SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Market maker

A market maker or liquidity provider is a company or an individual that quotes both a buy and a sell price in a financial instrument or commodity held in inventory, hoping to make a profit on the bid-offer spread, or turn. The U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission defines a "market maker" as a firm that stands ready to buy and sell stock on a regular and continuous basis at a publicly quoted price. A Designated Primary Market Maker is a specialized market maker approved by an exchange to guarantee that they will take a position in a particular assigned security, option or option index. Most foreign exchange trading firms are market makers and so are many banks; the market maker both sells to and buys from its clients and is compensated by means of price differentials for the service of providing liquidity, reducing transaction costs and facilitating trade. Market makers that stand ready to buy and sell stocks listed on an exchange, such as the New York Stock Exchange or the London Stock Exchange, are called "third market makers".

Most stock exchanges operate on a "matched bargain" or "order driven" basis. When a buyer's bid price meets a seller's offer price or vice versa, the stock exchange's matching system decides that a deal has been executed. In such a system, there may be no designated or official market makers, but market makers exist. In the United States, the New York Stock Exchange and American Stock Exchange, among others, have designated market makers known as "specialists", who act as the official market maker for a given security; the market makers provide a required amount of liquidity to the security's market, take the other side of trades when there are short-term buy-and-sell-side imbalances in customer orders. In return, the specialist is granted various informational and trade execution advantages. Other U. S. exchanges, most prominently the NASDAQ stock exchange, employ several competing official market makers in a security. These market makers are required to maintain two-sided markets during exchange hours and are obligated to buy and sell at their displayed bids and offers.

They do not receive the trading advantages a specialist does, but they do get some, such as the ability to naked short a stock, i.e. selling it without borrowing it. In most situations, only official market makers are permitted to engage in naked shorting. Recent changes to the rules have explicitly banned naked shorting by options market makers; as of October 2008 there were over two thousand market makers in the USA and over a hundred in Canada. In liquid markets like the New York Stock Exchange, nearly every asset has open interest, providing two benefits: price takers can buy or sell at any time, observers can continually monitor a precise price of every asset. A prediction market, or market explicitly designed to uncover the value of an asset, relies on continual price discovery holding true. Prediction markets benefit from automated market makers, or algorithmic traders that maintain constant open interest, providing needed liquidity to the markets that would be difficult to provide naturally.

Examples of New York market makers are Optiver, Jane Street Capital, Virtu Financial. On the London Stock Exchange there are official market makers for many securities; some of the LSE's member firms take on the obligation of always making a two-way price in each of the stocks in which they make markets. Their prices are the ones displayed on the Stock Exchange Automated Quotation system and it is they who deal with brokers buying or selling stock on behalf of clients. Proponents of the official market making system claim market makers add to the liquidity and depth of the market by taking a short or long position for a time, thus assuming some risk in return for the chance of a small profit. On the LSE, one can always buy and sell stock: each stock always has at least two market makers and they are obliged to deal. In contrast, on smaller, order-driven markets such as the JSE Securities Exchange it can be difficult to determine the buying and selling prices of a small block of stocks that lack a clear and immediate market value because there are no buyers or sellers on the order board.

Unofficial market makers are free to operate on order driven markets or, indeed, on the LSE. They do not have the obligation to always be making a two-way price, but they do not have the advantage that everyone must deal with them either. Examples of UK Market makers since Big Bang Day are Peel Hunt LLP, Winterflood Securities, Liberum Capital, Shore Capital, Fairfax IS and Altium Securities. Prior to the Big Bang, jobbers had exclusive rights of market making on the LSE; the Frankfurt Stock Exchange runs a system of market makers appointed by the listed companies. These are called "designated sponsors". Designated Sponsors secure higher liquidity by quoting binding prices for buying and selling the shares; the largest market maker by number of mandates in Germany is Close Brothers Seydler. The difference between the price at which a market maker is willing to buy a stock and the price that the firm is willing to sell it is known as the market maker spread, or bid–ask spread. Supposing that equal amounts of buy and sell orders arrive and the price never changes, this is the amount that the market maker will gain on each round trip.

Market makers provide liquidity to their own firm's clients, for which they earn a commission. Sales and trading Day trading List of finance topics Divide and choose, analogous to a two-way price Understanding Derivatives: Markets and Infrastructure - Chapter 1 Derivatives Overview Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Financial Markets Group

CarmiƱa Giraldo

Carmiña Giraldo is a Colombian former professional tennis player. Giraldo comes from the city of Pereira in Risaralda and is the elder sister of Colombian Davis Cup competitor Santiago Giraldo, the country's highest ranked male player. From 1992 to 1997, Giraldo represented the Colombia Fed Cup team in a total of 23 ties, her biggest performances at Fed Cup level include partnering Cecilia Hincapié in a doubles win over Chile in the 1993 World Group Play-off, secured 13–11 in the third set, to prevent Colombia being demoted. In a 1994 World Group tie against Germany she took the second set off top 20 player Anke Huber in a singles rubber, before losing in the third. Giraldo reached her best singles ranking of 256 in 1997 and left the professional tour at the end of the year to attend Clemson University in the United States; as a member of the Clemson Tigers women's tennis team she earned All-ACC selection in both 1999 and 2000. Graduating in 2001, Giraldo never returned full-time to the tour, but did make a comeback as a wildcard at the 2001 Copa Colsanitas, a WTA Tour tournament in her home country.

She lost to Eva Martincová in the first round of the singles but made the quarter-finals of the doubles, partnering Catalina Castaño. Carmiña Giraldo at the Women's Tennis Association Carmiña Giraldo at the International Tennis Federation Carmiña Giraldo at the Fed Cup