Roman Gaul refers to Gaul under provincial rule in the Roman Empire from the 1st century BC to the 5th century AD. The Roman Republic began its takeover of Celtic Gaul in 121 BC, when it conquered and annexed the southern reaches of the area. Julius Caesar advanced the task by defeating the Celtic tribes in the Gallic Wars of 58-51 BC. In 22 BC, imperial administration of Gaul was reorganised and establishing the provinces of Gallia Aquitania, Gallia Belgica and Gallia Lugdunensis. Parts of eastern Gaul were incorporated into the provinces Germania Superior. During Late Antiquity and Roman culture amalgamated into a hybrid Gallo-Roman culture; the Gaulish language was marginalized and became extinct. It was replaced by regional forms of Late Latin which in the medieval period developed into the group of Gallo-Romance languages, including French and Occitan. Roman control over the provinces deteriorated in the 5th century and was lost to the kingdoms of the Franks and Burgundians; the last vestiges of any Roman control over parts of Gaul were effaced with the defeat of Syagrius at the Battle of Soissons.
Gaul had three geographical divisions, one of, divided into multiple Roman provinces: Gallia Cisalpina or "Gaul this side of the Alps", covered most of present-day northern Italy. It was conquered by the Romans around 221 BC, but was not made a formal province until 81 BC. By the end of the republic, it was annexed into Italy itself. Gallia Transalpina, or "Gaul across the Alps", was conquered and annexed in 121 BC in an attempt to solidify communications between Rome and the Iberian peninsula, it comprised most of what is now southern France, along the Mediterranean coast from the Pyrenees to the Alps. It was renamed Gallia Narbonensis, after its capital city, Narbo. Gallia Comata, "free Gaul" or "long haired Gaul", encompassed the remainder of present-day France and westernmost Germany, it had tributary status throughout the second and first centuries BC, but was still formally independent of Rome. It was annexed into the Empire as a result of Julius Caesar's victory in the Gallic Wars in 50 BC.
The Romans divided Gallia Comata into three provinces:Gallia Aquitania, corresponding to central and western France Gallia Belgica, corresponding to northeastern France, Belgium and western Germany Gallia Lugdunensis, corresponding to eastern and northern FranceThe Romans divided these huge provinces into civitates corresponding more or less with the pre-Conquest communities or polities sometimes described misleadingly as "tribes," such as the Aedui, Allobroges and Sequani but the civitates were too large and in turn were divided into smaller units, pagi, a term that became the modern French word "pays". These administrative groupings would be taken over by the Romans in their system of local control, these civitates would be the basis of France's eventual division into ecclesiastical bishoprics and dioceses, which would remain in place—with slight changes—until the French revolution. In the five centuries between Caesar's conquest and the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, the Gaulish language and cultural identity underwent a syncretism with the Roman culture of the new governing class, evolved into a hybrid Gallo-Roman culture that permeated all levels of society.
Gauls continued writing some inscriptions in the Gaulish language, but switched from the Greek alphabet to the Latin alphabet during the Roman period. Current historical research suggests that Roman Gaul was "Roman" only in certain social contexts, the prominence of which in material culture has hindered a better historical understanding of the permanence of many Celtic elements; the Roman influence was most apparent in the areas of civic administration. The Druidic religion was suppressed by Emperor Claudius I, in centuries Christianity was introduced; the prohibition of Druids and the syncretic nature of the Roman religion led to disappearance of the Celtic religion. It remains to this day poorly understood: current knowledge of the Celtic religion is based on archeology and via literary sources from several isolated areas such as Ireland and Wales; the Romans imposed their administrative, economic and literary culture. They wore the Roman tunic instead of their traditional clothing; the Romano-Gauls lived in the vici, small villages similar to those in Italy, or in villae, for the richest.
Surviving Celtic influences infiltrated back into the Roman Imperial culture in the 3rd century. For example, the Gaulish tunic—which gave Emperor Caracalla his surname—had not been replaced by Roman fashion. Certain Gaulish artisan techniques, such as the barrel and chain mail were adopted by the Romans; the Celtic heritage continued in the spoken language. Gaulish spelling and pronunciation of Latin are apparent in several 5th century poets and transcribers of popular farces; the last pockets of Gaulish speakers appear to have lingered until the 7th century. Gaulish was held to be attested by a quote from Gregory of Tours written in the second half of the 6th century, which describes how a shrine "called'Vasso Galatae' in the Gallic tongue" was destroyed and burnt to the ground. Throughout the Roman rule over Gaul, although considerable Romanization in terms of material culture occurred, the Gaulish language is held to have survived and continued to be spoken, coexisting with Latin. Germanic placenames were first attested in border areas settled by Germanic colonizers.
