Coat of arms
A coat of arms is an heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, crest. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to a person, state. The ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields, but these identified military units rather than individuals, the first evidence of medieval coats of arms has been attributed to the 11th century Bayeux Tapestry in which some of the combatants carry shields painted with crosses. However, that heraldic interpretation remains controversial, coats of arms came into general use by feudal lords and knights in battle in the 12th century. By the 13th century, arms had spread beyond their initial battlefield use to become a flag or emblem for families in the social classes of Europe. Exactly who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, in the German-speaking regions both the aristocracy and burghers used arms, while in most of the rest of Europe they were limited to the aristocracy.
The use of spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers. Flags developed from coats of arms, and the arts of vexillology, the coats of arms granted to commercial companies are a major source of the modern logo. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms is and has controlled by the College of Arms. Unlike seals and other emblems, heraldic achievements have a formal description called a blazon. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms, in the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son, undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time.
Other descendants of the bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an apparent or an heir presumptive. Because of their importance in identification, particularly in seals on legal documents and this has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called heraldry. In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, the author Helen Stuart argues that some coats of arms were a form of corporate logo
Pope Francis is the 266th and current Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as Bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He chose Francis as his name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Born in Buenos Aires, Bergoglio worked briefly as a chemical technologist and he was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, and from 1973 to 1979 was Argentinas provincial superior of the Society of Jesus. He became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II and he led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina, and the administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on Gods mercy, concern for the poor, populist causes and commitment to interfaith dialogue. He maintains that the church should be open and welcoming.
He does not support unbridled capitalism, Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology, Francis maintains the traditional views of the church regarding abortion, contraception, ordination of women, and priestly celibacy. He opposes consumerism, irresponsible development, and supports taking action on climate change, in international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the U. S. and Cuba. Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in Flores and he was the eldest of five children of Mario José Bergoglio and Regina María Sívori. Mario Bergoglio was an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro in Italys Piedmont region, Regina Sívori was a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian origin. Mario Josés family left Italy in 1929, to escape the fascist rule of Benito Mussolini, María Elena Bergoglio, the Popes only living sibling, confirmed that their emigration was not for economic reasons. His other siblings were Alberto Horacio, Oscar Adrián and Marta Regina, two great-nephews and Joseph, died in a traffic collision.
In the sixth grade, Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles and he attended the technical secondary school Escuela Técnica Industrial N°27 Hipólito Yrigoyen, named after a past President of Argentina, and graduated with a chemical technicians diploma. He worked for a few years in that capacity in the section at Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory where his boss was Esther Ballestrino. Before joining the Jesuits, Bergoglio worked as a bar bouncer and as a janitor sweeping floors, in the only known health crisis of his youth, at the age of 21 he suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and three cysts. He had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards, Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of San Lorenzo de Almagro football club. Bergoglio is a fan of the films of Tita Merello, Bergoglio found his vocation to the priesthood while he was on his way to celebrate the Spring Day. He passed by a church to go to confession, and was inspired by the priest
St. Louis Cathedral (New Orleans)
The Cathedral-Basilica of Saint Louis, King of France, called St. Louis Cathedral, is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of New Orleans and is the oldest cathedral in the United States. The first church on the site was built in 1718, the third, the cathedral was expanded and largely rebuilt in 1850, with little of the 1789 structure remaining. It is located next to Jackson Square and facing the Mississippi River in the heart of New Orleans and it is one of the few Roman Catholic churches in the United States that fronts a major public square. Three Roman Catholic churches have stood on the site since 1718, the first was a crude wooden structure in the early days of the colony. Construction of a brick and timber church was begun in 1725 and was completed in 1727. Along with numerous buildings, the church was destroyed in the Great New Orleans Fire on Good Friday. The cornerstone of a new church was laid in 1789 and the building was completed in 1794, in 1793 Saint Louis Church was elevated to cathedral rank as the See of the Diocese of New Orleans, making it one of the oldest cathedrals in the United States.
