The Roman–Persian Wars known as the Roman–Iranian Wars, were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian. Battles between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic began in 54 BC. Various vassal kingdoms and allied nomadic nations in the form of buffer states and proxies played a role; the wars were ended by the Arab Muslim Conquests, which led to the fall of the Sasanian Empire and huge territorial losses for the Byzantine Empire, shortly after the end of the last war between them. Although warfare between the Romans and Persians continued over seven centuries, the frontier, aside from shifts in the north, remained stable. A game of tug of war ensued: towns and provinces were continually sacked, captured and traded. Neither side had the logistical strength or manpower to maintain such lengthy campaigns far from their borders, thus neither could advance too far without risking stretching its frontiers too thin.
Both sides did make conquests beyond the border, but in time the balance was always restored. Although different in military tactics, the armies of both sides adopted from each other and by the second half of the 6th century they were similar and evenly matched; the expense of resources during the Roman–Persian Wars proved catastrophic for both empires. The prolonged and escalating warfare of the 6th and 7th centuries left them exhausted and vulnerable in the face of the sudden emergence and expansion of the Caliphate, whose forces invaded both empires only a few years after the end of the last Roman–Persian war. Benefiting from their weakened condition, the Arab Muslim armies swiftly conquered the entire Sasanian Empire, deprived the Eastern Roman Empire of its territories in the Levant, the Caucasus and the rest of North Africa. Over the following centuries, more of the Eastern Roman Empire came under Muslim rule. According to James Howard-Johnston, "from the third century BC to the early seventh century AD, the rival players were grand polities with imperial pretensions, able to establish and secure stable territories transcending regional divides".
The Romans and Parthians came into contact through their respective conquests of parts of the Seleucid Empire. During the 3rd century BC, the Parthians migrated from the Central Asian steppe into northern Iran. Although subdued for a time by the Seleucids, in the 2nd century BC they broke away, established an independent state that expanded at the expense of their former rulers, through the course of the 3rd and early 1st century BC, they had conquered Persia and Armenia. Ruled by the Arsacid dynasty, the Parthians fended off several Seleucid attempts to regain their lost territories, established several eponymous branches in the Caucasus, namely the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia, the Arsacid dynasty of Iberia, the Arsacid dynasty of Caucasian Albania. Meanwhile, the Romans expelled the Seleucids from their territories in Anatolia in the early 2nd century BC, after defeating Antiochus III the Great at Thermopylae and Magnesia. In 64 BC Pompey conquered the remaining Seleucid territories in Syria, extinguishing their state and advancing the Roman eastern frontier to the Euphrates, where it met the territory of the Parthians.
Parthian enterprise in the West began in the time of Mithridates I and was revived by Mithridates II, who negotiated unsuccessfully with Lucius Cornelius Sulla for a Roman–Parthian alliance. When Lucullus invaded Southern Armenia and led an attack against Tigranes in 69 BC, he corresponded with Phraates III to dissuade him from intervening. Although the Parthians remained neutral, Lucullus considered attacking them. In 66–65 BC, Pompey reached agreement with Phraates, Roman–Parthian troops invaded Armenia, but a dispute soon arose over the Euphrates boundary. Phraates asserted his control over Mesopotamia, except for the western district of Osroene, which became a Roman dependency; the Roman general Marcus Licinius Crassus led an invasion of Mesopotamia in 53 BC with catastrophic results. The Parthians raided Syria the following year, mounted a major invasion in 51 BC, but their army was caught in an ambush near Antigonea by the Romans, they were driven back; the Parthians remained neutral during Caesar's Civil War, fought between forces supporting Julius Caesar and forces supporting Pompey and the traditional faction of the Roman Senate.
