Rolls-Royce was a British luxury car and an aero-engine manufacturing business established in 1904 by the partnership of Charles Rolls and Henry Royce. Building on Royce's reputation established with his cranes they developed a reputation for superior engineering by manufacturing the "best car in the world"; the First World War brought them into manufacturing aero-engines. Joint development of jet engines began in 1940 and they entered production. Rolls-Royce has built an enduring reputation for development and manufacture of engines for defence and civil aircraft. In the late 1960s, Rolls-Royce became hopelessly crippled by the mismanagd development of its advanced RB211 jet engine and the consequent cost over-runs, though it proved a great success. In 1971, the owners were obliged to liquidate their business; the useful portions were bought by a new government-owned company named Rolls-Royce Limited which continued the core business but sold the holdings in British Aircraft Corporation immediately and transferred ownership of the profitable but now financially insignificant car division to Rolls-Royce Motors Holdings Limited.
This it sold to Vickers in 1980. Rolls-Royce obtained consent to drop 1971 from its name in 1977; the Rolls-Royce business remained nationalised until 1987 when, after renaming the owner Rolls-Royce plc, the government sold it to the public. Rolls-Royce plc still owns and operates Rolls-Royce's principal business though since 2003 it is technically a subsidiary of listed holding company Rolls-Royce Holdings plc. A marketing survey in 1987 showed that only Coca-Cola was a more known brand than Rolls-Royce. Henry Royce started an electrical and mechanical business in 1884, he made his first car, a two-cylinder Royce 10, in his Manchester factory in 1904. Henry Royce was introduced to Charles Rolls at the Midland Manchester on 4 May of that year. Rolls was proprietor of an early motor car dealership, C. S. Rolls & Co. in Fulham. In spite of his preference for three- or four-cylinder cars, Rolls was impressed with the Royce 10, in a subsequent agreement on 23 December 1904 agreed to take all the cars Royce could make.
There would be four models: a 10 hp, two-cylinder model selling at £395, a 15 hp three-cylinder at £500, a 20 hp four-cylinder at £650, a 30 hp six-cylinder model priced at £890,All would be badged as Rolls-Royces, be sold by Rolls. The first Rolls-Royce car, the Rolls-Royce 10 hp, was unveiled at the Paris Salon in December 1904. Rolls-Royce Limited was formed on 15 March 1906, by which time it was apparent that new premises were required for production of cars. After considering sites in Manchester, Coventry and Leicester, it was an offer from Derby's council of cheap electricity that resulted in the decision to acquire a 12.7 acres site on the southern edge of that city. The new factory was designed by Royce, production began in early 1908, with a formal opening on 9 July 1908 by Sir John Montagu; the investment in the new company required further capital to be raised, on 6 December 1906 £100,000 of new shares were offered to the public. In 1907, Rolls-Royce bought out C. S. Rolls & Co.. During 1906 Royce had been developing an improved six-cylinder model with more power than the Rolls-Royce 30 hp.
Designated the 40/50 hp, this was Rolls-Royce's first all-new model. In March 1908, Claude Johnson, Commercial Managing Director and sometimes described as the hyphen in Rolls-Royce, succeeded in persuading Royce and the other directors that Rolls-Royce should concentrate on the new model, all the earlier models were duly discontinued. Johnson had an early example named, as if it were a yacht, Silver Ghost. Unofficially the press and public picked up and used Silver Ghost for all the 40/50 cars made until the introduction of the 40/50 Phantom in 1925; the new 40/50 was responsible for Rolls-Royce's early reputation with over 6,000 built. Its chassis was used as a basis for the first British armoured car used in both world wars. Aero-engine manufacturing began in 1914, due to the government having requested it. Rolls-Royce's Eagle, the first example was made in 1915, was the first engine to make a non-stop trans-Atlantic crossing by aeroplane when in June 1919 two Eagles powered the converted Vickers Vimy bomber on the transatlantic flight of Alcock and Brown.
In 1921, Rolls-Royce opened a new factory in Springfield, Massachusetts in the United States where a further 1,701 "Springfield Ghosts" were built. This factory operated for 10 years, closing in 1931, it was located at the former American Wire Wheel factory on Hendee Street, with the administration offices at 54 Waltham Ave. Springfield was the earlier location for the Duryea Motor Wagon Company, the location where the first American gasoline-powered vehicle was built, their first chassis was completed in 1921. Bodies were supplied by Rolls-Royce Custom Coachwork and by Brewster & Co. in Long Island City, New York. After the First World War, Rolls-Royce avoided attempts to encourage British car manufacturers to merge. Faced with falling sales of the 40/50 Silver Ghost in short-lived but deep postwar slumps Rolls-Royce introduced the smaller, cheaper Twenty in 1922 ending the one-model policy followed since 1908; the new 40/50 hp Phantom replaced the Silver Ghost in 1925. The Phantom III, introduced in 1936, was the last large pre-war model.
A limited production of Phantoms for heads of state recommenced in 1950 and continued until the Phantom VI ended production in the late 1980s. In 1931, Rolls-
The Kingdom of Thailand has submitted films for the Academy Award for Best International Feature Film since 1984, when it became the second independent nation in Southeast Asia to join the competition, after the Philippines. The award is given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences to a feature-length motion picture produced outside the United States that contains non-English dialogue. To date Thailand has submitted twenty-two films to AMPAS for Oscar consideration but thus far no Thai candidate has received an Oscar nomination. Four submissions were directed by Chatrichalerm Yukol, a member of the Thai nobility, four were directed by Pen-Ek Ratanaruang; the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences has invited the film industries of various countries to submit their best film for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film since 1956. The Foreign Language Film Award Committee reviews all the submitted films. Following this, they vote via secret ballot to determine the five nominees for the award.
