Roman bridge

Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built. Roman bridges had the arch as the basic structure. Most utilized concrete as well; as with the vault and the dome the Romans were the first to realize the potential of arches for bridge construction. A list of Roman bridges compiled by the engineer Colin O'Connor features 330 Roman stone bridges for traffic, 34 Roman timber bridges and 54 Roman aqueduct bridges, a substantial part still standing and used to carry vehicles. A more complete survey by the Italian scholar Vittorio Galliazzo found 931 Roman bridges of stone, in as many as 26 different countries. Roman arch bridges were semicircular, although a few were segmental. A segmental arch is an arch, less than a semicircle; the advantages of the segmental arch bridge were that it allowed great amounts of flood water to pass under it, which would prevent the bridge from being swept away during floods and the bridge itself could be more lightweight. Roman bridges featured wedge-shaped primary arch stones of the same in size and shape.

The Romans built both single spans and lengthy multiple arch aqueducts, such as the Pont du Gard and Segovia Aqueduct. Their bridges featured from an early time onwards flood openings in the piers, e.g. in the Pons Fabricius in Rome, one of the world's oldest major bridges still standing. Roman engineers were the first and until the industrial revolution the only ones to construct bridges with concrete, which they called opus caementicium; the outside was covered with brick or ashlar, as in the Alcántara bridge. The Romans introduced segmental arch bridges into bridge construction; the 330 m long Limyra Bridge in southwestern Turkey features 26 segmental arches with an average span-to-rise ratio of 5.3:1, giving the bridge an unusually flat profile unsurpassed for more than a millennium. Trajan's bridge over the Danube featured open-spandrel segmental arches made of wood; this was to be the longest arch bridge for a thousand years both in terms of overall and individual span length, while the longest extant Roman bridge is the 790 m long Puente Romano at Mérida.

The late Roman Karamagara Bridge in Cappadocia may represent the earliest surviving bridge featuring a pointed arch. Early Roman arch bridges, influenced by the ancient notion of the ideal form of the circle describe a full circle, with the stone arch continuing underground. A typical example is the Pons Fabricius in Rome. Roman masonry bridges rested on semi-circular arches, or, to a lesser extent, on segmental arches. For the design, which shows an early, local concentration in north-eastern Italy, but can be found scattered throughout the whole empire, the Limyra Bridge, the Alconétar Bridge and the Ponte San Lorenzo are prime examples. In addition, a number of other arch forms make rare appearances, in some cases of which deformations cannot be ruled out; the late antique Karamagara Bridge represents an early example for the use of pointed arches Many are more than 5 metres wide Most of them slope Many have rustic work The stonework has alternating stretcher and header courses. Their shared costs prove Roman bridges belonged to the region overall, not to any one town.

The Alcántara Bridge in Lusitania, for example, was built at the expense of 12 local municipalities, whose names were added on an inscription. In the Roman Empire, the local lords of the land had to pay tithes to the empire for opus pontis; the Anglo-Saxons continued this practice with bricg-geworc, a literal translation of opus pontis. For outstanding achievements of Roman bridge building, see List of ancient architectural records. Built in 142 BC, the Pons Aemilius named Ponte Rotto, is the oldest Roman stone bridge in Rome, Italy; the largest Roman bridge was Trajan's bridge over the lower Danube, constructed by Apollodorus of Damascus, which remained for over a millennium the longest bridge to have been built both in terms of overall and span length. They were most of the time at least 2 metres above the body of water. An example of temporary military bridge construction are the two Caesar's Rhine bridges. Roman engineers built stone arch or stone pillar bridges over all major rivers of their Imperium, save two: the Euphrates which lay at the frontier to the rival Persian empires, the Nile, the longest river in the world, which was'bridged' as late as 1902 by the British Old Aswan Dam.

The largest rivers to be spanned by solid bridges by the Romans were the Danube and the Rhine, the two largest European rivers west of the Eurasian Steppe. The lower Danube was crossed the middle and lower Rhine by four different bridges. For rivers with strong currents and to allow swift army movements, pontoon bridges were routinely employed. Going from the distinct lack of records of pre-modern solid bridges spanning larger rivers, the Roman feat appears to be unsurpassed anywhere in the world until into the 19th century. Arch bridge Bridges


Moniquirá is a town and municipality in Boyacá Department, part of the subregion of the Ricaurte Province. It is known for its "bocadillos" and "panelitas de leche". Moniquirá borders San José de Pare in the north, Togüí and Arcabuco in the east, Gachantivá and Santa Sofia in the south and in the west with the department of Santander. In the Chibcha language of the Muisca, Moniquirá means "place of bath". Before the arrival of the Spanish conquistadores, Moniquirá was who were ruled by the cacique of Susa, part of the Muisca Confederation. Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada passed through Ubaza, part of Moniquirá on March 16th, 1537. Main economical activity of Moniquirá is agriculture; the bocadillos industry provides employment for over 800 people

