Antipope Clement VII
Robert of Geneva was elected to the papacy as Clement VII by the French cardinals who opposed Urban VI, was the first antipope residing in Avignon, France. His election led to the Western Schism, he was the son of Amadeus III, Count of Geneva, was born in chateau d'Annecy in 1342. He became Bishop of Thérouanne in 1361, Archbishop of Cambrai in 1368, a cardinal on 30 May 1371. From 1373 he held the position of Archdeacon of Dorset, from 1374 Prebend of All Saints Parish Church in Middle Woodford in Wiltshire, leaving both positions in 1378. From 1375, he held a living as rector of Bishopwearmouth in County Durham and instead used the income from that prized living for his papal election expenses. In 1377, while serving as papal legate in upper Italy, in order to put down a rebellion in the Papal States, known as the War of the Eight Saints, he commanded troops lent to the papacy by the condottiere John Hawkwood to reduce the small city of Cesena in the territory of Forlì, which resisted being added to the Patrimony of Peter for the second time in a generation.
In 1392, he inherited the title of Count of Geneva, his four older brothers having each in turn inherited dying without issue before him. The title passed from him through his eldest sister Mary to her son, Humbert de Thoire. Elected pope at Fondi on 20 September 1378 by the French cardinals in opposition to Urban VI, he was the first antipope of the Western Schism, the second of the two periods referred to as the Great Schism, which lasted until 1417. Clement owed the immediate support of several of the Italian barons. Charles V of France, who seems to have been sounded beforehand on the choice of the Roman pontiff, soon became his warmest protector. Clement succeeded in winning to his cause Scotland, Aragon, Navarre, a great part of the Latin East, Flanders, he had adherents, scattered through Germany, while Portugal on two occasions acknowledged him, but afterwards forsook him. Burgundy and Savoy acknowledged his authority. Unable to maintain himself in Italy, he took up his residence at Avignon in the southern French Comtat Venaissin, where he became dependent on the French court.
By the bait of a kingdom to be carved expressly out of the States of the Church and to be called the kingdom of Adria, coupled with the expectation of succeeding to Queen Joanna, Clement incited Louis I, Duke of Anjou, the eldest of the brothers of Charles V, to take arms in his favour. These tempting offers gave rise to a series of expeditions into Italy carried out exclusively at Clement’s expense, in the first of which Louis went to war with some 40,000 troops; the campaign was unsuccessful: Louis died at Bisceglie on 20 September 1384. Still, these enterprises on several occasions planted Angevin domination in the south of the Italian peninsula, their most decisive result was the assuring of Provence to the dukes of Anjou and afterwards to the kings of France. After the death of Louis, Clement hoped to find brave and interested champions in Louis' son and namesake Louis II of Anjou, to which he donated the larger part of the Pontifical States. Clement tried to ally with Louis I, Duke of Orléans, the brother of Charles VI.
The prospect of his brilliant progress to Rome was before Clement's eyes. There came a time, when Clement and more his following had to acknowledge the vanity of these elusive dreams. Moreover, his ambitions and the financial needs of his court had resorted to simony, the loss of land and extortion which discerned among his adherents the germs of disaffection, he had created excellent cardinals, but he seems never to have sincerely desired the termination of the schism. He died at Avignon on 16 September 1394, it was determined that he would be recorded as an antipope rather than as a pope. Uncertainty over who the legitimate pope might be during the time of the Western Schism gave rise to the legal theory called Conciliarism, which claimed that a general council of the church was superior to the pope and could therefore judge between rival claimants. Papal selection before 1059 Papal conclave This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Valois, Joseph Marie Noel.
