet means to mix the air and fuel or to equip with a carburetor for that purpose. Carburetors have been supplanted in the automotive and, to a lesser extent, aviation industries by fuel injection, they are still common on small engines for lawn mowers and other equipment. The word carburetor comes from the French carbure meaning "carbide". Carburer means to combine with carbon. In fuel chemistry, the term has the more specific meaning of increasing the carbon content of a fluid by mixing it with a volatile hydrocarbon; the first carburetor was invented by Samuel Morey in 1826. The first person to patent a carburetor for use in a petroleum engine was Siegfried Marcus with his 6 July 1872 patent for a device which mixes fuel with air. A carburetor was among the early patents by Karl Benz as he developed internal combustion engines and their components.
Early carburetors were of the surface type, in which air is combined with fuel by passing over the surface of gasoline. In 1885, Wilhelm Maybach and Gottlieb Daimler developed a float carburetor based on the atomizer nozzle; the Daimler-Maybach carburetor was copied extensively. British courts rejected the Daimler company's claim of priority in favor of Edward Butler's 1884 spray carburetor used on his Petrol Cycle. Hungarian engineers János Csonka and Donát Bánki patented a carburetor for a stationary engine in 1893. Frederick William Lanchester of Birmingham, experimented with the wick carburetor in cars. In 1896, Frederick and his brother built a gasoline-driven car in England, a single cylinder 5 hp internal combustion engine with chain drive. Unhappy with the car's performance and power, they re-designed the engine the following year using two horizontally-opposed cylinders and a newly designed wick carburetor. Carburetors were the common method of fuel delivery for most US-made gasoline engines until the late 1980s, when fuel injection became the preferred method.
This change was dictated by the requirements of catalytic converters and not due to an inherent inefficiency of carburation. A catalytic converter requires that there be more precise control over the fuel / air mixture in order to control the amount of oxygen remaining in the exhaust gases. In the U. S. market, the last cars using carburetors were: 1990: Oldsmobile Custom Cruiser, Buick Estate Wagon, Cadillac Brougham, Honda Prelude, Subaru Justy 1991: Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor with the 5.8 L V8 engine. 1991: Jeep Grand Wagoneer with the AMC 360 cu in V8 engine. 1993: Mazda B2200 1994: IsuzuIn Australia, some cars continued to use carburetors well into the 1990s. Low-cost commercial vans and 4WDs in Australia continued with carburetors into the 2000s, the last being the Mitsubishi Express van in 2003. Elsewhere, certain Lada cars used carburetors until 2006. Many motorcycles still use carburetors for simplicity's sake, since a carburetor does not require an electrical system to function.
Carburetors are still found in small engines and in older or specialized automobiles, such as those designed for stock car racing, though NASCAR's 2011 Sprint Cup season was the last one with carbureted engines. In Europe, carburetor-engined cars were being phased out by the end of the 1980s in favor of fuel injection, the established type of engine on more expensive vehicles including luxury and sports models. EEC legislation required all vehicles sold and produced in member countries to have a catalytic converter after December 1992; this legislation had been in the pipeline for some time, with many cars becoming available with catalytic converters or fuel injection from around 1990. However, some versions of the Peugeot 106 were sold with carburettor engines from its launch in 1991, as were versions of the Renault Clio and Nissan Primera and all versions of Ford Fiesta range except the XR2i when it was launched in 1989. Luxury car manufacturer Mercedes-Benz had been producing mechanically fuel-injected cars since the early 1950s, while the first mainstream family car to feature fuel injection was the Volkswagen Golf GTI in 1976.
