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Roman Senate

The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city of Rome, it survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic in the 1st century BC, the division of the Roman Empire in AD 395, the fall of the Western Roman Empire in AD 476, the barbarian rule of Rome in the 5th, 6th, 7th centuries. During the days of the kingdom, most of the time the Senate was little more than an advisory council to the king, but it elected new Roman kings; the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, was overthrown following a coup d'état led by Lucius Junius Brutus, who founded the Roman Republic. During the early Republic, the Senate was politically weak, while the various executive magistrates were quite powerful. Since the transition from monarchy to constitutional rule was most gradual, it took several generations before the Senate was able to assert itself over the executive magistrates.

By the middle Republic, the Senate had reached the apex of its republican power. The late Republic saw a decline in the Senate's power, which began following the reforms of the tribunes Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus. After the transition of the Republic into the Principate, the Senate lost much of its political power as well as its prestige. Following the constitutional reforms of the Emperor Diocletian, the Senate became politically irrelevant; when the seat of government was transferred out of Rome, the Senate was reduced to a purely municipal body. This decline in status was reinforced when the emperor Constantine the Great created an additional senate in Constantinople. After Romulus Augustulus was deposed in 476, the Senate in the West functioned under the rule of Odovacer and during Ostrogothic rule, it was restored after the reconquest of Italy by Justinian I, but disappeared after AD 603, the date of its last recorded public act. The title "senator" continued into the Middle Ages as a meaningless honorific.

The Eastern Senate survived in Constantinople through the 14th century. The senate was a political institution in the ancient Roman Kingdom; the word senate derives from the Latin word senex, which means "old man". The prehistoric Indo-Europeans who settled Italy in the centuries before the legendary founding of Rome in 753 BC were structured into tribal communities, these communities included an aristocratic board of tribal elders; the early Roman family was called a gens or "clan", each clan was an aggregation of families under a common living male patriarch, called a pater. When the early Roman gentes were aggregating to form a common community, the patres from the leading clans were selected for the confederated board of elders that would become the Roman senate. Over time, the patres came to recognize the need for a single leader, so they elected a king, vested in him their sovereign power; when the king died, that sovereign power reverted to the patres. The senate is said to have been created by Rome's first king, Romulus consisting of 100 men.

The descendants of those 100 men subsequently became the patrician class. Rome's fifth king, Lucius Tarquinius Priscus, chose a further 100 senators, they were chosen from the minor leading families, were accordingly called the patres minorum gentium. Rome's seventh and final king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, executed many of the leading men in the senate, did not replace them, thereby diminishing their number. However, in 509 BC Rome's first and third consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus and Publius Valerius Publicola chose from amongst the leading equites new men for the senate, these being called conscripti, thus increased the size of the senate to 300; the senate of the Roman Kingdom held three principal responsibilities: It functioned as the ultimate repository for the executive power, it served as the king's council, it functioned as a legislative body in concert with the people of Rome. During the years of the monarchy, the senate's most important function was to elect new kings. While the king was nominally elected by the people, it was the senate who chose each new king.

The period between the death of one king and the election of a new king was called the interregnum, during which time the Interrex nominated a candidate to replace the king. After the senate gave its initial approval to the nominee, he was formally elected by the people, received the senate's final approval. At least one king, Servius Tullius, was elected by the senate alone, not by the people; the senate's most significant task, outside regal elections, was to function as the king's council, while the king could ignore any advice it offered, its growing prestige helped make the advice that it offered difficult to ignore. Only the king could make new laws, although he involved both the senate and the curiate assembly in the process; when the Republic began, the Senate functioned as an advisory council. It consisted of 300–500 senators, who were patrician and served for life. Before long, plebeians were admitted, although they were denied the senior magistracies for a longer period. Senators were entitled to wear a toga with a broad purple stripe, maroon shoes, an iron ring.

The Senate of the Roman Republic passed decrees called senatus consulta, which in form constituted "advice" from the senate to a magistrate. While these decrees did not hold legal force, they were obeyed in practice. If a senatus consultum conflicted with a law, passed by an assembly, the law overrode the sen

Axillary space

The axillary spaces are anatomic spaces. Through which axillary contents leave the axilla, they consist of the quadrangular space, triangular space, triangular interval. It is bounded by teres major, teres minor, medial border of the humerus, long head of triceps brachii, they should not be confused with the true "axillary space" within the borders of the axilla. The true axilla is a conical space with its apex at the Cervico-axillary Canal, Base at the axillary fascia and skin of the armpit; when viewed in an axillary plane, it is more triangle with: Medial Wall: Serratus Anterior, Anterior Wall: pectoral muscles, Posterior Wall: subscapularis muscle, where the "apex" of the triangle is the humerus This space is in the posterior wall of the axilla. It is a quadrangular space bounded laterally by surgical neck of the humerus, medially by long head of triceps brachii and inferiorly by teres major, it is bounded superiorly by subscapularis in front, capsule of the shoulder joint in the middle, behind by teres minor.

The axillary nerve and posterior humeral circumflex artery and vein pass through this space. This space is in the posterior wall of the axilla, it is a triangular space bounded medially by teres minor, laterally by long head of triceps brachii, inferiorly by teres major. The scapular circumflex artery and scapular circumflex vein pass through this space; this space is in the inferior to the posterior wall of the axilla. The triangular interval is bounded medially by long head of triceps brachii, laterally by medial border of humerus, superiorly by teres major; the radial nerve and profunda brachii artery and vein passes through this space. Https://web.archive.org/web/20080103065905/http://anatomy.med.umich.edu/musculoskeletal_system/axilla_ans.html http://sarcoma.org/publications/OTOS_Book/13282_ON-13.pdf. This article defines the true "axillary space" in relation to Axillary Space Exploration and Resections

Barbacha

Barbacha is a small region containing 34 separate villages in northern Algeria in the region of Kabylie. The population is composed of indigenous Amazigh people and is quite poor, containing few roads and existing in a mountainous area. Following the 2001 Black Spring in Algeria, residents in the area began to become hostile towards the government and police. Engaging in arson attacks against local courts, government offices, political party offices, welfare centres and police stations under the slogan'You can't kill us, we are dead!' Alongside road strikes. The police and military were expelled from the region and Barbacha has since seen little crime. There is still a functioning city government. Democratic assemblies modelled off traditional village councils were created as a dual power system and coordinate further protests, garbage collection, fuel distribution, welfare programs and maintenance for local schools and public services; the area has been praised by anarchists as a positive development for the community and is noted for its strong sense of anti-authoritarianism