Nelson, New Zealand
Nelson is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay. Nelson is the oldest city in the South Island and the second-oldest settled city in New Zealand – it was established in 1841 and was proclaimed a city by royal charter in 1858. Nelson City is close to the geographical centre of New Zealand and bordered to the west and south-west by Tasman District Council and to the north-east and south-east by Marlborough District Council; the city does not include the area's second-largest settlement. Nelson City has a population of around 50,000, making it New Zealand's 12th most populous city; when combined with the town of Richmond, which has 15,000 residents, the whole conurbation is ranked as New Zealand's 9th largest urban area by population. Nelson is well known for its thriving local arts and crafts scene, Each year, the city hosts events popular with locals and tourists alike, such as the Nelson Arts Festival; the annual Wearable Art Awards began near Nelson and a local museum, World of Wearable Art now showcases winning designs alongside a collection of classic cars.
Nelson was named in honour of the Admiral Horatio Nelson who defeated both the French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Many roads and public areas around the city are named after people and ships associated with that battle and Trafalgar Street is the main shopping axis of the city. Inhabitants of Nelson are referred to as Nelsonians. Nelson's Māori name, Whakatū, means'build','raise', or'establish'. In an article to The Colonist newspaper on 16 July 1867, Francis Stevens described Nelson as "The Naples of the Southern Hemisphere". Today, Nelson has the nicknames of "Sunny Nelson" due to its high sunshine hours per year or the "Top of the South" because of its geographic location. In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by putting the index and middle fingers together which are raised to the nose until the fingertips touch the nose move the hand forward so that the fingers point forward away from oneself. Settlement of Nelson began about 700 years ago by Māori. There is evidence.
The earliest recorded iwi in the Nelson district are the Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri, Ngāti Apa and Rangitāne tribes. Raids from northern tribes in the 1820s, led by Te Rauparaha and his Ngāti Toa, soon decimated the local population and displaced them; the New Zealand Company in London planned the settlement of Nelson. They intended to buy cheaply from the Māori some 200,000 acres which they planned to divide into one thousand lots and sell to intending settlers; the Company earmarked future profits to finance the free passage of artisans and labourers and their families, for the construction of public works. However, by September 1841 only about one third of the lots had sold. Despite this the Colony pushed ahead, land was surveyed by Frederick Tuckett. Three ships, the Arrow and Will Watch, sailed from London under the command of Captain Arthur Wakefield. Arriving in New Zealand, they discovered that the new Governor of the colony, William Hobson, would not give them a free hand to secure vast areas of land from the Māori or indeed to decide where to site the colony.
However, after some delay, Hobson allowed the Company to investigate the Tasman Bay area at the north end of the South Island. The Company selected the site now occupied by Nelson City because it had the best harbour in the area, but it had a major drawback: it lacked suitable arable land. The Company secured a vague and undetermined area from the Māori for £800 that included Nelson, Motueka and Whakapuaka; this allowed the settlement to begin, but the lack of definition would prove the source of much future conflict. The three colony ships sailed into Nelson Haven during the first week of November 1841; when the four first immigrant ships – Fifeshire, Mary-Ann, Lord Auckland and Lloyds – arrived three months they found the town laid out with streets, some wooden houses and rough sheds. Within 18 months the Company had sent out 18 ships with 872 women and 1384 children. However, fewer than ninety of the settlers had the capital to start as landowners; the early settlement of Nelson province included a proportion of German immigrants, who arrived on the ship Sankt Pauli and formed the nucleus of the villages of Sarau and Neudorf.