Lips Like Sugar

"Lips Like Sugar" is a single by Echo & the Bunnymen, released in August 1987. It was the second single from their 1987 eponymous album. Dismissed by Ian McCulloch as too commercial, "Lips Like Sugar" became a chart success in the UK, New Zealand. Despite not charting in the US, the song has become one of their most famous songs in America, thanks in part to a music video directed by Anton Corbijn; the song has been positively received by critics. Ian McCulloch wrote the lyrics to "Lips Like Sugar" and "Rollercoaster", while the music is credited to McCulloch, Will Sergeant and Les Pattinson. "Lips Like Sugar" was produced by Laurie Latham. McCulloch was dismissive of the song, saying in 1992, "It was an OK song, I suppose, but it didn't sound like us... We just got sucked into a new mentality on that last album, the sound of Radio America." He softened his attitude toward the song in a 2005 interview, saying "It may have a few synthetic twinkles on it, but the song itself was strong enough to shine through."

"Lips Like Sugar" was released as the second single from Echo & the Bunnymen, backed with "Rollercoaster". The song was a chart success, reaching number 36 in the UK, number 24 in Ireland, number 43 in New Zealand; the song did not chart in the US, despite "how much attention it seemed to garner at the time of its initial release and how it’s so held up as the band's signature song in the States". The song saw success on college radio. Will Seargent credited the song as a turning point in the band's success, saying "It just started started building, it was building and we ended up doing the Greek Theater in Hollywood and the sheds and places like that. All of the sudden the crowd started changing - they'd become, like young kids. You're thinking, Why? It was just weird. I'd be walking around with Les and Pete in the crowd and no one knew who were were, it all changed. It was just odd. Right around'Lips Like Sugar,' it changed."A British 12-inch single of the song was release, with "Lips Like Sugar" and "Rollercoaster" sharing the A-side with a cover version of The Doors' "People Are Strange", recorded for the soundtrack of the film The Lost Boys and was released as a single in its own right the following year, on the B-side.

The US 12-inch single had the same A-side as the British 12-inch single with two other mixes of the title track on the B-side. A music video for the song, directed by Anton Corbijn, features the band performing the song and ends with the band "transport from the sound studio to a garish set straight out of Star Trek, where the Bunnymen are hunted by a couple of women in lurid space suits"; the video is filmed in a "grainy black-and-white" style typical of Corbijn's work. The 7-inch single came in a gate-fold sleeve with a picture of McCulloch on the front cover, Sergeant on the back cover and Pattinson and de Freitas on the two inside covers; the 7-inch single was available in a limited edition boxed packaging containing the single and three postcards. The 12-inch single and the boxed 7-inch single had the same picture on the front covers as the standard edition 7-inch single. Pitchfork Media described the track as a "hook-heavy reverb bomb". David Cleary of AllMusic noted that "Pete de Freitas' solid drumming at times veered toward the danceable" on the track.

A photo gallery accompanied by audio of Coldplay performing "Lips Like Sugar" live in Paris is included on their 2002 DVD single "The Scientist". This audio track was included on the Australian release of their 2003 single "God Put a Smile upon Your Face". McCulloch notably performed the song live with Coldplay in 2003 at the Scottish T in the Park festival. Seal recorded a version of the song featuring the reggae singer Mikey Dread for the soundtrack of the 2004 film 50 First Dates. A version of the song, performed by Solina, is included on the 2005 Spanish tribute album Play the Game: Un Tributo a Echo & The Bunnymen; the Smashing Pumpkins covered "Lips Like Sugar" on Australian tour. A performance of the song was recorded on Australia's MTV. David Hasselhoff recorded a version of the song featuring A Flock of Seagulls on his 2019 album Open Your Eyes. All tracks written by Ian McCulloch and Les Pattinson except where noted. 7-inch release"Lips Like Sugar" "Rollercoaster" UK 12-inch release"Lips Like Sugar" "Rollercoaster" "People Are Strange" US 12-inch release"Lips Like Sugar" "Rollercoaster" "Lips Like Sugar" "Lips Like Sugar" Ian McCulloch – vocals, guitar Will Sergeant – lead guitar Les Pattinson – bass Pete de Freitas – drums Henry Priestman - piano Laurie Latham – producer The Bunnymen – producer Gil Norton – producer, engineer Ray Manzarek – producer Bruce Lampcov – mixing, remix François Kevorkian – remix Michael R. Hutchinson – remix