"Clement VII". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. P. 485. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Weber, Nicholas Aloysius. "Robert of Geneva". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 13. New York: Robert Appleton
Archbishop of York
The Archbishop of York is a senior bishop in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. The archbishop is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of York and the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, which covers the northern regions of England as well as the Isle of Man; the Archbishop of York is an ex officio member of the House of Lords and is styled Primate of England. The archbishop's throne is in York Minster in central York and the official residence is Bishopthorpe Palace in the village of Bishopthorpe outside York; the incumbent, from 5 October 2005, is John Sentamu who signs as +Sentamu Ebor:. Six of the early bishops of York and one archbishop were canonised by the Roman Catholic Church, five more recent archbishops achieved the supreme Archbishopric of Canterbury. There was a bishop in Eboracum from early times. Bishops of York are known to have been present at the councils of Nicaea. However, this early Christian community was destroyed by the pagan Anglo-Saxons and there is no direct succession from these bishops to the post-Augustinian ones.
The diocese was refounded by Paulinus in the 7th century. Notable among these early bishops is Wilfrid; these early bishops of York acted as diocesan rather than archdiocesan prelates until the time of Ecgbert of York, who received the pallium from Pope Gregory III in 735 and established metropolitan rights in the north. Until the Danish invasion the archbishops of Canterbury exercised authority, it was not until the Norman Conquest that the archbishops of York asserted their complete independence. At the time of the Norman invasion York had jurisdiction over Worcester and Lincoln, as well as the dioceses in the Northern Isles and Scotland, but the first three sees just mentioned were taken from York in 1072. In 1154 the suffragan sees of the Isle of Man and Orkney were transferred to the Norwegian archbishop of Nidaros, in 1188 all the Scottish dioceses except Whithorn were released from subjection to York, so that only the dioceses of Whithorn and Carlisle remained to the archbishops as suffragan sees.
Of these, Durham was independent, for the palatine bishops of that see were little short of sovereigns in their own jurisdiction. Sodor and Man were returned to York during the 14th century, to compensate for the loss of Whithorn to the Scottish Church. Several of the archbishops of York held the ministerial office of Lord Chancellor of England and played some parts in affairs of state; as Peter Heylyn wrote: "This see has yielded to the Church eight saints, to the Church of Rome three cardinals, to the realm of England twelve Lord Chancellors and two Lord Treasurers, to the north of England two Lord Presidents." The bishopric's role was complicated by continued conflict over primacy with the see of Canterbury. At the time of the English Reformation, York possessed three suffragan sees, Durham and Sodor and Man, to which during the brief space of Queen Mary I's reign may be added the Diocese of Chester, founded by Henry VIII, but subsequently recognised by the Pope; until the mid 1530s the bishops and archbishops were in communion with the pope in Rome.
This is no longer the case, as the Archbishop of York, together with the rest of the Church of England, is a member of the Anglican Communion. Walter de Grey purchased York Place as his London residence, which after the fall of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, was renamed the Palace of Whitehall; the Archbishop of York is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England after the Archbishop of Canterbury. Since 5 October 2005, the incumbent is the Most Reverend John Sentamu, an ex officio member of the House of Lords; the Province of York includes 10 Anglican dioceses in Northern England: Blackburn, Chester, Liverpool, Newcastle, Sheffield and York, as well as 2 other dioceses: Southwell and Nottingham in the Midlands and Sodor and Man covering the Isle of Man. Accord of Winchester Story, Joanna. "Bede and the Letters of Pope Honorius I on the Genesis of the Archbishopric of York". English Historical Review. Cxxvii: 783–818. Doi:10.1093/ehr/ces142.
Ancient Diocese of Couserans
The former French Catholic diocese of Couserans existed from the fifth century to the French Revolution in the late eighteenth century. It covered the former province of Couserans, in south-west France, its see was in a small town to the west of Foix. It was a suffragan of the archdiocese of Auch. Couserans was the fifth of the Novempopulaniae civitates. In the 580's peace and a division of territories was arranged between the Merovingian kings Guntram and Childebert II, in which the territory of Couserans was assigned to Childebert. According to Gregory of Tours, the first bishop was Valerius, before the sixth century. Bishop Glycerius was present at the Council of Agde in 506. According to Louis Duchesne, he should be identified with Lycerius whom the Gallia Christiana places in the list of bishops. Lycerius was patron saint of St-Lizier, the town in which the bishops of Couserans had their official residence; the historian Pierre de Marca, a native of Béarn and President of the Parliament of Navarre, was subsequently Bishop of Toulouse and Archbishop of Paris.