These were Lutheran Protestants with a small number of Bavarian Catholics. In 1892 the New Zealand Church Mission Society was formed in a Nelson church hall. After a brief initial period of prosperity, the lack of land and of capital caught up with the settlement and it entered a prolonged period of relative depression; the labourers had to accept a cut in their wages. Organised immigration ceased. By the end of 1843, artisans and labourers began leaving Nelson; the pressure to find more arable land became intense. To the south-east of Nelson lay the wide and fertile plains of the Wairau Valley; the New Zealand Company tried to claim. The Māori owners stated adamantly that the Wairau Valley had not formed part of the original land sale and made it clear they would resist any attempts by the settlers to occupy the area; the Nelson settlers led by Arthur Wakefield and Henry Thompson attempted to do just that. This resulted in the Wairau Affray; the subsequent Government enquiry exonerated the Māori and
Roman Catholic Diocese of Christchurch
The Latin Rite Roman Catholic Diocese of Christchurch is a suffragan diocese of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Wellington. Its cathedral and see city are located in Christchurch, the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, it was formed on 5 May 1887 from a portion of the territory of the Diocese of Wellington, elevated to archdiocese that same month. Paul Martin SM, Bishop of Christchurch. John Basil Meeking, Bishop Emeritus of Christchurch. St Mary's Catholic Church in Hokitika belongs to the diocese. Following a structural assessment triggered by the February 2011 Christchurch earthquake, the church was closed to the public in June 2012. For 57 years, the diocese was responsible for sending priests to the non-denominational Christian Chapel of the Snows at McMurdo Station on Ross Island, the second southernmost religious building in the world; this practice was stopped in 2015. Catholic Cathedral College, Christchurch John Paul II High School, Greymouth Marian College, Christchurch Roncalli College, Timaru St Bede's College, Christchurch St Thomas of Canterbury College, Upper Riccarton, Christchurch Villa Maria College, Upper Riccarton, Christchurch Holy Cross Seminary Holy Name Seminary Father Bernard O'Brien SJ Roman Catholicism in New Zealand List of New Zealand Catholic bishops Catholic Diocese of Christchurch "Diocese of Christchurch".
Catholic-Hierarchy. Retrieved 2007-01-07
New Plymouth is the major city of the Taranaki Region on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. It is named after the English city of Plymouth from where the first English settlers migrated; the New Plymouth District, which includes New Plymouth City and several smaller towns, is the 10th largest district in New Zealand, has a population of 74,184 – about two-thirds of the total population of the Taranaki Region and 1.7% of New Zealand's population. This includes New Plymouth City, Inglewood, Oakura and Urenui; the city itself is a service centre for the region's principal economic activities including intensive pastoral activities as well as oil, natural gas and petrochemical exploration and production. It is the region's financial centre as the home of the TSB Bank, the largest of the remaining non-government New Zealand-owned banks. Notable features are the botanic gardens, the critically acclaimed Len Lye Centre and Art Gallery, the 11 km Coastal Walkway alongside the Tasman Sea, the Len Lye-designed 45-metre-tall artwork known as the Wind Wand, Paritutu Rock, views of Mount Taranaki/Egmont.
As described under awards, New Plymouth won multiple awards in 2008. The city was in 2010 chosen as one of two walking & cycling "Model Communities" by the government. Based on New Plymouth's positive attitude towards cyclists and pedestrians, the city received $3.71m to invest into infrastructure and community programs to boost walking and cycling. It is noted for being a coastal city with a mountain within 30 minutes drive, where residents and visitors to New Plymouth can snowboard, water ski and surf all in the same day. In 1828 Richard "Dicky" Barrett set up a trading post at Ngamotu after arriving on the trading vessel Adventure. Barrett traded with the local Māori and helped negotiate the purchase of land from them on behalf of the New Zealand Company. Settlers were selected by the Plymouth Company, set up to attract emigrants from the West Country of England, which took over land purchased by the New Zealand Company; the first of the town's settlers arrived on the William Bryan, which anchored off the coast on 31 March 1841.
A series of disputes over ownership and settlement of land developed between Māori and settlers soon after and New Plymouth became a fortified garrison town in 1860–1861 as more than 3500 Imperial soldiers, as well as local volunteers and militia, fought Māori in the First Taranaki War. The New Zealand Constitution Act 1852 created the New Plymouth Province, with a Provincial Council given jurisdiction over an area of 400,000ha. Five years the name of the province changed to Taranaki Province; the province was abolished in 1876. A Town Board was formed in 1863 and in August 1876 the town was constituted as a borough, its new status did little to overcome some outside perceptions, however. In 1876 author E. W. Payton wrote that "all the great bustling'cities' of the colony had a patronising way of trying to snub New Plymouth, referring to it in such derogatory terms as the dullest hole in the colony... nothing whatever to do there... I find a great liking for this'slow, old hole'... it is a quiet, unassuming place and has not done so much to attract immigrants and settlers by exaggerating reports, as some districts have done."The Fitzroy Town District was merged with New Plymouth borough in August 1911.
