Roman army

The Roman army was the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom to the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire. It is thus a term that may span 2,206 years, during which the Roman armed forces underwent numerous permutations in composition, organisation and tactics, while conserving a core of lasting traditions.. The Early Roman army was the armed force of the Roman Kingdom and of the early Republic During this period, when warfare chiefly consisted of small-scale plundering raids, it has been suggested that the army followed Etruscan or Greek models of organisation and equipment; the early Roman army was based on an annual levy. The infantry ranks were filled with the lower classes while the cavalry were left to the patricians, because the wealthier could afford horses. Moreover, the commanding authority during the regal period was the high king; until the establishment of the Republic and the office of consul, the king assumed the role of commander-in-chief.

However, from about 508 BC Rome no longer had a king. The commanding position of the army was given to the consuls, "who were charged both singly and jointly to take care to preserve the Republic from danger"; the term legion is derived from the Latin word legio. At first there were only four legions; these legions were numbered "I" to "IIII", with the fourth being written as such and not "IV". The first legion was seen as the most prestigious; the bulk of the army was made up of citizens. These citizens could not choose the legion. Any man "from ages 16–46 were selected by ballot" and assigned to a legion; until the Roman military disaster of 390 BC at the Battle of the Allia, Rome's army was organised to the Greek phalanx. This was due to Greek influence in Italy "by way of their colonies". Patricia Southern quotes ancient historians Livy and Dionysius in saying that the "phalanx consisted of 3,000 infantry and 300 cavalry"; each man had to provide his equipment in battle. Politically they shared the same ranking system in the Comitia Centuriata.

The Roman army of the mid-Republic was known as the "manipular army" or the "Polybian army" after the Greek historian Polybius, who provides the most detailed extant description of this phase. The Roman army started to have a full-time strength of 150,000 at all times and 3/4 of the rest were levied. During this period, the Romans, while maintaining the levy system, adopted the Samnite manipular organisation for their legions and bound all the other peninsular Italian states into a permanent military alliance; the latter were required to supply the same number of troops to joint forces as the Romans to serve under Roman command. Legions in this phase were always accompanied on campaign by the same number of allied alae, units of the same size as legions. After the 2nd Punic War, the Romans acquired an overseas empire, which necessitated standing forces to fight lengthy wars of conquest and to garrison the newly gained provinces, thus the army's character mutated from a temporary force based on short-term conscription to a standing army in which the conscripts were supplemented by a large number of volunteers willing to serve for much longer than the legal six-year limit.

These volunteers were from the poorest social class, who did not have plots to tend at home and were attracted by the modest military pay and the prospect of a share of war booty. The minimum property requirement for service in the legions, suspended during the 2nd Punic War, was ignored from 201 BC onward in order to recruit sufficient volunteers. Between 150-100 BC, the manipular structure was phased out, the much larger cohort became the main tactical unit. In addition, from the 2nd Punic War onward, Roman armies were always accompanied by units of non-Italian mercenaries, such as Numidian light cavalry, Cretan archers, Balearic slingers, who provided specialist functions that Roman armies had lacked; the Roman army of the late Republic marks the continued transition between the conscription-based citizen-levy of the mid-Republic and the volunteer, professional standing forces of the imperial era. The main literary sources for the army's organisation and tactics in this phase are the works of Julius Caesar, the most notable of a series of warlords who contested for power in this period.

As a result of the Social War, all Italians were granted Roman citizenship, the old allied alae were abolished and their members integrated into the legions. Regular annual conscription remained in force and continued to provide the core of legionary recruitment, but an ever-increasing proportion of recruits were volunteers, who signed up for 16-year terms as opposed to the maximum 6 years for conscripts; the loss of ala cavalry reduced Roman/Italian cavalry by 75%, legions became dependent on allied native horse for cavalry cover. This period saw the large-scale expansion of native forces employed to complement the legions, made up of numeri recruited from tribes within Rome's overseas empire and neighbouring allied tribes. Large numbers of heavy infantry and cavalry were recruited in Spain and Thrace, archers in Thrace and Syria. However, these native units were not integrated with the legions, but retained their own traditio

Wigan Robin Park F.C.

Wigan Robin Park FC was a semi-professional football club from Wigan, Greater Manchester, England. The Robins had two senior sides, the first team competed in the North West Counties League Division One, the reserve team competed in the Fourth Division of the Manchester Football League; the club played their home games at the Robin Park Arena on Loire Drive, adjacent to the DW Stadium. The first team resigned from the league in June 2015. Wigan Robin Park Football Club was founded in 2005 and joined the Manchester Football League – a feeder league of the North West Counties divisions. After winning the Manchester League in 2007–08 they were promoted to the North West Counties League Division One; the 2011–12 season saw success for the club after they were crowned champions of Division One, winning promotion to the Premier Division. In January 2014, Steve Halliwell announced. After playing two seasons in the North West Counties Football League Premier Division, they were relegated to Division One at the end of the 2013–14 season.