Up until the administration of Bishop Bernard de Marmiesse, the town of Saint-Lezier had two co-cathedrals, the Cathedral of Notre-Dame-de-la-Sède in the upper town next to the Episcopal Palace, the Cathedral of St.-Lizier farther down to the south. Each co-cathedral was served by its own Chapter, each Chapter having a Precentor, a Sacristan, an Operarius, six Canons, ten Prebendarii and a priest called the Vicar Perpetuus. Over both Chapters stood the Archdeacon and the Aumonier. Bishop de Marmiesse united the two chapters and based them in the Cathedral of Notre-Dame-de-la-Sède. In 1752 there was twelve Canons. Catholic Church in France List of Catholic dioceses in Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. pp. 540–541. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list pp. 103–104. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2.
Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 134. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 176. Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06. P. 160. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. P. 169. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. P. 179. Sainte-Marthe, Denis de. Gallia Christiana, In Provincias Ecclesiasticas Distributa. Tomus primus. Paris: Johannes-Baptista Coignard. Pp. 1123–1187, Instrumenta, 185–190. Devic, Claude. Histoire générale de Languedoc: avec des notes et les pièces justificatives. Tome IV. Toulouse: Privat. Pp. 378–383. Duchesne, Louis. Fastes épiscopaux de l'ancienne Gaule: II. L'Aquitaine et les Lyonnaises. Paris: Fontemoing. Pp. 99–100. Du Tems, Hugues. Le clergé de France, ou tableau historique et chronologique des archevêques, évêques, abbés, abbesses et chefs des chapitres principaux du royaume, depuis la fondation des églises jusqu'à nos jours.
Tome premier. Paris: Delalain. Pp. 482–492. Jean, Armand. Les évêques et les archevêques de France depuis 1682 jusqu'à 1801. Paris: A. Picard. Pp. 78–79
Pope Pius VII
Pope Pius VII, born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 14 March 1800 to his death in 1823. Chiaramonti was a monk of the Order of Saint Benedict in addition to being a well-known theologian and bishop throughout his life. Chiaramonti was made Bishop of Tivoli in 1782, resigned that position upon his appointment as Bishop of Imola in 1785; that same year, he was made a cardinal. In 1789, the French Revolution took place, as a result a series of anti-clerical governments came into power in the country. In 1796, during the French Revolutionary Wars, French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Rome and took as prisoner Pope Pius VI, he was taken as prisoner to France, where he died in 1799. The following year, after a sede vacante period lasting six months, Chiaramonti was elected to the papacy, taking the name Pius VII. Pius at first attempted to take a cautious approach in dealing with Napoleon. With him he signed the Concordat of 1801, through which he succeeded in guaranteeing religious freedom for Catholics living in France, was present at his coronation as Emperor of the French in 1804.
In 1809, during the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon once again invaded the Papal States, resulting in his excommunication. Pius VII was transported to France, he remained there until 1814 when, after the French were defeated, he was permitted to return to Rome, where he was greeted warmly as a hero and defender of the faith. Pius lived the remainder of his life in relative peace, his papacy saw a significant growth of the Catholic Church in the United States, where Pius established several new dioceses. Pius VII died in 1823 at age 81. In 2007, Pope Benedict XVI began the process towards canonizing him as a saint, he was granted the title Servant of God. Barnaba Chiaramonti was born in Cesena in 1742, the youngest son of Count Scipione Chiaramonti (30 April 1698 - 13 September 1750, his mother, Giovanna Coronata, was the daughter of the Marquess Ghini. Though his family was of noble status, they were not wealthy but rather, were of middle-class stock, his maternal grandparents were Isabella de' conti Aguselli.