By 1913 the town had a population of 7538. Seafront land was added in 1931 and 1941. New Plymouth was declared a city in 1949. In 1989, as a part of New Zealand-wide reorganisation of local government, New Plymouth City Council was merged with Taranaki District Council, Inglewood District Council, Clifton County Council to form New Plymouth District Council; every three years the Mayor, 14 councillors and 16 community board members are elected by the New Plymouth District's enrolled voters. The full council, sub-committees and standing committees meet on a six-weekly cycle; the Policy and Monitoring standing committees have delegated authority from the council to make final decisions on certain matters, they make recommendations to the council on all others. The four community boards–Clifton, Waitara and Kaitake–as well as the subcommittees and working parties can make recommendations to the standing committees for them to consider; the third standing committee, the Hearings Commission, is a quasi-judicial body that meets whenever a formal hearing is required–for instance, to hear submissions on a publicly notified resource consent application.
The Chief Executive and 460 full-time equivalent staff provide advice and information to the elected members and the public, implement council decisions and manage the district's day-to-day operations. This includes everything from maintaining more than 280 parks and reserves, waste water management and issuing consents and permits, through to providing libraries and other recreational services and ensuring the district's eateries meet health standards. New Plymouth District Council's annual operating revenue for 2008/2009 is more than $188 million; the current Mayor of New Plymouth is Neil Holdom. From west to east Oakura Omata Bell Block Inglewood Waitara Ne
Francis William Mary Redwood SM, was the Roman Catholic Archbishop of Wellington, Metropolitan of New Zealand. Redwood was born on 8 April 1839 on the Tixall estate, England, his parents were his wife Mary. In 1842, he sailed to New Zealand with siblings on the George Fyfe, his father had bought land from the New Zealand Company, the family settled in Waimea West in the Nelson district. The locality became known as Appleby and his parents had Stafford Place built in 1866; the house is registered as a Category I heritage building by Heritage New Zealand, with registration number 1678. Redwood was educated at the Nelson school of Fr Antoine Garin, SM. In December 1854 he went to study at St Mary's College at St Chamond, near Lyon, in 1860 he entered the scholasticate of the Society of Mary at Montbel, near Toulon, he entered the Marist novitiate at Sainte-Foy. He gained his baccalaureate in theology at Dublin. After three years' teaching at Catholic University School, Redwood suffered a near fatal bout of pneumonia in 1867 and went to Lyon to convalesce.
There he met Philippe Viard, Bishop of Wellington, going to Rome to discuss his diocese and to attend the First Vatican Council. Viard was impressed and perhaps thought of Redwood as his coadjutor. However, before any appointment could be made, Viard died. There was a long delay before Redwood was appointed his successor in January 1874. Redwood was consecrated by Henry Edward Cardinal Manning at St Anne's, London, on 17 March 1874. Redwood spent his time appealing for funds in France and personnel in Ireland before returning to New Zealand in November 1874; when consecrated second Bishop of Wellington, Redwood was the youngest Roman Catholic bishop in the world. At his death, aged 95, he was said to be the oldest; the overwhelming size of the Wellington diocese led to the decision to create a new diocese comprising Canterbury and Westland. At the same time a metropolitan archdiocese was created. Redwood favoured the appointment of his fellow Marist John Grimes, English-born, as Bishop of Christchurch, but in 1885 the first plenary council of Australasian bishops recommended that the appointment go to a diocesan priest and that Dunedin be the new archdiocese.
This would have strengthened the Irish diocesan clergy at the expense of the Marists, who petitioned Rome to overturn both recommendations. In 1887, Grimes became bishop of Christchurch and Redwood archbishop of Wellington and metropolitan of New Zealand. Redwood was created archbishop by a papal brief dated 13 May 1887. Redwood attached great importance to personal visitation, he established numerous churches and orphanages, was a founder of St Patrick's College, Wellington in 1885, lived to open the new St Patrick's College, Silverstream in 1931 in the Hutt Valley. He expanded and completed St Mary's Cathedral and, after it was destroyed, replaced it with a basilican church which became Sacred Heart Cathedral. During his episcopate, Redwood invited many religious orders into New Zealand, notable among these being the Sisters of Mercy, the Marist Brothers, the Little Company of Mary, the Sisters of the Sacred Heart, the Sisters of St Brigid, the Sisters of the Mission, the Sisters of St Joseph.
