The Roman Temple of Évora referred to as the Templo de Diana is an ancient temple in the Portuguese city of Évora. The temple is part of the historical centre of the city, included in the classification by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, it represents one of the most significant landmarks relating to the Roman and Lusitanian civilizations of Évora and in Portuguese territory. The temple is believed to have been constructed around the first century A. D. in honour of Augustus, venerated as a god during and after his rule. The temple was built in the main public square of Évora called Liberalitas Iulia. During the 2nd and 3rd centuries, from the traditionally accepted chronology, the temple was part of a radical redefinition of the urban city, when religious veneration and administrative polity were oriented around the central space; the temple was destroyed during the 5th century by invading Germanic peoples. During the 14th century, the temple's space served as a stronghouse for the town's castle, while Fernão Lopes described the structure as being in shambles.
In 1467, King Afonso V of Portugal authorized Soeiro Mendes to remove stones from the structure for building purposes and defense. The ruins of the temple were incorporated into a tower of the Castle of Évora during the Middle Ages; the base and architraves of the temple were kept embedded in the walls of the medieval building. In the 16th-century Manueline foral, the temple is represented, during a period when oral tradition suggested that the temple was attributed to Quintus Sertorius, the famous Lusitanian general, it was in the 17th century that references to the'Temple of Diana', first made by Father Manuel Fialho, began to appear. Although the Roman temple of Évora is called the Temple of Diana, any association with the Roman goddess of hunt stems not from archaeology but from a legend created in the 17th century by the Portuguese priest. Other interpretations suggest that it might have been dedicated to Jupiter, the Roman equivalent of Zeus; the first reconstitution of the temple's appearance occurred in 1789 by James Murphy.
By the beginning of the 19th century, the structure still had the pydramidal merlons typical of the post-Reconquista Arabic structures around the colonnade. In 1836 it ceased being a butchershop. In 1840, Cunha Rivara director of the Public Library of Évora, obtained the right to dispose of the buildings annexed to the monument from the Portuguese Inquisition, which were annexed to the northern façade of the temple; these structures were demolished, the first great archaeological excavation was undertaken in Portugal. The resulting survey uncovered tanks of a primitive aqueduct; the stress on the space had begun to reach its limits by 1863, when the ceiling was destroyed. By 1869, Augusto Filipe Simões proposed the urgent demolition of the medieval structures, defending the restoration of the primitive face of the Roman temple. Three years under the direction of Italian architect Giuseppe Cinatti, the vestiges of the medieval structures were removed, a program of restoration was carried out in line with the Romantic thinking of the period.
On 1 June 1992, the Portuguese Institute of Architectural Patrimony became responsible for conservancy of the monument. Following a 13 September 1992 publication, a public tender was issued for proposals relative the Roman temple and area surrounding it. Between 1989 and 1994, new excavations in the vicinity of the temple were completed under the supervision of the German archeologist Theodor Hauschild; the temple is located in the central square of Évora, in what would have been the highest elevation of the city's acropolis. It is surrounded by religious buildings associated with the Inquisition in Portugal, including: the Sé Cathedral, the Palace of the Inquisitor, Palace of the Dukes of Cadaval, the Court of the Inquisition and, the Church and Lóios' Convent, as well as the Public Library and Museum of Évora; the original temple was similar to the Maison Carrée in Nîmes. What remains of this structure is the complete base, marked by the ruins of a staircase, an intact colonnade along its northern facade with architrave and frieze, four columns to the east with architrave and frieze and the western facade with three columns, without columns and one deconstructed base, along with architrave and frieze.
The structure is oriented towards the south, evidenced by its ample staircase. The portico was hexastyle, six columns across; the masonry platform is superimposed onto a granite base, with square corners and remnants of rounded surfaces: the podium is 25 metres long by 15 metres wide and 3.5 metres in height. The fluted shafts of the Corinthian columns, consisting of seven irregular barrel-shaped supports, range from 1.2 metres to
Coccus hesperidum is a soft scale insect in the family Coccidae with a wide host range. It is known as brown soft scale, it feeds on many different host plants. It is an agricultural pest of citrus and commercial greenhouse crops; the adult female scale insect is dome-shaped, about 3 to 5 mm long. It retains its legs and antennae throughout its life, its cuticle is made of chitin but it does not produce the copious quantities of wax that armoured scales do. It is a pale yellowish-brown or greenish-brown colour with brown irregular speckles, darkens with age. Male brown soft scale insects are found; the brown soft scale is polyphagous. It attacks a wide variety of crops and greenhouse plants. In Hawaii, host plants include citrus, papaya, rubber trees and orchids; the brown soft scale produces young by parthenogenesis. Over the course of her life, the female may produce up to a few being laid each day; the eggs are retained inside the insect until they hatch, at which time small nymphs emerge and are brooded for a few hours before dispersing.
These first-stage nymphs are known as crawlers and move a short distance from the mother before settling and starting to feed. They have sucking mouthparts and feed on the host plant's sap, they are sedentary for the rest of their lives and pass through two more nymphal stages before becoming adults. A generation takes about two months, there may be three to seven generations in a year, depending on temperature. Males are produced and these pass through four nymphal stages before becoming winged adults. In order to obtain all the nutrients they need, they secrete the excess sugary fluid as honeydew. This is attractive to ants which tend the scale insects, driving away predators; the brown soft scale does not kill the host plant, but the loss of sap causes it to grow more and crop less heavily. The main disadvantage to the host is the sooty mould; this reduces the area of leaf available for photosynthesis, spoils the appearance of the plant, its flowers and fruits. Traditionally, brown soft scale has been controlled by the use of pesticides, but these have the disadvantage that other insects and foes alike, are killed.
Another approach in citrus is to eliminate ants from the trees, either by preventing the ants from climbing the trunks or by destroying their nests. This allows natural predators to flourish and keep the scale insects under control, although this may lead to an increase in the production of sooty mould. Fungicides can be used to prevent the sooty mould from taking hold. Alternatively, the use of such entomopathogenic fungi, such as Lecanicillium lecanii, has been used under glass. An alternative approach is integrated pest management in which the natural enemies of the scale insects are encouraged. A further possibility is the use of growth regulators such as the hormone hydroprene which disrupts the moulting of juvenile scale insects
The Bernard H. V.220 was a 1930s French racing seaplane and the last attempt by Bernard compete in the Schneider Trophy race. Delays caused by engine problems meant the aircraft was never flown; the H. V.220 was an all-metal single-seat cantilever monoplane with twin floats and powered by a 2,200 hp Lorraine 12Rcr Radium inline piston engine. The aircraft was completed but problems with the Radium engine were never sorted and the aircraft was not flown ending French hopes of a Schneider Trophy win. An improved variant powered by a Radium engine was planned as the H. V.320 but never built. Data from Illustrated Encyclopedia of AircraftGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 9.46 m Wingspan: 9.40 m Height: 3.96 m Wing area: 13.86 m2 Empty weight: 1,790 kg estimated Max takeoff weight: 2,500 kg estimated Powerplant: 1 × Lorraine 12Rcr Radium V-12 inverted liquid-cooled piston engine, 1,600 kW Propellers: 4-bladedPerformance Maximum speed: 640 km/h estimated Notes