Lard is fat from a pig, in both its rendered and unrendered forms. It is a semi-soft white fat derived from fatty parts of the pig, with a high saturated fatty acid content and no trans fat. Rendering is by boiling, or dry heat; the culinary qualities of lard vary somewhat depending on the processing method. At retail, refined lard is sold as paper-wrapped blocks. Many cuisines use lard as a spread similar to butter, it is an ingredient in various savoury dishes such as sausages, pâtés, fillings, it is favored for the preparation of pastry because of the "flakiness" it provides. In western cuisine, it has ceded its popularity to vegetable oils, but many cooks and bakers still favor it over other fats for certain uses. Lard has always been an important cooking and baking staple in cultures where pork is an important dietary item, with pig fat being as valuable a product as pork. During the 19th century, lard was used to butter in North America and many European nations. Lard remained about as popular as butter in the early 20th century and was used as a substitute for butter during World War II.
As a available by-product of modern pork production, lard had been cheaper than most vegetable oils, it was common in many people's diet until the industrial revolution made vegetable oils more common and more affordable. Vegetable shortenings were developed in the early 1900s, which made it possible to use vegetable-based fats in baking and in other uses where solid fats were called for. Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle, though fictional, portrayed men falling into rendering vats and being sold as lard, it generated negative publicity. By the late 20th century lard began to be considered less healthy than vegetable oils because of its high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. However, despite its reputation, lard has less saturated fat, more unsaturated fat and less cholesterol than an equal amount of butter by weight. Unhydrogenated lard contains no transfats, it has been regarded as a "poverty food". Many restaurants in the western nations have eliminated the use of lard in their kitchens because of the health-related dietary restrictions of many of their customers, religious pork-based dietary restrictions such as Kashrut and Halal mean that some bakers will substitute beef tallow for lard.
In the 1990s and early 2000s, however and bakers rediscovered lard's unique culinary values, leading to a partial rehabilitation of this fat among "foodies". Negative publicity about the transfat content of the hydrogenated vegetable oils in vegetable shortening has driven this trend. Chef and food writer Rick Bayless is a prominent proponent of the virtues of lard for certain types of cooking, it is again becoming popular in the United Kingdom among aficionados of traditional British cuisine. This led to a "lard crisis" in late 2004. Lard can be obtained from any part of the pig; the highest grade of lard, known as leaf lard, is obtained from the "flare" visceral fat deposit surrounding the kidneys and inside the loin. Leaf lard has little pork flavor, making it ideal for use in baked goods, where it is valued for its ability to produce flaky, moist pie crusts; the next-highest grade is obtained from fatback, the hard subcutaneous fat between the pig's back skin and muscle. The lowest grade is obtained from the soft caul fat surrounding digestive organs, such as small intestines, though caul fat is used directly as a wrapping for roasting lean meats or in the manufacture of pâtés.
Lard may be rendered by two processes: dry. In wet rendering, pig fat is boiled in water or steamed at a high temperature and the lard, insoluble in water, is skimmed from the surface of the mixture or separated in an industrial centrifuge. In dry rendering, the fat is exposed to high heat in a oven without water; the two processes yield somewhat differing products. Wet-rendered lard has a more neutral flavor, a lighter color, a high smoke point. Dry-rendered lard has a caramelized flavor and has a lower smoke point. Industrially-produced lard, including much of the lard sold in supermarkets, is rendered from a mixture of high and low quality fat from throughout the pig. Lard is hydrogenated to improve its stability at room temperature. Hydrogenated lard sold to consumers contains fewer than 0.5 g of transfats per 13 g serving. Lard is often treated with bleaching and deodorizing agents and antioxidants such as BHT; these treatments prevent spoilage. Consumers wanting a higher-quality source of lard seek out artisanal producers, or render it themselves from leaf lard or fatback.