In 1819, a tower with the clock and bell was added. Enlarging the building to meet the needs of the congregation had been pondered since 1834. De Pouilly designed St. Augustine Church in Tremé, the first church building dedicated as a church outside the French Quarter. On March 12,1849, the diocese contracted with John Patrick Kirwan to enlarge and restore the cathedral and these specified that everything except the lateral walls and the lower portions of the existing towers on the front facade be demolished. During the reconstruction, it was determined that the sidewalls would have to be demolished also, during construction in 1850, the central tower collapsed. De Pouilly and Kirwan were replaced, as a consequence, very little of the Spanish Colonial structure survived. The present structure dates to 1850. The bell from the 1819 tower was reused in the new building, during the renovation, St. Patricks Church served as the pro-cathedral for the city. On April 25,1909, a bomb was set off in the cathedral, blowing out windows.
The following year a portion of the foundation collapsed, necessitating the buildings closure while repairs were made, the cathedral was designated as a minor basilica by Pope Paul VI in 1964. Pope John Paul II visited the cathedral in September 1987, today the parish has over 6000 members
Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana
Plaquemines Parish is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census the population is 23,042, the parish seat is Pointe à la Hache. The parish was formed in 1807, Plaquemines Parish is part of the New Orleans–Metairie, LA Metropolitan Statistical Area. It was severely damaged in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the name Plaquemines, in French Creole, was derived from the Atakapa word, meaning the local fruit persimmon. The French used it to name a military post they built on the banks of the Mississippi River, eventually the name was applied to the entire parish and to a nearby bayou. The oldest European settlement in the parish was La Balize, where the French built, the name in French meant seamark, a tall structure of wood built as a guide for ships. By 1721 the French built one 62 feet high, a surviving map from about 1720 shows the island and fort, and the mouth of the river. As traffic and trade on the increased, so did the importance of river pilots who were knowledgeable about the complicated, ever-changing currents.
They lived at La Balize with their families, the village was destroyed and rebuilt numerous times, but it was abandoned for good after being destroyed by a September 1860 hurricane. The pilots moved upriver and built the settlement they named Pilottown, the river pilots expertise continues to be critical, but now they generally live with their families in more populated areas. They stay at Pilottown temporarily for work, an important historical site is Fort Jackson, built in 1822 as recommended by General Andrew Jackson, hero of the Battle of New Orleans in the War of 1812. In 1861, Fort Jackson served as an important Confederate defense for the city of New Orleans during the Civil War because it was at the mouth of the Mississippi River, the US Army used it as a training base during World War I, 1917-1918. Plaquemines is one of two parishes that have kept their same boundaries from the beginning of Louisianas parishes in 1807 to today. The Mississippi River Delta of Plaquemines is a base for assistance to offshore oil rigs, Plaquemines Parish was the first place in the United States where shippers used a container for cargo in foreign trade.
The area is known for having the most southern point in Louisiana. To be further south in the United States, a person would have to be in Texas, the August 1901 Hurricane caused damage, including 4 feet of water in Buras. The Great Hurricane of 1915 devastated much of the Parish, with multiple levee breaches on both sides of the Mississippi, a 12-foot storm surge, and hundreds of deaths, homelessness was widespread, and many people were reduced to starvation until charitable aid arrived. The old Parish Courthouse in Pointe à la Hache was among the buildings destroyed in the storm
Alfred Clifton Hughes
Alfred Clifton Hughes KCHS is a retired American prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the 13th Archbishop of New Orleans, having served as Bishop of Baton Rouge from 1993 to 2002. On June 12,2009, Pope Benedict XVI appointed Bishop Gregory M. Aymond as the new Archbishop of New Orleans to replace Archbishop Hughes. He was ordained to the priesthood in Rome on December 15,1957, upon his return to the United States, he became a professor, as well as spiritual director and lecturer, at his alma mater of St. John’s Seminary in 1962. On July 21,1981, Hughes was appointed Auxiliary Bishop of Boston and he received his episcopal consecration on the following September 14 from Humberto Cardinal Medeiros, with Bishops Thomas Daily and John DArcy serving as co-consecrators. Hughes served as Rector of St. John’s Seminary from 1981 to 1986 and he was named Bishop of Baton Rouge on September 7,1993, and was installed on November 7 of that same year. On February 16,2001, Hughes was made Coadjutor Archbishop of New Orleans and he visited ninety of the archdiocese’s 142 parishes when he arrived there to become more familiar with the people.