His paternal grandparents were Ottavia Maria Altini. His paternal great-great grandparents were Polissena Marescalchi, his siblings were Giacinto Ignazio and Ottavia. Like his brothers, he attended the Collegio dei Nobili in Ravenna but decided to join the Order of Saint Benedict at the age of 14 on 2 October 1756 as a novice at the Abbey of Santa Maria del Monte in Cesena. Two years after this on 20 August 1758, he became a professed member and assumed the name of Gregorio, he taught at Benedictine colleges in Parma and Rome, was ordained a priest on 21 September 1765. A series of promotions resulted after his relative, Giovanni Angelo Braschi was elected Pope Pius VI. A few years before this election occurred, in 1773, Chiaramonti became the personal confessor to Braschi. In 1776, Pius VI appointed the 34-year-old Dom Gregory, teaching at the Monastery of Sant'Anselmo in Rome, as honorary abbot in commendam of his monastery. Although this was an ancient practice, it drew complaints from the monks of the community, as monastic communities felt it was not in keeping with the Rule of St. Benedict.
In December 1782, the pope appointed Dom Gregory near Rome. Pius VI soon named him, in February 1785, the Cardinal-Priest of San Callisto, as the Bishop of Imola, an office he held until 1816; when the French Revolutionary Army invaded Italy in 1797, Cardinal Chiaramonti counseled temperance and submission to the newly created Cisalpine Republic. In a letter that he addressed to the people of his diocese, Chiaramonti asked them to comply "... in the current circumstances of change of government" to the authority of the victorious general Commander-in-Chief of the French army. In his Christmas homily that year, he asserted that there was no opposition between a democratic form of government and being a good Catholic: "Christian virtue makes men good democrats.... Equality is not an idea of philosophers but of Christ...and do not believe that the Catholic religion is against democracy." Following the death of Pope Pius VI, by virtually France's prisoner, at Valence in 1799, the conclave to elect his successor met on 30 November 1799 in the Benedictine Monastery of San Giorgio in Venice.
There were three main candidates, two of whom proved to be unacceptable to the Habsburgs, whose candidate, Alessandro Mattei, could not secure sufficient votes. However, Carlo Bellisomi was a candidate, though not favoured by Austrian cardinals. After several months of stalemate, Jean-Sifrein Maury proposed Chiaramonti as a compromise candidate. On 14 March 1800, Chiaramonti was elected pope not the choice of die-hard opponents of the French Revolution, took as his pontifical name Pius VII in honour of his immediate predecessor, he was crowned on 21 March in a rather unusual ceremony, wearing a papier-mâché papal tiara as the French had seized the tiaras held by the Holy See when occupying Rome and forcing Pius VI into exile. He left for Rome, sailing on a seaworthy Austrian ship, the Bellona, which lac
Roman Catholic Diocese of Dax
The Diocese of Dax or Acqs was a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical territory in Gascony in south-west France. According to tradition it was established in the 5th century, it was suppressed after the French Revolution, by the Concordat of 1801 between First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte and Pope Pius VII. Its territory now belongs to the Diocese of Diocese of Bayonne, it is not certain that the patron of the martyr St. Vincent, was a bishop, his cult, at least, existed in the time of Charlemagne, as is proved by a note of the Wolfenbüttel manuscript of the Hieronymian Martyrology. The oldest account of his martyrdom is in a breviary of Dax, dating from the second half of the thirteenth century, but the author knows nothing of the martyr's time period or the reasons for his death. Excavations near Dax proved the existence of a Merovingian cemetery on the site of a church which, it is claimed, was dedicated to St. Vincent by Bishop Gratianus. Gratianus, present at the Council of Agde, is the first known bishop.