He encouraged the foundation of the New Zealand order, the Sisters of Compassion. Redwood was Provincial of the New Zealand Marists, he founded the Seminary in Hawke's Bay and lent his support to the foundation of Holy Cross College, Mosgiel. For 26 years, he served on the Senate of the University of New Zealand where he played an active part in its proceedings, he became the first life member of Historical Society, Wellington. Redwood's concerns extended to all aspects of life, he agreed that alcohol was one of the evils of the day, but advocated temperance rather than prohibition. He resolutely resisted pressure to support prohibition, a pastoral letter of 1911 urging Catholics to vote against prohibition was believed to have been responsible for the defeat of the measure in that year. At the Diocesan Synod, in 1878, Redwood framed the practical Canon law for the New Zealand Church, his Statutes provided a pattern followed by the Auckland and Dunedin dioceses. He convened and presided over the first Provincial Council of Wellington, played a prominent role in the first Plenary Council of Sydney.
Archbishop Redwood died at Wellington on 3 January 1935, aged 95. He was succeeded by Archbishop Thomas O'Shea SM, Coadjutor-Archbishop since 1913. Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur – 1934 Ernest Richard Simmons, Brief history of the Catholic Church in New Zealand, Catholic Publications Centre, Auckland, 1978. Michael King, God's farthest outpost: a history of Catholics in New Zealand, Auckland 1997. Michael O'Meeghan S. M. Steadfast in hope: the story of the Catholic Archdiocese of Wellington 1850–2000, Dunmore press, Palmerston North, 2003. Archbishop Francis Mary Redwood SM, Catholic Hierarchy website
Thorndon, New Zealand
Thorndon is a historic inner suburb of Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. Because the suburb is level compared to the hilly terrain elsewhere in Wellington it contained Wellington's elite residential area until its best was destroyed in the 1960s by a new motorway and the erection of tall office buildings on the sites of its Molesworth Street retail and service businesses. Before Thorndon was Thorndon it was Haukawakawa and in 1824 Pipitea På was settled at its southern end. More Pipitea Marae and the land under the Government Centre have been separated from Thorndon and the name Pipitea returned to them in 2003; the reclamations have been included in the new suburb Pipitea. Thorndon combines the home of upmarket residential accommodation, it is located at the northern end of the Central Business District. Pipitea has been said to have been named for the pipi beds along Thorndon Quay. Ngāti Mutunga from Taranaki established the fortified village, Pipitea Pā, in 1824 on the Haukawakawa flats.
The Ngāti Mutunga left on the sailing ship Rodney in 1835 settling in the Chatham Islands and Te Āti Awa occupied the pā. The pā declined after European settlement. There were other villages near 191 Thorndon Quay and near the junction of Hobson Street with Fitzherbert Terrace; the Pā's gardens reached the Botanic Garden. Part of the pā site opened in 1980 as an urban marae; the site transferred to Te Āti Awa/Taranaki whānui as part of the local Treaty Settlement in 2009. Pipitea Marae and its meeting house, Te Upoko o te Ika a Māui, is a meeting place for Taranaki Whānui ki te Upoko o te Ika and Te Āti Awa. Thorndon like Te Aro is one of the few comparatively flat areas on the harbour. Haukawakawa / Thorndon flats became a significant part of Port Nicholson's first organised European settlement in 1840. S C Brees described it in 1848 as "the court end of town". European settlers built their houses alongside the Maori settlement of Pipitea and the New Zealand Company named all the flats Thorndon after the estate of W H F Petre one of their directors.
The buildings of the New Zealand Parliament are located in Thorndon. Thorndon is the location of national institutions including the Appeal and High Courts —the Supreme Court is on Lambton Quay facing Parliament— the National Library and Archives New Zealand; the national museum moved from behind Parliament in Museum Street to a much larger purpose-built building in Buckle Street just before the second world war in 1998 to the harbour edge and is now Te Papa Tongarewa. Thorndon is home to two Cathedrals: Anglican St Paul's Cathedral built between 1937 and 1998 to replace the pro-cathedral now known as Old St Paul's, Wellington which in turn had replaced the 230 seat St Paul's built in 1844 on the site of the Beehive. Thorndon occupies the northern end of the narrow coastal plain that makes up the heart of Wellington, it is flanked by the green hills of Wadestown and Kelburn to the west and south, to the south and east, Pipitea with the Government Centre, the marae and the port facilities of Wellington Harbour.