Hughes succeeded Schulte as Archbishop of New Orleans upon the retirement on January 3,2002. We are so overwhelmed, we do not really know how to respond, and we know when we turn to God, God offers us his grace”. Our faith teaches us to do the latter, to believe that God is present and is asking us to be partners with him in the recovery. Hughes implemented a controversial post-Katrina church consolidation program that reduced the diocese from 142 parishes to 108, the storm drove away nearly a quarter of its former membership and left it with nearly $300 million in physical damage. Questions have raised by Hughes’s handling of sexual abuse cases by the clergy. For this, he has apologized and said, “Our action or inaction failed to protect the innocents among us, I ask for forgiveness The Archbishop has placed an emphasis on evangelization as a major theme of his tenure. He sits on committees of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. The reasons concern Obamas support for abortion rights and other issues viewed as incompatible with the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, with which the University of Notre Dame is affiliated.
SB115 would ban mixing of human and animal cells in a Petri dish and was thought to be the first bill of its kind, a pre-emptive strike against attempts to create hybrid human-ape creatures. On 2009 June 12 Hughes was, by designation of Pope Benedict XVI, succeeded by Gregory Michael Aymond, Hughes continued to serve as apostolic administrator until 2009 August 20, the date of Aymonds installation mass in New Orleans Saint Louis Cathedral
Roman Catholic Diocese of Lake Charles
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Lake Charles, is a particular church located in southwest Louisiana. It is a new diocese of the Roman Catholic Church. It is suffragan to the Archdiocese of New Orleans, the diocese is administered from the city of Lake Charles. The patron saint of the diocese is St. Peter Claver, the Diocese comprises five civil parishes, Beauregard, Calcasieu and Jefferson Davis. The statue of the Millennium Christ is located in Bilbo Cemetery in Lake Charles, the actual name of the statue is Jesus Christ Our Citizen of the Centuries and it stands atop an eight-foot Labrador green granite base. The statue was sculpted by Janie Stine LaCroix, a native of nearby Sulphur, the statue is regarded as being a symbol of peace and unity for all citizens and faiths of southwest Louisiana. On 6 March 2007 Pope Benedict XVI named Monsignor Glen John Provost as the new bishop, on 23 April 2007, Bishop Provost was ordained to the episcopate, and formally installed by the Archbishop of New Orleans, Alfred C.
Hughes. The list of the bishops of the diocese and their years of service, Glen John Provost † = deceased Calcasieu Parish Sheriffs Office and Louisiana State Police arrested Mark Broussard,56, on Thursday, March 22,2012. Broussard was accused of abusing three boys as young as 8 years old while serving at Our Lady Queen of Heaven Catholic Church and St. Henrys Catholic Church in Lake Charles, La. Broussard was eventually charged with 224 counts of abuse which were consolidated into 10 counts to ease the burden on the victims. Three additional victims declined to pursue charges against Broussard, Broussard served as pastor of St. Eugene Catholic Church in Grand Chenier where he resigned from the priesthood in 1994. St. Louis Catholic High School, Lake Charles Roman Catholic Diocese of Lake Charles Official Site
Pope Pius VI
Pope Pius VI, born Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi, reigned as Pope from 15 February 1775 to his death in 1799. Pius VI condemned the French Revolution and the suppression of the Gallican Church that resulted from it, French troops commanded by Napoleon Bonaparte defeated the papal troops and occupied the Papal States in 1796. In 1798, upon his refusal to renounce his power, Pius was taken prisoner. He died one year in Valence and his reign is the fourth-longest in papal history, being over two decades. P. M. graven in all parts of the city, the portrait in the box is one of numerous studio copies of the official portrait by Pompeo Batoni. Pius VIs pontificate was a tumultuous and rough one with the onset of the French Revolution, in the beginning of his Pontificate, Pius succeeded in silencing a group of followers of Jansenism with his bull Auctorem Fidei, which reaffirmed the Churchs stance at the topics at hand. Pius VI saw the growth of Catholicism in the United States of America, therefore erecting the first American archepiscopal see, the Archdiocese of Baltimore.