Ford's first fuel-injected car was the Ford Capri RS 2600 in 1970. General Motors launched its first fuel-injected car in 1957 as an option available for the first generation Corvette. Saab switched to fuel injection across its whole range from 1982; the carburetor works on Bernoulli's principle: the faster air moves, the lower its static pressure, higher the dynamic pressure is. The throttle linkage does not directly control the flow of liquid fuel. Instead, it actuates carburetor mechanisms which meter the flow of air being carried into the engine; the speed of this flow, therefore its pressure, determines the amount of fuel drawn into the airstream. When carburetors are used in aircraft with piston engines, special designs and features are needed to prevent fuel starvation during inverted flight. Engines used an early form of fuel injection known as a pressure carburetor. Most production carbureted engines, as opposed to fuel-injected, h
Carrosserie Vanvooren was a French Coachbuilder based in the north-western Paris suburb of Courbevoie. The company concentrated on producing car bodies for luxury cars, being associated, during the 1930s, with the products of Hispano-Suiza, Rolls-Royce and Bentley. In addition to their production facilities on the edge of town, Vanvooren had a show room at 33 Rue Marbeuf in the exclusive 8th arrondissement of Paris. Carrosserie Vanvooren was active between 1888 and 1950, but in terms of output and of reputation the company's golden decades were the 1920s and 1930s. Achille Vanvooren began his Corbevoie-based business in 1888, producing bodies for carriages and cars; the firm's reputation grew rapidly. The oldest surviving Vanvooren bodied car, dating from 1911, is a Mercedes 38/70HP, delivered to Samuel Colt, heir to his uncle's weaponry dynasty. A 1912 Vanvooren bodied Panhard & Levassor Typ X14 20HP survives as does a Vanvooren bodied Hotchkiss 55HP Roadster from the same year; the number of car bodies produced climbed each year.
In 1921 Vanvooren retired from the business he had created, handing over control to his technical director, Marius Joseph Daste. A licence was obtained from Carrossier Weymann in 1923 for the production of light-weight car bodies. Charles Weymann is remembered as an aircraft pioneer, his car body designs, with timber frames and synthetic leather skins drew inspiration from the aircraft of the time. Vanvooren mounted Weymann designed bodies on various chassis including those of the Hispano-Suiza H6 and of the Bugattis T43 and T44. In 1927 a Vanvooren bodied; this would be the first of many Vanvooren bodied Rolls-Royces. 1929 saw another milestone when company boss Marius Daste, working in collaboration with his new business partner Romée de Prandières and patented a flexible metal-reinforced car-body structure, employing the "Silentbloc" rubber anti-vibration mountings and joints manufactured by a neighbouring firm called "Repusseau and company". These were used to connect the massive steel ladder format chassis of the luxury cars of the time to the Vanvooren timber frames of the car bodies, eliminated the unavoidable squeaks and rattles that had hitherto been a feature of large coach-built cars.
They removed the risk of timber bodies becoming torn in response to excessive flexing from the steel chassis to which they were attached. Daste's car body building system became public at the Paris Motor Show in 1930 where it was identified as an important advance. At once more than 40 European carriage builders acquired licenses to apply the Vanvooren/Daste patent. In the same year at the London Motor Show the company's British agent, J. Smith & Co. exhibited three car bodies of this type constructed on Delage chassis, all three finished in an eye-catching two tone silver/black colour scheme, which made a big impression. In Britain patent marketing was handled by a company called "Silent Travel" and most of the major auto-makers purchased licenses. Vanvooren caught the mood of the luxury car market in the 1930s, combining high quality standards with a careful combination of advanced style and conservative elegance. From the early years Vanvooren had worked with the luxury car maker Hispano-Suiza, whose French automobile factory was located in Bois-Colombes on the north-western edge of Paris, just a few hundred meters from Vanvooren's own factory.
The fruitful collaboration between the two evolved during the 1930s into something comparable to the relationship developing at the same time in England between Rolls-Royce and Park Ward. In 1932 the collaborative nature of the relationship between the two businesses was further deepened when Marius Daste quit the top job at Vanvooren in order to take up an appointment as production direction with Hispano-Suiza. From 1932 Vanvooren provided the bodies for more than a third of Hispano-Suiza's output of HS26, K6 und J12 models. Romée de Prandières Daste's partner at Vanvooren, stayed with the business and during the 1930s was able to build a close business relationship with Bugatti, helped by his personal friendship with the director of Bugatti's Paris agent, Dominique Lamberjack. Numerous Bugatti Types 43, 44, 46, 49, 50, 55 and 57 received their bodywork at Vanvooren's Courbevoie factory; the massive Type 46s bodied by Vanvooren included a strikingly designed body with which the model made its debut at the 1929 Paris Motor Show and Vanvooren provided bodies for the Bugatti Type 50s which featured in the 24 Hours Le Mans race of 1931.