Among the other bishops of the see were St. Revellatus, St. Macarius, Cardinal Pierre Itier, Cardinal Pierre de Foix, founder of the University of Avignon and the Collège de Foix at Toulouse; the synodal constitutions of the ancient Diocese of Dax, published by Abbé Antoine Degert, are of great historical interest for the study of the ancient constitutions and customs of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Degert in the course of this publication succeeded in rectifying certain errors in the episcopal lists of the Gallia christiana and of Father Eubel in Hierarchia catholica. During the Great Schism, part of Aquitaine, belonged to the Kings of England. King Richard chose to support the popes of the Roman Obedience rather than the popes of the Avignon Obedience, who were French and to support the King of France in what is now called the Hundred Years' War. All of the cardinals of the Avignon obedience were deprived of their offices and benefices in the Kingdom of Richard II of England, by act of Parliament and decree of the King Dax was required to adhere to the Obedience of Rome.
About 1588 St. Vincent de Paul made his first studies with the Cordeliers of Dax, but good secondary education at Dax dates only from the establishment of the Barnabites in 1640, his learning, was sufficient to allow him to study at the University of Toulouse. On 3 June 1857, the title "Bishop of Dax" was added to the titulature of the Bishop of Aire. Vincentius Gratianus Carterius Liberius Faustianus Nicetius Illidius RevelatusSede Vacante Oltherius Gombaud Arsius-Raca Raymond Raymond Catholic Church in France List of Catholic dioceses in France Gams, Pius Bonifatius. Series episcoporum Ecclesiae catholicae: quotquot innotuerunt a beato Petro apostolo. Ratisbon: Typis et Sumptibus Georgii Josephi Manz. pp. 599-601. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 1. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 97. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 2. Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list p. 91. Eubel, Conradus. Hierarchia catholica, Tomus 3.
Münster: Libreria Regensbergiana. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Gauchat, Patritius. Hierarchia catholica IV. Münster: Libraria Regensbergiana. Retrieved 2016-07-06. P. 89. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi V. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. P. 93. Ritzler, Remigius. Hierarchia catholica medii et recentis aevi VI. Patavii: Messagero di S. Antonio. Retrieved 2016-07-06. Pp. 92-93. Degert, Antoine. Histoire des évêques de Dax. Dax: H. Labèque. Dufourcet, Eugène. "Les Évêques de Dax, depuis Saint Vincent de Sentes jusqu'à Mgr Le Quien de Laneufville". Bulletin de la Société de Borda. 4: 205–230. Pisani, Paul. Répertoire biographique de l'épiscopat constitutionnel. Paris: A. Picard et fils. Sainte-Marthe, Denis de. Gallia Christiana, In Provincias Ecclesiasticas Distributa. Tomus primus. Paris: Johannes-Baptista Coignard, Regis & Academiae Gallicae Architypographus. Pp. 1035–1070. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Goyau, Pierre-Louis-Théophile-Georges.
"Diocese of Dax". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. 16. New York: Robert Appleton
Pope Francis is the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State. Francis is the first Jesuit pope, the first from the Americas, the first from the Southern Hemisphere, the first to visit and hold papal mass in the Arabian Peninsula, the first pope from outside Europe since the Syrian Gregory III, who reigned in the 8th century. Born in Buenos Aires, Bergoglio was ordained a Catholic priest in 1969, from 1973 to 1979 was Argentina's provincial superior of the Society of Jesus, he became the Archbishop of Buenos Aires in 1998 and was created a cardinal in 2001 by Pope John Paul II. He led the Argentine Church during the December 2001 riots in Argentina; the administrations of Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández de Kirchner considered him a political rival. Following the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI on 28 February 2013, a papal conclave elected Bergoglio as his successor on 13 March, he chose Francis as his papal name in honor of Saint Francis of Assisi. Throughout his public life, Pope Francis has been noted for his humility, emphasis on God's mercy, international visibility as Pope, concern for the poor and commitment to interfaith dialogue.
