Roman Dacia

Roman Dacia was a province of the Roman Empire from 106 to 274–275 AD. Its territory consisted of the Banat and Oltenia, it was from the beginning organized as an imperial province, fitting a border area, remained so throughout the Roman occupation. Historians' estimates of the population of Roman Dacia range from 650,000 to 1,200,000; the conquest of Dacia was completed by Emperor Trajan after two major campaigns against Decebalus' Dacian Kingdom. The Romans did not occupy the entirety of the old Dacian kingdom, as the greater part of Moldavia, together with Maramureș and Crișana, was ruled by Free Dacians after the Roman conquest. In 119, the Roman province was divided into two departments: Dacia Inferior. In 124, Dacia Superior was divided into two provinces: Dacia Porolissensis. During the Marcomannic Wars the military and judicial administration was unified under the command of one governor, with another two senators as his subordinates; the Roman authorities undertook a organized colonization of Dacia.

New mines were opened and ore extraction intensified, while agriculture, stock breeding, commerce flourished in the province. Dacia began to supply grain not only to the military personnel stationed in the province but to the rest of the Balkan area, it became an urban province, with about ten cities known, eight of which held the highest rank of colonia, though the number of cities was fewer than in the region's other provinces. All the cities developed from old military camps. Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa, the seat of the imperial procurator for all the three subdivisions, was the financial and legislative center of the province. Apulum, where the military governor of the three subdivisions had his headquarters, was not the greatest city within the province, but one of the biggest across the whole Danubian frontier. There were political threats from the beginning of Roman Dacia's existence. Free Dacians who bordered the province were the first adversary, after allying themselves with the Sarmatians, hammered the province during the reign of Marcus Aurelius.

Following a calmer period covering the reigns of Commodus through to Caracalla, the province was once again beset by invaders, this time the Carpi, a Dacian tribe in league with the newly arrived Goths, who in time became a serious difficulty for the empire. Finding it difficult to retain Dacia, the emperors were forced to abandon the province by the 270s, making it the first of Rome's long-term possessions to be abandoned. Dacia was devastated by the Germanic tribes together with the Carpi in 248–250, by the Carpi and Goths in 258 and 263, by the Goths and Heruli in 267 and 269. Ancient sources implied that Dacia was lost during the reign of Gallienus, but they report that it was Aurelian who relinquished Dacia Traiana, he evacuated his troops and civilian administration from Dacia, founded Dacia Aureliana with its capital at Serdica in Lower Moesia. The fate of the Romanized population of the former province of Dacia Traiana has become subject of spirited controversy. One theory holds that the Latin language spoken in ancient Dacia, where Romania was to be formed in the future turned into Romanian.

The opposing theory argues that the Romanians descended from the Romanized population of the Roman provinces of the Balkan Peninsula. The Dacians and the Getae interacted with the Romans prior to Dacia's incorporation into the Roman Empire. However, Roman attention on the area around the lower Danube was sharpened when Burebista unified the native tribes and began an aggressive campaign of expansion, his kingdom extended to Pannonia in the west and reached the Black Sea to the east, while to the south his authority extended into the Balkans. By 74 BC, the Roman legions under Gaius Scribonius Curio reached the lower Danube and proceeded to come into contact with the Dacians. Roman concern over the rising power and influence of Burebista was amplified when he began to play an active part in Roman politics, his last minute decision just before the Battle of Pharsalus to participate in the Roman Republic's civil war by supporting Pompey meant that once the Pompeians were dealt with, Julius Caesar would turn his eye towards Dacia.

As part of Caesar's planned Parthian campaign of 44 BC, he planned to cross into Dacia and eliminate Burebista, thereby causing the breakup of his kingdom. Although the planned expedition into Dacia did not happen due to Caesar's assassination, Burebista failed to bring about any true unification of the tribes he ruled. Following a plot which saw him assassinated, his kingdom fractured into four distinct political entities becoming five, each ruled by minor kings. From the death of Burebista to the rise of Decebalus, Roman forces continued to clash against the Dacians and the Getae. Constant raiding by the tribes into the adjacent provinces of Moesia and Pannonia caused the local governors and the emperors to undertake a number of punitive actions against the Dacians, yet for all this, there existed a measure of social and political interaction between the Roman Empire and the Dacians during much of the late pre-Roman period. This saw the occasional granting of favoured status to the Dacians in the manner of b

Brice House (Annapolis, Maryland)

The Brice House is, along with the Hammond-Harwood House and the William Paca House, one of three similar preserved 18th century Georgian style brick houses in Annapolis, Maryland. Like the Paca and Hammond-Harwood houses, it is a five-part brick mansion with a large central block and flanking pavilions with connecting hyphens. Of the three, the Brice House's exterior is the most austere, giving its brickwork particular prominence; the Brice House was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1970. The Brice house was built by James Brice, who served as Mayor of Annapolis and as acting Governor of Maryland in 1792; the house remained in the Brice family until 1874. The house was used as a faculty residence. In 1953 the house was acquired by Mr. and Mrs. Stanley S. Wohl, who undertook restorations in 1953 and 1957. Archeological excavations at the Brice House in 1998 uncovered hoodoo caches, spiritual offerings placed by African-American slaves who were house servants at the mansion; the Brice House is a simplified Georgian-style mansion that relies on its elevated site along a narrow street, its scale and the mass of its brickwork to make it one of the most impressive buildings of its style in the United States.