Pius VI attempted the daring job of draining the Pontine Marshes, which he did with success, but did successfully drain the marshes near Citta della Pieve, Perugia. Pius VI deepened and expanded the harbors of Terracina and Porto dAnizo, Pius was a great patron of the arts and humanities, for he completed the Pio-Clementine Museum and added a new sacristy to St. Peters Basilica. Pius VI restored the famous Roman Appian Way, Giovanni Angelo Braschi was born in Cesena on Christmas in 1717 as the eldest of eight children to Count Marco Aurelio Tommaso Braschi and Ana Teresa Bandi. His siblings were Felice Silvestro, Giulia Francesca, Cornelio Francesco, Maria Olimpia, Anna Maria Costanza, Giuseppe Luigi and he was baptized in Cesena on the following 27 December and was given the baptismal name of Angelo Onofrio Melchiorre Natale Giovanni Antonio. After he completed his studies in the Jesuit college of Cesena and it was there that he became the private secretary of Cardinal Tommaso Ruffo, papal legate, in whose bishopric of Ostia and Velletri he held the post of auditor until 1753.
Cardinal Ruffo took him as his conclavist at the 1740 papal conclave and his skill in the conduct of a mission to the court of Naples won him the esteem of Pope Benedict XIV who appointed him as one of his secretaries in 1753 following the death of Cardinal Ruffo. The pope appointed him as a canon of St Peters Basilica in 1755, in 1758, putting an end to an engagement to be married he was ordained to the priesthood. Braschi was appointed as the Referendary of the Apostolic Signatura in 1758 and he became the auditor and secretary of Cardinal Carlo Rezzonico, the nephew of Pope Clement XIII. In 1766, he was appointed as the treasurer of the camera apostolica by Pope Clement XIII and those who suffered under his conscientious economics had managed to convince Pope Clement XIV to elevate him into the cardinalate. Braschi was elevated on 26 April 1773 in Rome as the Cardinal-Priest of SantOnofrio and this was a promotion which rendered him innocuous for a brief period of time. Pope Clement XIV died in 1774 and this triggered a conclave to choose a successor, spain and Portugal dropped all objections to the election of Braschi who was one of the more moderate opponents of the anti-Jesuit stance of the late pope
St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana
St. Bernard Parish is a parish located in the U. S. state of Louisiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 35,897, the parish seat and largest city is Chalmette. The parish was formed in 1807, St. Bernard Parish is part of the New Orleans–Metairie, LA Metropolitan Statistical Area. The parish is located southeast of New Orleans and it has been ranked the fastest-growing county in the United States from 2007 to 2008 by the U. S. Census Bureau, but it is only half as populated as it was in 2005. In 2009, because of evacuation and emigration due to destruction by Hurricane Katrina, St. Bernard Parish contains a large community of Spanish descent. Sometimes referred to informally as Spanish Cajuns, the Isleños are descended from Canary Islanders and this linguistically isolated group eventually developed its own dialect. Saint Bernard, the saint of colonial governor Bernardo de Galvez, was used in documents to identify the area. St. Bernard Parish is home to the earliest Filipino community in the United States, Saint Malo, Louisiana.