The boundaries of Thorndon form an approximate triangle. Starting from the lower south-west corner, at the intersection of Glenmore St and Collins Tce, the boundary goes up through Tinakori Hill, across through Weld St and along to Baker St; the boundary follows the west side of Thorndon Quay down until Hill St, where it goes across to Bowen St, Tinakori Road and Glenmore St. The new suburb of Pipitea was created and its boundaries were fixed at a meeting of the full Wellington City Council on 20 August 2003. After that time suburb changes must receive the further consent of the New Zealand Geographic Board. Boundaries the sites of Pipitea Pā and Old St Paul's on the inland side of Thorndon Quay, the reclaimed land east and south of Thorndon Quay and Hutt Road from along the shoreline from Kaiwharawhara to Whitmore Street, the Government Centre bounded by Kate Sheppard Place, Hill Street, Sydney Street West, Bowen Street and the reclaimed land. Schools located in Thorndon include Wellington Girls' College, St Mary's College, Queen Margaret College and primary schools Thorndon School and Sacred Heart Cathedral School.
Thorndon Farmers Market is set up each Saturday in Hill Street. The Thorndon Fair is held annually on the first Sunday of December; the fair has many stalls selling crafts and second-hand goods and is held for the benefit of Thorndon School. It is one of the main community events held in Thorndon. Parts of Tinakori Road and Hill Street are closed during the fair. Thorndon's Westpac Stadium is one of New Zealand's top sports venues; the Thorndon Tennis Club, established in the 19th century, is one of the oldest in the world. Governor-General at Bowen Street from 1871 to 1907 on what is now the site of the Beehive Prime Minister at 260 Tinakori Road Speaker Anglican Bishop of Wellington Catholic Archbishop of Wellington and Metropolitan of New Zealand Hobson Street Charles Abraham Alfred Brandon Alfred Brandon Alfred Brandon William Henry Clayton Charles Clifford John Duncan now the site of the Australian High Commission Robert Hart Charles Beard Izard Jacob Joseph Arthur Myers, Cabinet Minister Joseph Nathan merchant, founded Glaxo now GlaxoSmithKline Evelyn Margaret Page Robert Pharazyn merchant and runholder William Pharazyn merchant and runholder Robert Stains Thomas Coldham Williams runholder now Queen Margaret CollegeTinakori Roa
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy, entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic and Independent Catholic churches and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop; some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. One, ordained deacon and bishop is understood to hold the fullness of the priesthood, given responsibility by Christ to govern and sanctify the Body of Christ, members of the Faithful. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishops in shepherding a flock.
The term epískopos, meaning "overseer" in Greek, the early language of the Christian Church, was not from the earliest times distinguished from the term presbýteros, but the term was clearly used in the sense of the order or office of bishop, distinct from that of presbyter in the writings attributed to Ignatius of Antioch.. The earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In Acts 11:30 and Acts 15:22, we see a collegiate system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just, according to tradition the first bishop of the city. In Acts 14:23, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia; the word presbyter was not yet distinguished from overseer, as in Acts 20:17, Titus 1:5–7 and 1 Peter 5:1. The earliest writings of the Apostolic Fathers, the Didache and the First Epistle of Clement, for example, show the church used two terms for local church offices—presbyters and deacon.
In Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Titus in Crete to oversee the local church. Paul commands Titus to exercise general oversight. Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches; the head or "monarchic" bishop came to rule more and all local churches would follow the example of the other churches and structure themselves after the model of the others with the one bishop in clearer charge, though the role of the body of presbyters remained important. As Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to minister each congregation, acting as the bishop's delegate. Around the end of the 1st century, the church's organization became clearer in historical documents. In the works of the Apostolic Fathers, Ignatius of Antioch in particular, the role of the episkopos, or bishop, became more important or, rather was important and being defined.
While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who don't recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city. "Blessed be God, who has granted unto you, who are yourselves so excellent, to obtain such an excellent bishop." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 1:1 "and that, being subject to the bishop and the presbytery, ye may in all respects be sanctified." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 2:1 "For your justly renowned presbytery, worthy of God, is fitted as to the bishop as the strings are to the harp." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 4:1 "Do ye, beloved, be careful to be subject to the bishop, the presbyters and the deacons."
— Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 5:1 "Plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6:1. "your godly bishop" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2:1. "the bishop presiding after the likeness of God and the presbyters after the likeness of the council of the Apostles, with the deacons who are most dear to me, having been entrusted with the diaconate of Jesus Christ" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 6:1. "Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7:1. "Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, that there may be union both of flesh and of spirit." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13:2. "In like manner let all men respe
Christchurch is the largest city in the South Island of New Zealand and the seat of the Canterbury Region. The Christchurch urban area lies on the South Island's east coast, just north of Banks Peninsula, it is home to 404,500 residents, making it New Zealand's third-most populous city behind Auckland and Wellington. The Avon River flows with an urban park located along its banks. Archaeological evidence has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by humans in about 1250. Christchurch became a city by Royal Charter on 31 July 1856, making it the oldest established city in New Zealand; the Canterbury Association, which settled the Canterbury Plains, named the city after Christ Church, Oxford. The new settlement was laid out in a grid pattern centred on Cathedral Square. Agriculture is the historic mainstay of Christchurch's economy; the early presence of the University of Canterbury and the heritage of the city's academic institutions in association with local businesses has fostered a number of technology-based industries.
Christchurch is one of five'gateway cities' for Antarctic exploration, hosting Antarctic support bases for several nations. The city suffered a series of earthquakes between September 2010 and early 2012, with the most destructive of them occurring at 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday, 22 February 2011, in which 185 people were killed and thousands of buildings across the city collapsed or suffered severe damage. By late 2013, 1,500 buildings in the city had been demolished, leading to an ongoing recovery and rebuilding project; the name of "Christchurch" was agreed on at the first meeting of the Canterbury Association on 27 March 1848. It was suggested by founder John Robert Godley, whose alma mater was Oxford; the Māori name Ōtautahi was adopted in the 1930s. The site was a seasonal dwelling of Ngāi Tahu chief Te Potiki Tautahi, whose main home was Port Levy on Banks Peninsula. Prior to that the Ngāi Tahu referred to the Christchurch area as Karaitiana, a transliteration of the English word Christian. Archaeological evidence found in a cave at Redcliffs in 1876 has indicated that the Christchurch area was first settled by moa-hunting tribes about 1250 CE.
These first inhabitants were thought to have been followed by the Waitaha tribe, who are said to have migrated from the East coast of the North Island in the 16th century. Following tribal warfare, the Waitaha were dispossessed by the Ngāti Māmoe tribe, they were in turn subjugated by the Ngāi Tahu tribe, who remained in control until the arrival of European settlers. Following the purchase of land at Putaringamotu by the Weller brothers, whalers of Otago and Sydney, a party of European settlers led by Herriott and McGillivray established themselves in what is now Christchurch, early in 1840, their abandoned holdings were taken over by the Deans brothers in 1843. The First Four Ships were chartered by the Canterbury Association and brought the first 792 of the Canterbury Pilgrims to Lyttelton Harbour; these sailing vessels were the Randolph, Charlotte Jane, Sir George Seymour, Cressy. The Charlotte Jane was the first to arrive on 16 December 1850; the Canterbury Pilgrims had aspirations of building a city around a cathedral and college, on the model of Christ Church in Oxford.
The name "Christ Church" was decided prior to the ships' arrival, at the Association's first meeting, on 27 March 1848. The exact basis for the name is not known, it has been suggested that it is named in Dorset, England. The last explanation is the one accepted. At the request of the Deans brothers — whose farm was the earliest European settlement in the area — the river was named after the River Avon in Scotland, which rises in the Ayrshire hills near to where their grandfather's farm was located. Captain Joseph Thomas, the Canterbury Association's Chief Surveyor, surveyed the surrounding area. By December 1849 he had commissioned the construction of a road from Port Cooper Lyttelton, to Christchurch via Sumner; however this proved more difficult than expected and road construction was stopped while a steep foot and pack horse track was constructed over the hill between the port and the Heathcote valley, where access to the site of the proposed settlement could be gained. This track became known as the Bridle Path, because the path was so steep that pack horses needed to be led by the bridle.
Goods that were too heavy or bulky to be transported by pack horse over the Bridle Path were shipped by small sailing vessels some eight miles by water around the coast and up the estuary to Ferrymead. New Zealand's first public railway line, the Ferrymead Railway, opened from Ferrymead to Christchurch in 1863. Due to the difficulties in travelling over the Port Hills and the dangers associated with shipping navigating the Sumner bar, a railway tunnel was bored through the Port Hills to Lyttelton, opening in 1867. Christchurch became a city by royal charter on 31 July 1856, the first in New Zealand. Many of the city's Gothic Revival buildings by architect Benjamin Mountfort date from this period. Christchurch was the seat of provincial administration for the Province of Canterbury, abolished in 1876. Christchurch buildings were damaged by earthquakes in 1869, 1881 and 1888. In 1947, New Zealand's worst fire disaster occurred at Ballantyne's Department Store in the inner city, with 41 people killed in a blaze which razed