He is credited with having a less formal approach to the papacy than his predecessors, for instance choosing to reside in the Domus Sanctae Marthae guesthouse rather than in the papal apartments of the Apostolic Palace used by previous popes. He maintains that the Church should be more welcoming, he does not support Marxism, or Marxist versions of liberation theology. Francis maintains the traditional views of the Church regarding abortion, ordination of women, clerical celibacy, he opposes consumerism and overdevelopment, supports taking action on climate change, a focus of his papacy with the promulgation of Laudato si'. In international diplomacy, he helped to restore full diplomatic relations between the United States and Cuba and supported the cause of refugees during the European migrant crisis. Since 2016, Francis has faced open criticism from theological conservatives, on the question of admitting civilly divorced and remarried Catholics to Communion with the publication of Amoris laetitia, on the question of the alleged cover-up of clergy sexual abuse.
Jorge Mario Bergoglio was born on 17 December 1936 in a neighborhood of Buenos Aires. He was the eldest of five children of Regina María Sívori. Mario Bergoglio was an Italian immigrant accountant born in Portacomaro in Italy's Piedmont region. Regina Sívori was a housewife born in Buenos Aires to a family of northern Italian origin. Mario José's family left Italy in 1929 to escape the fascist rule of Benito Mussolini. According to María Elena Bergoglio, the Pope's only living sibling, they did not emigrate for economic reasons, his other siblings were Oscar Adrián and Marta Regina. Two great-nephews and Joseph, died in a traffic collision. In the sixth grade, Bergoglio attended Wilfrid Barón de los Santos Ángeles, a school of the Salesians of Don Bosco, in Ramos Mejía, Buenos Aires, he attended the technical secondary school Escuela Técnica Industrial N° 27 Hipólito Yrigoyen, named after a past President of Argentina, graduated with a chemical technician's diploma. He worked for a few years in that capacity in the foods section at Hickethier-Bachmann Laboratory where his boss was Esther Ballestrino.
Before joining the Jesuits, Bergoglio worked as a bar bouncer and as a janitor sweeping floors, he ran tests in a chemical laboratory. In the only known health crisis of his youth, at the age of 21 he suffered from life-threatening pneumonia and three cysts, he had part of a lung excised shortly afterwards. Bergoglio has been a lifelong supporter of San Lorenzo de Almagro football club. Bergoglio is a fan of the films of Tita Merello and tango dancing, with a fondness for the traditional music of Argentina and Uruguay known as the milonga. Bergoglio found his vocation to the priesthood, he passed by a church to go to confession, was inspired by the priest. Bergoglio studied at the archdiocesan seminary, Inmaculada Concepción Seminary, in Villa Devoto, Buenos Aires, after three years, entered the Society of Jesus as a novice on 11 March 1958. Bergoglio has said that, as a young seminarian, he had a crush on a girl he met and doubted about continuing the religious career; as a Jesuit novice he studied humanities in Chile.