Thai Oscar submissions are selected annually by the Federation of National Film Associations of Thailand. All submissions were made in Thai; the selection committee of the Federation of National Film Associations of Thailand has chosen movies that highlight key moments in Thai history or important social issues. Thailand's five earliest submissions all dealt with contemporary social problems included Nam Poo, The Elephant Keeper, Song of the Chaophraya, Once Upon A Time and Daughter 2. Four Thai submissions were fact-based period dramas - King Naresuan Part 2 was a lavish costume drama set in the sixteenth century about one of Thailand's most distinguished kings. Three Thai submissions were fast-paced thrillers, two of which incorporated strong elements of Buddhism and karma into their plots, namely Who is Running? and Ahimsa... Stop to Run. Submitted was 6ixtynin9, about a laid-off woman who finds a huge cache of stolen money. Two submissions were romantic comedy-dramas. Love of Siam featured a gay teen romance, Best of Times featured two potential couples, one in their 20s and one in their 60s.
CpG oligodeoxynucleotides are short single-stranded synthetic DNA molecules that contain a cytosine triphosphate deoxynucleotide followed by a guanine triphosphate deoxynucleotide. The "p" refers to the phosphodiester link between consecutive nucleotides, although some ODN have a modified phosphorothioate backbone instead; when these CpG motifs are unmethylated, they act as immunostimulants. CpG motifs are considered pathogen-associated molecular patterns due to their abundance in microbial genomes but their rarity in vertebrate genomes; the CpG PAMP is recognized by the pattern recognition receptor Toll-Like Receptor 9, constitutively expressed only in B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in humans and other higher primates. Since 1893, it has been recognized that Coley's toxin, a mixture of bacterial cell lysate, has immunostimulatory properties that could reduce the progression of some carcinomas, but it was not until 1983 that Tokunaga et al. identified bacterial DNA as the underlying component of the lysate that elicited the response.
In 1995 Krieg et al. demonstrated that the CpG motif within bacterial DNA was responsible for the immunostimulatory effects and developed synthetic CpG ODN. Since synthetic CpG ODN have been the focus of intense research due to the Type I pro-inflammatory response they elicit and their successful use as vaccine adjuvants. Synthetic CpG ODN differ from microbial DNA in that they have a or phosphorothioated backbone instead of the typical phosphodiester backbone and a poly G tail at the 3' end, 5' end, or both. PS modification protects the ODN from being degraded by nucleases such as DNase in the body and poly G tail enhances cellular uptake; the poly G tails form intermolecular tetrads that result in high molecular weight aggregates. These aggregates are responsible for the increased activity the poly G sequence impart. Numerous sequences have been shown to stimulate TLR9 with variations in the number and location of CpG dimers, as well as the precise base sequences flanking the CpG dimers; this led to the creation of five unofficial classes or categories of CpG ODN based on their sequence, secondary structures, effect on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
The five classes are Class A, Class B, Class C, Class P, Class S. It is important to note that during the discovery process, the "Classes" were not defined until much when it became evident that ODN with certain characteristics elicited specific responses; because of this, most ODN referred to in the literature use numbers. The numbers are arbitrary and come from testing large numbers of ODN with slight variations in attempts to find the optimal sequence. In addition, some papers will give different names to described ODN, complicating the naming convention more. One of the first Class A ODN, ODN 2216, was described in 2001 by al.. This class of ODN was distinctly different from the described Class B ODN in that it stimulated the production of large amounts of Type I interferons, the most important one being IFNα, induced the maturation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Class A ODN are strong activators of NK cells through indirect cytokine signaling. Structural features defining Class A ODN: The presences of a poly G sequence at the 5' end, the 3' end, or both An internal palindrome sequence GC dinucleotides contained within the internal palindrome A PS-modified backboneClass A ODN contain 7 to 10 PS-modified bases at one or both ends that resist degradation by nucleases and increase the longevity of the ODN.
The above rules define the class, but variability of the sequence within these "rules" is possible. It should be noted that changes to the sequence will affect the magnitude of the response. For example, the internal palindrome sequence can be 4 to 8 base pairs in length and vary in the order of bases, however the pattern, 5'-Pu Pu CG Pu Py CG Py Py-3', was found to be the most active when compared to several other sequences; the poly G tail found at either end of the DNA strand can vary in length and number, but its presence is critical to the activity of the molecule. Krieg et al. was the first to describe Class B ODN in 1995. Class B ODN are strong stimulators of human B monocyte maturation, they stimulate the maturation of pDC but to a lesser extent than Class A ODN and small amounts of IFNα. Structural features defining Class B ODN: One or more 6mer CpG motif 5'-Pu Py C G Py Pu-3' A phosphorothioated backbone Generally 18 to 28 nucleotides in lengthThe strongest ODN in this class have three 6mer sequences.
B ODN have been studied extensively as therapeutic agents because of their ability to induce a strong humoral immune response, making them ideal as a vaccine adjuvant