It is a five-part plantation house transplanted to an urban setting. The interiors, while Georgian in detailing, are comparatively elaborate in character; the house is sited on a terrace overlooking East Street. The ​2 1⁄2 story house main house is flanked by ​1 1⁄2 story wings connected at a lower elevation to the main house by ​1 1⁄2 story hyphens; the entire five-part ensemble rests on an elevated basement, which adds to the impression of height from the street. The hyphens and end pavilions are dormered, but the plain steep roof of the central block is uninterrupted, adding to the mass of the house. Tall, thin chimneys bookend the main block; the house is of brick construction on a fieldstone foundation, with the street and garden facades laid in an all-header pattern using oversized bricks. Windows are nine-over-nine sashes on the main six-over-nine on the upper floor. Wood stairs reach the main doors on the north and south sides and are reconstructions based on an 1853 photograph; the south doors are original to the house and recessed under a wood architrave.

A unique pseudo-Palladian window is centered above the south entrance. The central block was roofed with cypress shingles, now replaced by non-combustible tiles; the interior is not symmetrical, with an offset central hallway extending halfway into the house. A parlor occupies two bays on the south side, while a ballroom occupies three bays of the north side; the ballroom is among the largest of its kind and more impressive than the ballroom in the similar Hammond-Harwood House. Interior detailing is late Georgian in style; the ballroom fireplace is a direct copy of a design from Abraham Swan's stylebook British Architect of 1745. It was once considered that architect William Buckland executed these designs, but it is now thought to have been the work of William Brampton, who completed them between 1769 and 1772; the second floor comprises four bedrooms. The end pavilions contain a kitchen and servants' quarters on the east side and a carriage house on the west side, connected by a narrow passage through the hyphens, which themselves each contain two rooms.

The house is original in all respects, retaining its plasterwork, glass and flooring. Colonial families of Maryland Tulip Hill List of National Historic Landmarks in Maryland National Register of Historic Places listings in Anne Arundel County, Maryland 7. Beckerdite, Luke. “William Buckland Reconsidered: Architectural Carving in Chesapeake, Maryland 1771-1774”, Journal of Early Southern Decorative Arts, Vol. VIII, No. 2, November 1982, pp. 43–88 Brice House, Anne Arundel County, including photo in 1976, at Maryland Historical Trust Historic American Buildings Survey No. MD-247, "James Brice House, 42 East Street, Anne Arundel County, MD", 17 photos, 12 data pages, 2 photo caption pages Photos of archaeological excavations


Giacomini is a global producer of underfloor & ceiling heating and cooling systems, thermal energy metering and water & gasses regulation. Giacomini employs over 1000 workers, exporting around 80% of its production in over 100 countries all around the world; the headquarters of Giacomini is in Italy. The company's assortment consists of more than 6,000 product items made in 4 factories in Italy; every day Giacomini processes 100 tons of brass into 85 tons of Giacomini products. Giacomini was founded in 1951 by Alberto Giacomini as a small manufacture workshop producing brass taps. In 1955 the company moved to San Maurizio d'Opaglio, its current headquarters location, started to manufacture its products in a new 1500 square meters production plant. In 1961 the first European Distribution Branch was set up in Waldbröl in Germany. In the 1970s three more branches were established in Belgium, Switzerland to strengthen Giacomini's position on the European market. In 1972 was set up the second manufacturing unit, the forging plant at Castelnuovo del Garda, in the province of Verona.

The intention was an integration. In 1980 was launched the advertising campaign named “Programma 80”, linked to the idea of transforming a manual valve into a thermostatic one, thanks to the substitution of the hand-wheel with an automatic head. In 1986 the company got the BSI certification, which confirmed a company’s policy aimed to the maintenance and the improvement of the quality through strict procedures. In 1990s two more branches owned by the parent company were established in Spain and Portugal and Giacomini started to gain its position in Central Europe by partnership with private companies located in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. In 1994 the third manufacturing plant was opened processing plastic materials: a large window allows to observe the 20,000 square meters’ shed with all its machinery being in operation. In 2001 Giacomini celebrated its 50th anniversary. In 2002 and 2003 established three new branches in Argentina, United Kingdom and China. In 2006 a zero emission Hydrogen boiler was presented to public during the Winter Olympic Games in Turin.

In 2008 an Indian private company became a partner of Giacomini S.p. A. and started to introduce Giacomini's products and systems. In 2010 Giacomini invested in 20.000 square meters of photovoltaic cells, which cover the roofs of the two main production plants in San Maurizio d'Opaglio. In 2011 Giacomini celebrated its 60th anniversary. 2013 saw the start of operations in Brazil. List of Italian companies Giacomini corporate website