The chief historical attraction in St. Bernard Parish is the Chalmette National Historical Park, at which the Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8,1815, during the War of 1812. Many street names near the bear the names of the chief participants, or take a pirate theme. A high school and now a school, was named in honor of Andrew Jackson. In 1863, Abraham Lincoln mentioned St. Bernard Parish in the Emancipation Proclamation as an area not in rebellion against the Union during the Civil War. From 1919 to 1969, the parish was effectively ruled as part of the fiefdom of Leander Perez, the levee breach caused flooding and widespread destruction in most of Eastern St. Bernard Parish and parts of Plaquemines Parish. Residents were never compensated for their losses. On August 29,2005, St. Bernard was devastated by Hurricane Katrina, the storm damaged virtually every structure in the parish. The eye of Katrina passed over the portion of the parish. This surge destroyed the parish levees, almost the entire parish was flooded, with most areas left with between 5 and 15 feet of standing water.
The water rose suddenly and violently, during a period which witnesses reported as no more than fifteen minutes, in many areas, houses were smashed or washed off their foundations by a storm surge higher than the roofs
In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, like the Lutheran Church of Sweden, it is the denomination leader title, an archbishop may be granted the title, or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are generally arranged in groups in which the bishop who is the ordinary of one of them has certain powers and he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of that see. As well as the more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank. In some cases, such a see is the one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco. In others, the title of archdiocese is for reasons attributed to a see that was once of greater importance. Some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese, an example is the Archdiocese of Avignon, which is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Marseille, Another such example is the Archdiocese of Trnava, Slovakia.
Others are immediately subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese and these are usually aggregated to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop, especially in the Anglican Communion, not all archbishops dioceses are called archdioceses. Since then, the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient, the rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops who are not ordinaries of an archdiocese. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head, the bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009, the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is merely that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones, the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr.
and the others with Arciv. Many of the sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank. In that case the person who is appointed to such a position is given the title of archbishop. They are usually referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop, until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the see, the 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a see, an archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see
The Roman Rite is the most widespread liturgical rite in the Catholic Church and is one of the Latin rites used in the Western or Latin Church. The Roman Rite has been adapted over the centuries and its Eucharistic liturgy can be divided into three stages, the Pre-Tridentine Mass, Tridentine Mass and Mass of Paul VI. The 2007 motu proprio Summorum Pontificum specifies the circumstances in which priests of the Latin Church may continue to use the form of the Roman Rite in the 1962 Roman Missal. While other rites use more poetic language, the Roman Rite is noted for its sobriety of expression, as each is shown, a bell is rung and, if incense is used, the host and chalice are incensed. Sometimes the external bells of the church are rung as well, other characteristics that distinguish the Roman Rite from the rites of the Eastern Catholic Churches are frequent genuflections, kneeling for long periods, and keeping both hands joined together. We find the prayers of our Canon in the treatise de Sacramentis, so our Mass goes back, without essential change, to the age when it first developed out of the oldest liturgy of all.
The final result of our inquiry is that, in spite of unsolved problems, in spite of changes, in a footnote he added, The prejudice that imagines that everything Eastern must be old is a mistake. Eastern rites have been modified too, some of them quite late. No Eastern Rite now used is as archaic as the Roman Mass, in the same book, Fortescue acknowledged that the Roman Rite underwent profound changes in the course of its development. In the interval, there was what Fortescue called a radical change and he quoted the theory of A. Leo, I began to make these changes, Gregory I finished the process and finally recast the Canon in the form it still has. We must admit that between the years 400 and 500 a great transformation was made in the Roman Canon and this infusion Fortescue called the last change since Gregory the Great. The Eucharistic Prayer normally used in the Byzantine Rite is attributed to Saint John Chrysostom, the East Syrian Eucharistic Prayer of Addai and Mari, which is still in use, is certainly much older.