Vanvooren were responsible for the bodies on 20 Bugatti Type 57s, including four cabriolet bodied Type 57S models. At the end of the decade, in 1939, they were commissioned to provide coachwork for a unique Type 57 commissioned by the government as a wedding present for the future Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi; this car was based on a design by Figoni & Falaschi intended for a Delahaye 165 chassis, has a flamboyant style quite out of keeping with the restraint characteristic of Vanvooren's other work at this time. Other French leading manufacturers of luxury cars, notably Delage und Delahaye supplied chassis to be equipped with Vanvooren bodies. A project to move closer to the mass market sector by collaborating with Citroën collapsed after just a handful or prototypes had been built out of a planned minimum quota of 100 cars. For Rolls-Royce and Bentley all the manufacturer's cars sold during the 1930s in France came with Vanvooren bodies. Again, commercial collaboration was underpinned by a personal relationship: Walter Sleator, in charge of "Franco-Britannic Autos", Rolls-Royce's
The Bentley T-Series is an automobile, produced by Bentley Motors Limited in the United Kingdom from 1965 to 1980. It was announced and displayed for the first time at the Paris Motor Show on 5 October 1965 as a Bentley-badged version of the redesigned chassis-less Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow; the Bentley T series was available as a long wheelbase four-door saloon. A small number of two-door saloons were built with coachwork by James Young and Mulliner Park Ward and a two-door convertible with coachwork by Mulliner Park Ward was introduced in September 1967; the Bentley T-Series was differentiated from the Rolls Royce Silver Shadow by its simpler and lighter front grille. In October 1966, the T saloon's pretax'list price' of GBP 5375 undercut that of the Rolls-Royce by GBP 50; the Bentley, being technically an identical twin of the Rolls-Royce, seems to have been bought by owners desiring a little more understatement. The more sporting image of Bentley motor cars differing from Rolls-Royces was gone by the time the Silver Shadow/Bentley T was introduced and thus couldn't motivate buyers any more.
"For a while Bentley's sporting character has been as lamented as Mr Seaman. The last batches of Bentleys have, to be rather frank, been a little hard to distinguish from their Rolls-Royce stablemates" was the opinion of Archie Vicar in the Motorist´s Illustrated Digest; the same correspondent gave the car a favourable review in comparison to its Rolls-Royce stablemate. The outward appearance of a Bentley T is more dynamic because the bonnet design is a few centimetres lower and the radiator shell shape with its rounded edges is smoother. In addition, the badging on wheel covers, boot lid and gauges featured Bentley motifs rather than Rolls-Royce ones; the T series is the first Bentley without a separate chassis. It is different from its predecessor the S series. New steel and aluminum monocoque body with subframes to mount the engine and suspension, more space inside but smaller outside, more passenger room in the rear compartment, more luggage spacedimensions: - radiator grille 5 inches lower and 2 inches wider.
New and lighter power steering, improved automatic transmission, eight-way adjustable electric front seats, weight reduced 150 lbs, larger fuel tank Engine is the least changed unit but a re-designed cylinder head allows a speed increase to 118 mph The upgraded T2 featured rack and pinion steering, improved air conditioning, rubber-faced bumpers, a new fascia and for Non USA Spec. cars a front air dam, along with Bosch CIS Fuel Injection introduced for late 1979 and 1980 models for the USA and other markets to the Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow II. The T1 was manufactured from 1965 to 1977 and the T2 was made from 1977 to 1980. Note: 15 examples of the Two Door Saloon were built with coachwork by James Young and the remainder with coachwork by Mulliner Park Ward
Mulliner Park Ward
Mulliner Park Ward was a bespoke coachbuilder in Hythe Road, London UK. Mulliner now is the personal commissioning department for Bentley. Mulliner Park Ward was a subsidiary of Rolls-Royce and made bespoke bodies in London for Rolls-Royce and Bentley motor cars; the coachbuilding business closed in 1991 but the Mulliner name is used for the personal commissioning department of the current Bentley manufacturer. Rolls-Royce Limited formed Mulliner Park Ward by the 1961 merger of two Rolls-Royce subsidiaries: Park Ward of Willesden, London, a Rolls-Royce subsidiary since 1939 and H. J. Mulliner & Co. of Chiswick, a Rolls-Royce subsidiary since 1959. Rolls-Royce Coachbuilder: Mulliner Park Ward Mulliner Park Ward, in the Rolls-Royce Wiki
John Polwhele Blatchley
John Polwhele Blatchley was a London-born car designer known for his work with J Gurney Nutting & Co Limited and Rolls-Royce Limited. He began his career as designer with Nutting in 1935, moving up to Chief Designer before leaving in 1940 to join Rolls-Royce. There he served as a draughtsman, stylist in the car division, chief styling engineer. Blatchley was born in Hendon. At twelve years of age he was diagnosed with rheumatic fever and spent the next three years bedridden. During this time he built models of them. Blatchley failed his entrance examinations to Cambridge University. While still a student, Blatchley's ability was recognized by A. F. McNeil of J Gurney Nutting & Co Limited. McNeil became Blatchley's teacher and friend for many years. Gurney Nutting hired Blatchley upon his graduation in 1935. Blatchley started at Gurney Nutting by preparing concept drawings for customer approval. In 1936, at the age of twenty-three, he replaced McNeil as Chief Designer when McNeil left Gurney Nutting for James Young & Co.