In the 4th and
The Merry Devil of Edmonton is an Elizabethan-era stage play. It was at one point attributed to William Shakespeare, but is now considered part of the Shakespeare Apocrypha. Scholars have conjectured dates of authorship for the play as early as 1592, though most favor a date in the 1600–4 period; the Merry Devil enters the historical record in 1604, when it is mentioned in a contemporary work called the Black Booke. The play was entered into the Stationers' Register on 22 October 1607, published the next year, in a quarto printed by Henry Ballard for the bookseller Arthur Johnson. Five more quartos appeared through the remainder of the century: Q2 – 1612. All of these quartos were anonymous. Publisher Humphrey Moseley obtained the rights to the play and re-registered it on 9 September 1653 as a work by William Shakespeare. Moseley's attribution to Shakespeare was repeated by Edward Archer in his 1656 play list, by Francis Kirkman in his list of 1661; the play Mucedorus in a book titled "Shakespeare.
Vol. I" in the library of Charles II; as its publishing history indicates, the play was popular with audiences. While Merry Devil was a King's Men play and Shakespeare may have had a minor role in its creation, it does not have the distinctive marks of Shakespeare's style. Individual 19th-century critics attempted to attribute the play to Michael Drayton or to Thomas Heywood. William Amos Abrams proposed Thomas Dekker as the play's author in his 1942 edition; the play was performed at Court on 8 May 1608. Professional productions in the modern age have been rare, though a radio adaptation was produced by the BBC in 1957, an original practice performance by Bad Quarto Productions at the 2010 Philadelphia Fringe Festival. Chambers, E. K; the Elizabethan Stage. 4 Volumes, Clarendon Press, 1923. Kozlenko, William, ed. Disputed Plays of William Shakespeare. Hawthorn Books, 1974. Logan, Terence P. and Denzell S. Smith, eds; the Popular School: A Survey and Bibliography of Recent Studies in English Renaissance Drama.
Lincoln, NE, University of Nebraska Press, 1975. Tucker Brooke, C. F. ed. The Shakespeare Apocrypha. Oxford, the Clarendon Press, 1908; the Merry Devil eText at Project Gutenberg
Judd Bankert is a former biathlete who represented Guam at the 1988 Winter Olympics. Bankert is a Michigan native, born in Grand Rapids, raised in Lake Orion and a graduate of Michigan State University. Bankert moved to Guam in December 1981 with his daughter. Bankert broke his hip in a serious fall on Guam in 1984. In 1986, the Guam National Olympic Committee was accepted into the International Olympic Committee. In August 1987 Bankert moved with his family from Guam to Bellingham and trained with members of the Western Washington University cross-country skiing team, his personal coach was Richard Domey and in the fall of 1987 Bankert trained in West Yellowstone with the U. S. Olympic biathlon team. To be eligible to compete at the Winter Olympic Games Bankert needed to complete two sanctioned biathlons competitions, he finished his second such competition on February 7, 1988, just three days before the Opening Ceremony, at which he carried the flag of Guam as its only athlete at the 1988 Winter Olympic Games.
At 38, Bankert was one of the oldest Olympic athletes at the 1988 Winter Olympic Games. This, combined with the fact that he represented a tropical island, made his a human interest story reported extensively in the media. In the men's 10 km sprint event, Bankert missed eight out of the ten rifle targets and as a result had to ski eight penalty laps. totalling 1200 m. Bankert finished 71st of 72 starters in 45m37.1s, between Gustavo Giro of Argentina and Elliot Archilla of Puerto Rico. In 1993, Bankert was hired by Urbana School District #116, Urbana, IL, taught Kindergarten at Yankee Ridge Elementary School, he was active in local school issues and advocated for changes in the manner in which school board members were elected. After the Olympics, Bankert soon returned to the United States. In 1996, as part of the Klondike Gold Rush Centennial Celebration, he organized and led "Klondike Bound", a month-long expedition by three fathers and their teenage daughters who retraced the route taken by the original "Stampeders".
He now lives in Virginia. And is an actor who portrays President Woodrow Wilson as part of the Woodrow Wilson Presidential Library's living history program; as well as on stage and appeared as President Wilson in the 2014 History Channel mini-series The World Wars. XV Olympic Winter Games Organizing Committee. XV Olympic Winter Games: official report. 2. Calgary, Canada: Calgary Olympic Development Association. ISBN 0-921060-26-2