North West Counties Football League Division One Champions 2011–12 Manchester Football League Premier Division Champions 2007–08 Gilgryst Cup Winners 2007–08 Lancashire Shield Runners-up 2007–08 Manchester Football League Division One Runners-up 2006–07 Murray Shield Runners-up 2005–06 FA Cup Extra Preliminary Round replay 2010–11 FA Vase Third Round 2012–13 Club history on official website Official website

Heritage railways in Kauai

There are two heritage railways in Kauai, the birthplace of Hawaiian railroading. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on January 19, 1979; the Grove Farm Sugar Plantation Museum preserved original steam locomotives from the earliest days of rail transport in Kauai, restoring the small-gauge engines without much notice beyond the local community. The museum acquired property where historic right-of-ways had run, found, in the thick vegetation, track beds ready for restoration, allowing the Museum to display their authentic, working locomotives; the second heritage railway in Kauai is the Kauai Plantation Railway at Kilohana. Unlike the Grove Farm Museum trains, which are brought out only once a month, the Kauai Plantation Railway is a daily fee-based attraction. Sugarcane plantations in Hawaii led to the introduction of railways to Hawaii. Rail transport in Hawaii began in the late 19th century when small-gauge locomotives were brought in to replace oxen or horses to haul harvested sugarcane from the fields to mills, to transport the raw sugar to docks for shipment to refineries in California.

Hawaii's first commercial sugar plantation was created in Koloa, Kauai in 1835, sugar grew to dominate Kauai's economy—and the economy of the Hawaiian archipelago—through the 19th and 20th centuries. For example, steam plows were used by around the middle of the century, abundant electricity was generated from mountain streams both to power mills and illuminate the fields for 24-hour shifts as early as 1885. Kauai's early leadership in rail transport in Hawaii is consistent with this tradition of innovation. Railways were under construction in both Kauai and on Hawaiʻi island at about the same time in 1881. In Kauai, the Kilauea Sugar Plantation purchased a steam locomotive from Germany and created 2 ft 6 in narrow gauge tracks through the sugarcane fields; the first spike in this track was driven by Princess Liliʻuokalani Regent and soon to assume the throne as last Queen of the Kingdom of Hawaii. She had arrived the day before, disembarking at Hanalei, a nearby port, was invited to the September 24 ceremonial opening at the site of what is now the town of Kilauea.

The assembled dignitaries included Governor Paul P. Kanoe and the Plantation Manager, Robert A. Macfie, Jr; this is credited as Hawaii's first railway. While field railways ran on “literally little more than panels of snap-track laid and re-laid across the fields as the seasonal cutting progressed,” more permanent right-of-ways were soon established to provide freight and passenger service from mills to ports, where raw sugar was packed aboard ocean-going ships bound for California refineries. An engineer, sent to Kauai from Honolulu in 1898, took the train from Waimea, on the coast, to the Kilauea Plantation's Kekaha mill, situated in the midst of the cane fields, he described the trip: The railroad is a cute affair, only 30 inch gauge—cars flat for hauling cane and sugar in bags…. All cars are no more than 4 feet wide…. Engines… are regular toys—they weigh about eight tons…. Bowled over the four miles of toy railroad to the headquarters of the Plantation…, they have engineer only—no fireman—no breakman.

No breaks on cars. On Hawaiʻi island, a larger railway was under construction, with the first tracks being laid in March 1881 in Māhukona, North Kohala; the Hawaiian Gazette reported that twelve miles of track had been laid in September 1881, but its unofficial opening was in March 1882. The New York Times, reported that the first steam railway was to be built on the Big Island in 1899, which may be a misunderstanding based on financial reorganization of the existing railways; the Hawaiian Gazette, in the same 1882 issue that it mentions the initial freight hauling by steam on the Big Island states that on Maui, the “Kahului railroad has met all the requirements for transporting freight.”Although one source claims that Oahu did not enter the railway age until 1889, it appears that Oahu had a field railway using the engine Olomana in 1883. The preservation of steam locomotives on Kauai is due to the Grove Farm Sugar Plantation Museum, led by Mabel and Elsie Wilcox, nieces of George Norton Wilcox, who bought Grove Farm Plantation in 1864.

The sisters fought to preserve the trains when the Koloa Plantation was taken over by Grove Farm Plantation in 1947 and when the trains were taken out of service in the late 1950s. About 1970, the trains were sold to the Disney Company for $500 each, when Mabel Wilcox matched the price and kept the locomotives in Kauai; when Mabel Wilcox turned the Plantation she had inherited into the Grove Farm Museum in the 1970s, the four 2 ft 6 in gauge locomotives were given to the museum. When she died in 1978, her estate included an endowment for the operations of the Museum, including the locomotives, they are listed in the National Register of Historic Places as Grove Farm Company Locomotives. The collection includes four locomotives. Pride of place in the Grove Farm Museum locomotive collection is one of the earliest steam locomotives in Kauai, an 1887 Hohenzollern steam engine built in Düsseldorf, Germany for the Koloa Plantation for $4,000, which arrived in 1888; this engine is notable because it is today the oldest steam locomotive in the state of Hawaii being run on rails.