Unable to fight during World War II due to a heart murmur, Blatchley was moved to Rolls-Royce Aero Design headquarters in Hucknall, where he was responsible for the cowling for Merlin engines used in Hurricane and Spitfire fighter aircraft. He described the work as "intensely boring". Towards the end of the war, Rolls-Royce's Car Division had prepared a postwar car, to have its own factory-supplied bodywork, all-steel so it could be exported all over the world. Blatchley, who had moved to the Design office in their Experimental Department in Belper, refined the new body's design externally and designed the passenger compartment; this design first appeared in 1946 as the Bentley Mark VI. It appeared in 1949 as the first Rolls-Royce with the Silver Dawn. Enlarged with an extended boot and wings, the Bentley R Type followed in 1952, the updated rear end appearing on the Rolls-Royce Silver Dawn at the same time; these postwar cars took the top-people's-carriage trade away from Daimler. Work began on the Corniche II project in 1950.
After his retirement, Blatchley disclaimed any involvement in the final design though he admitted to having worked on some initial suggestions. He said. Ivan worked with George Moseley of H. J. Mulliner & Co. on the final details. In September 1951 the Styling Office was formed as a separate department from the Experimental Department. Blatchley was appointed Chief Styling Engineer and moved to the Styling Department's offices at the Crewe works. In 1952 the responsibility for external styling of Park Ward coachwork was transferred to Crewe. Development of new models continued but the designs presented to the board meeting which would decide on the new model to be introduced in 1955 were rejected as being too modern. In the space of a week Blatchley produced a complete new concept to the board's requirements and it was accepted; this became the Silver Cloud and S Type, Rolls-Royce's last standard models based on a separate chassis. The last standard model car he was associated with was the unitary construction Silver Shadow and Bentley T Type.
As Chief Stylist of Park Ward he designed what proved to be a short run of half a dozen of their bodies on the Bentley Continental chassis. He is credited with the design of the Rolls-Royce Corniche announced after his retirement by Mulliner Park Ward in 1971; as at 2009, one of these Corniches remained in use as the Imperial Processional Car of the Emperor of Japan. Blatchley and his team developed the shape of the following designs, the two brands being identical over the span: Bentley Mark VI Bentley R Type and Rolls-Royce Silver Dawn Bentley S1 and Rolls-Royce Silver Cloud Bentley T-series and Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow Rolls-Royce CornicheOf Blatchley's leadership qualities, his deputy Bill Allen recalls "I had only five bosses during my career of 49 years and John was the best, he had that quality of leadership. Whatever problems he had with those superior in rank to him were never allowed to disturb the temperament and quiet confidence with which he dealt with us". Inevitable changes in management style frustrated Blatchley and he missed his former freedom of action.
Blatchley retired on 21 March 1969 at the age of 55, being succeeded by Fritz Feller an Austrian-born engineer. In 1970, he moved to Hastings, East Sussex, where he remained in retirement for 40 years. Before BMW put their Rolls-Royce Phantom into production, they asked Blatchley for his opinion on the car, he approved. "BMW showed me their possible designs. I think they've done a marvellous job." Blatchley married Willow Sands in 1939. The couple had two sons. Blatchley died in Hastings, East Sussex, on 16 February 2008. Bennett, Martin. Bentley Continental: Corniche & Azure 1951-2002. Foreword by John Blatchley. Dorchester, UK: Veloce Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84584-210-9. Retrieved 16 October 2014. Chapman, Giles. "Obituary–John Blatchley: Shaper of the modern Rolls-Royce". The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 October 2012. Craig, John H.. "The Design and Development of the Silver Cloud & S Series". Towcester, UK: Rolls-Royce Enthusiasts' Club. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2014.
Owen, David. "Short and sweet: the sto