However, by about 1800 the Roman Rite had quite abandoned rood screens, when Western Europe adopted polyphony, the music of the Roman Rite did become very elaborate and lengthy. Latin liturgical rites List of Catholic rites and churches Liturgical books of the Roman rite Pre-Tridentine Mass Mass of Paul VI Mass Tridentine Mass Baldovin, John F. Reforming the Liturgy, A Response to the Critics. The Reform of the Liturgy 1948-1975, a Short History of the Roman Mass. By Michael Davies, said to be based on Adrian Fortescues The Mass, A Study of the Roman Liturgy Metzger, History of the Liturgy, The Major Stages. Bodies of Worship, Explorations in Theory and Practice, a Challenging Reform, Realizing the Vision of the Liturgical Renewal. Johnson, Lawrence, J. Worship in the Early Church, Edward, Nathan D. and Pierce, Joanne M
Roman Catholic Diocese of Alexandria in Louisiana
Its cathedral episcopal see id St. Francis Xavier Cathedral in Alexandria, Louisiana. It has a former Cathedral and Minor Basilica, Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, in Natchitoches, the current Bishop of the Diocese is David Talley, who was appointed as Coadjutor Bishop of Alexandria before becoming bishop with the resignation of Ronald Paul Herzog. The corporate title of the diocese is The Diocese of Alexandria, the Latin title of the diocese is Dioecesis Alexandrina in Louisiana. As per 2014, it pastorally served 42,929 Catholics on 27,810 km² in 50 parishes with 71 priests,19 deacons,43 lay religious and 10 seminarians. It encompasses the parishes of Avoyelles, Vernon, Winn, Madison, Tensas, Cathoula, Lasalle. On 18 October 1976, it was renamed as the Diocese of Alexandria-Shreveport, on 16 June 1986, when the northern Louisiana portion of the territory was separated to form the new Diocese of Shreveport, the diocese was again renamed back as the Diocese of Alexandria. Holy Savior Menard Central High School, Alexandria St.
Joseph High School, Plaucheville St
Louis IX of France
Louis IX, commonly known as Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 until his death. Louis was crowned in Reims at the age of 12, following the death of his father Louis VIII the Lion, although his mother, Blanche of Castile, ruled the kingdom until he reached maturity. During Louiss childhood, Blanche dealt with the opposition of rebellious vassals, as an adult, Louis IX faced recurring conflicts with some of the most powerful nobles, such as Hugh X of Lusignan and Peter of Dreux. Simultaneously, Henry III of England tried to restore his continental possessions and his reign saw the annexation of several provinces, notably Normandy and Provence. Louis IX was a reformer and developed French royal justice, in which the king is the judge to whom anyone is able to appeal to seek the amendment of a judgment. He banned trials by ordeal, tried to prevent the private wars that were plaguing the country, to enforce the correct application of this new legal system, Louis IX created provosts and bailiffs.
According to his vow made after an illness, and confirmed after a miraculous cure. He was succeeded by his son Philip III, Louiss actions were inspired by Christian values and Catholic devotion. He decided to punish blasphemy, interest-bearing loans and prostitution and he expanded the scope of the Inquisition and ordered the burning of Talmuds. He is the only canonized king of France, and there are many places named after him. Much of what is known of Louiss life comes from Jean de Joinvilles famous Life of Saint Louis, two other important biographies were written by the kings confessor, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and his chaplain, William of Chartres. The fourth important source of information is William of Saint-Parthus biography, while several individuals wrote biographies in the decades following the kings death, only Jean of Joinville, Geoffrey of Beaulieu, and William of Chartres wrote from personal knowledge of the king. Louis was born on 25 April 1214 at Poissy, near Paris, the son of Prince Louis the Lion and Princess Blanche, and baptised in La Collégiale Notre-Dame church.
His grandfather on his fathers side was Philip II, king of France, while his grandfather on his mothers side was Alfonso VIII, tutors of Blanches choosing taught him most of what a king must know—Latin, public speaking, military arts, and government. He was 9 years old when his grandfather Philip II died, a member of the House of Capet, Louis was twelve years old when his father died on 8 November 1226. He was crowned king within the month at Reims cathedral, because of Louiss youth, his mother ruled France as regent during his minority. Louis mother trained him to be a leader and a good Christian. She used to say, I love you, my son, as much as a mother can love her child