At the conclusion of his novitiate in the Society of Jesus, Bergoglio became a Jesuit on 12 March 1960, when he made the religious profession of the initial, perpetual vows of poverty and obedience of a member of the order. In 1960, Bergoglio obtained a licentiate in philosophy from the Colegio Máximo de San José in San Miguel, Buenos Aires Province, he taught literature and psychology at the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepción, a high school in Santa Fe, from 1964 to 1965. In 1966, he taught the same courses at the Colegio del Salvador in Buenos Aires. In 1967, Bergoglio finished his theological studies and was ordained to the priesthood on 13 December 1969, by Archbishop Ramón José Castellano, he attended a seminary in San Miguel. He became a professor of theology. Bergoglio completed his final stage of spiritual training as a Jesuit, tertianship, at Alcalá de Henares, Spain, he took the final fourth vow
University of Bordeaux
The University of Bordeaux was founded in 1441 in France. The University of Bordeaux is part of the Community of universities and higher education institutions of Aquitaine; the original Université de Bordeaux was established by the papal bull of Pope Eugene IV on 7 June 1441 when Bordeaux was an English town. The initiative for the creation of the university is attributed to Archbishop Pey Berland, it was composed of four faculties: arts, medicine and theology. The law faculty split into faculties of civil law and canon law. A professorship in mathematics was founded in 1591 by Bishop François de Foix, son of Gaston de Foix, Earl of Kendal; this university was disestablished in 1793, was re-founded on 10 July 1896. In 1970 the university was split into three universities: Bordeaux 1, Bordeaux 2, Bordeaux 3. In 1995, Bordeaux 4 split off from Bordeaux 1. In 2007 the universities were grouped together as Communauté d'universités et établissements d'Aquitaine From 1 January 2014, the university of Bordeaux were reunited, except for Bordeaux 3 which chose not to take part to the merger.
Geoffrey Keating, Irish historian Léon Duguit, French scholar of public law Henri Moysset, French historian and politician Jacques Ellul, French philosopher, lay theologian, professor James Joll, British historian and university lecturer Théophile Obenga, Congolese Egyptologist Spencer C. Tucker, American military historian Charles Butterworth, American political philosopher Helene Hagan, Moroccan–American anthropologist and Amazigh activist Pascal Salin, French economist and professor Marie-France Vignéras, French mathematician Alfredo Co, Filipino Sinologist Idowu Bantale Omole, Nigerian professor and academic administrator Aubrey Willis Williams, American social and civil rights activist Jean-Claude Bajeux, Haitian political activist and professor Louis Clayton Jones, African-American international attorney and civil rights leader Mireille Gillings, French Canadian neurobiologist and entrepreneur Thomas Barclay, Scottish jurist and professor James Marshall Sprouse, United States Circuit judge François Mauriac French novelist, critic, poet and Nobel Laureate Saint-John Perse, French poet-diplomat Lucien Xavier Michel-Andrianarahinjaka, Malagasy writer and politician Esther Seligson, Mexican writer, poet and historian Lee Mallory, American poet and academic Marc Saikali, Lebanese–French journalist Sarah Ladipo Manyika, British Nigerian writer Luc Plissonneau, French screenwriter and film director Morteza Heidari, Iranian TV presenter Jean Baptiste Gay, vicomte de Martignac, French statesman Jean Ybarnégaray, Basque–French politician Jean-Fernand Audeguil, French politician Michel Kafando, Burkinabé diplomat Xavier Darcos, French politician, civil servant and former Minister of Labour Jean-Paul Gonzalez, French virologist Mario Aoun, Lebanese politician Alain Vidalies, the French Secretary of State for Transport, the Sea and Fisheries Nagoum Yamassoum, Chadian politician and former Prime Minister of Chad Anicet-Georges Dologuélé, Central African politician Reza Taghipour, Iranian conservative politician Thierry Santa, French Polynesian politician in New Caledonia Germaine Kouméalo Anaté, Togolese government minister and writer Olivier Falorni, French politician Myriam El Khomri, French politician Joseph-Ignace Guillotin, French physician and freemason and namesake of the guillotine Célestin Sieur, French physician Charles-Joseph Marie Pitard, French pharmacist and botanist Pierre-Paul Grassé, French zoologist Émile Peynaud, French oenologist Laure Gatet, French pharmacist and spy Basile Adjou Moumouni, Beninese physician Roland Paskoff, French geologist Jean-Marie Tarascon, French chemist and professor Bruno Vallespir, French engineer and professor Jean-Pierre Escalettes, French retired footballer Karounga Keïta, Malian football official and former coach and player Bixente Lizarazu, Basque–French retired footballer Charles James, English-American fashion designer List of medieval universities Le projet Babord-Num