However, they maintained relations with Pompey, after his defeat and death, a force under Pacorus I assisted the Pompeian general Q. Caecilius Bassus, besieged at Apamea Valley by Caesarian forces. With the civil war over, Julius Caesar prepared a campaign against Parthia, but his assassination averted the war; the Parthians supported Brutus and Cassius during the ensuing Liberators' civil war and sent a contingent to fight on their side at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC. After the Liberators' defeat, the Parthians invaded Roman territory in 40 BC in conjunction with the Roman Quintus Labienus, a former supporter of Brutus and Cassius, they swiftly overran the Roman province of Syria and advanced into Judea, overthrowing the Roman client Hyrcanus II and installing his nephew Antigonus. For a moment, the whole of the Roman East seemed lost to the Parthians or about to fall into their hands. However, the conclusion of the second Roman civil war soon revived Roman strength in Asia. Mark Antony had sent Ventidiu
"Afterworld" is a song by American heavy metal band CKY. Written by Chad I Ginsburg and Deron Miller, it was featured on the soundtrack to the 2010 film Jackass 3D, was included on the band's 2011 compilation album B-Sides & Rarities; the song is the band's first to feature Ginsburg on lead vocals, it was released as a single on September 30, 2010. CKY first began working on "Afterworld" during recording sessions for the band's 2009 fourth studio album Carver City; the band's frontman Deron Miller wrote the music for the song and recorded the basic guitar riffs, although it was shelved and not completed in time to be considered for inclusion on the album. During a session in which the band was tasked with recording a song for inclusion on Jackass 3D, guitarist Chad I Ginsburg wrote the lyrics and recorded the vocals and remaining instrumental parts for "Afterworld" while Miller was out of the studio buying food for the group. Speaking about the themes of the song in a behind the scenes interview, Ginsburg explained that the majority of the lyrics were written in relation to "being a stuntman", in line with the content of the Jackass TV series and films.
Miller added to this explanation by noting that Ginsburg and the band based the song on Jackass 3D and "tried to make it about just going for it – in stunts and stuff like that". Ginsburg revealed that the line "We'll never die in the afterworld" in the chorus was intended to be "We'll never die in the 3D world", although it was changed due to the association with Jackass 3D being "overkill" according to Bam Margera. "Afterworld" was first released as a digital download single on iTunes and Amazon.com on September 30, 2010 alongside an acoustic recording of Carver City closing track "Era of an End". After being featured in the film's closing credits, the track was included on the Jackass 3D soundtrack on October 25; the following March, it was included as the opening track on the compilation album B-Sides & Rarities. Critical reception to "Afterworld" was mixed. Rick Florino of Artistdirect claimed that the song "elevates patented progressively pummeling hard rock into new sonic territory" and features "a combination of polyrhythmic riffing, searing lead lines and impassioned, infectious vocal delivery", while AllMusic's Jason Lymangrover criticised its inclusion on the Jackass 3D soundtrack.
The music video for "Afterworld" was directed by Bam Margera and released in July 2011 after the release of both the Jackass 3D soundtrack and B-Sides & Rarities. Filming for the video took place on November 15 and 16, 2010 at Philadelphia Soundstages in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In a 2015 interview, Deron Miller explained that he did not agree with the idea of producing a video for the single, describing it as a "bad idea" and noting that both he and drummer Jess Margera turned down appearing in the video. Speaking about the video itself, he revealed that he had only seen it once and condemned it as "cheesy and desperate"; the video was dedicated to the memory of CKY Crew member and Jackass star Ryan Dunn, who died in a car crash on June 20, 2011. Speaking about the video at the time of its release, Jess Margera explained that the band chose to dedicate it to Dunn as the song features lyrics which were written about "not saying goodbye", revealed that in Dunn's final text message to Bam he praised "Afterworld" as his favourite CKY music video.
Isabel Cristina Teodoro Fillardis is a Brazilian actress and model. She began her career as a model at age 11 and 15 she became a professional model. Two years at the insistence of her agency, Ford Models, took the test and marked his acting debut in the role of "Ritinha" in Renascer the soap opera, aired by TV Globo. Participated, along with two other members of the group Sublime, who made ephemeral success in the 1990s. In November 1996 she posed nude for Playboy magazine. Isabel has starred in several novels like A Lua Me Disse, Começar de Novo, A Padroeira, Força de um Desejo, Corpo Dourado, A Indomada, O Fim do Mundo, A Próxima Vítima and Pátria Minha. In the film, Isabel appeared in Navalha na Carne and O Homem Nu. In 2007, Elizabeth joined the cast of the novel Sete Pecados, Walcyr Carrasco, in 2008 he joined the cast of the television series Malhação; the actress, in 2011, made a cameo in the last chapter of the soap opera Insensato Coração plays the lawyer Mônica Fina Estampa in the novel.
She is single, but had married to engineer Júlio César Santos and mother of Analuz, Isabel was pregnant with her second son, Jamal Anuar, two months after the birth of the child, discovered that he was a carrier of West syndrome, a type epilepsy that alters the development of mind. Stirred, decided to plead the cause of disease carriers, in 2006 launched the forces of good, dedicated to promoting assistance to persons who require special care and who are unable to do so. In 2003 she had founded the NGO Donate Your Junk, focused on socio-environmental area. On December 28, 2013, the actress gave birth to her third son, Kalel. Isabel Fillardis on IMDb