A by-product of dry-rendering lard is deep-fried meat and membrane tissue known as cracklings. Lard consists of fats, which in the language of chemistry are known as triglycerides; these triglycerides are composed of three fatty acids and the distribution of fatty acids varies from oil to oil. In general lard is similar to tallow in its composition. Pigs that have been fed different diets will have lard with a different fatty acid content and iodine value. Peanut-fed hogs or the acorn-fed pigs raised for Jamón ibérico therefore produce a somewhat different kind of lard compared to pigs raised in North American farms that are fed corn. Lard is one of the few edible oils with a high smoke point, attributable to its high saturated fatty acids content. Pure lard is useful for cooking since it
Venetian cuisine, from the city of Venice, Italy or more from the region of Veneto, has a centuries-long history and differs from other cuisines of northern Italy, of neighbouring Austria and of Slavic countries, despite sharing some commonalities. Cuisine in Veneto may be divided into three main categories, based on geography: the coastal areas, the plains, the mountains; each one can have each city with its own dishes. The most common dish is polenta, cooked in various ways within the local cuisines of Veneto. Polenta once was the universal staple food of the poorer classes. In Veneto, the corns are ground in much smaller fragments in comparison with the rest of Italy: so, when cooked, it tastes like a pudding. Typical of many coastal areas, communities along the coast of the Laguna Veneta serve seafood dishes. In the plains it is popular to serve grilled meat together with grilled polenta, potatoes or vegetables. Other popular dishes include risotto, rice cooked with many different kinds of food, from vegetables, pumpkin or radicchio to seafood, pork meat or chicken livers.
Bigoli, fettuccine and the similar tortelli and gnocchi, are fresh and hand-made pasta dishes, served together with meat sauce made with duck meat, sometimes together with mushrooms or peas, or with melted butter. Cuisine from the mountain areas is made of pork or game meat, with polenta, as well as mushrooms or cheeses, some dish from Austrian or Tyrolese tradition, such as canederli or strudel. A typical dish is hand-made fresh pasta similar to ravioli. Among the typical seasoning of Venetian cuisine, you can find butter, olive oil, sunflower oil, kren, mostarda, salsa verde; the following are dishes typical of the three subregions of the Veneto. The page for Venetian language provides additional information on writing and pronouncing the dishes' names. Bigołi in salsa: bigoli pasta served with an anchovy and onion sauce. Fegato ała venesiana: a high-class Venetian plate of liver and cooked together with chopped onions. Mołeche: small green species crabs, when they arrived at the peak of phase changes and soft, they are fried.
The mołeche are valuable because the process of changing the water brackish lagoons lasts a few hours, the armor back hard and return to be called maxenete. Pasta e faxioi: bean soup with noodles. Połenta e schie: small shrimp from the lagoon and perched on a bed of soft, white polenta. Rixi e bixi: a poor but tasty dish consisting of a simple risotto with pancetta and peas cooked in a broth. Rixoto de gò: rice prepared with goby known as gò, typical fish of the Venetian Lagoon. Sarde in saor: fried sardines, dipped in fried onion in the same oil in which the sardines are fried and pine nuts, other spices and sprinkled with plenty of vinegar. One leaves everything to marinate at least one night. Sepe al nero: cuttlefish cooked with their ink lagoon. Among the many Venetian desserts, the most well-known are: Baicołi. Fritołe. Pinza: an Epiphany cake based on cornmeal and mixed dried fruits and nuts. Xałeti: cornmeal biscotti with raisins. Brasato all'Amarone: braised beef meat cooked with Amarone wine served together with polenta.
Gnocchi. It is tradition to eat homemade potato gnocchi on the last Friday of Carnival. Lesso e pearà. Lesso is the bollito misto popular across entire northern Italy, that in Verona is uniquely served with pearà: a thick, slow cooking sauce made from the boiled meats' stock, grated stale bread, ox marrow and abundant ground black pepper; some recipes add olive oil, grated Parmigiano Reggiano or butter. The sauce's name comes from dialect for pepper. In the past this was a lavish meal for the majority of the populace and therefore served on major festivities like Christmas. Pastissada de caval: an ancient horse meat stew dating back to the Middle-Age. It's prepared with bay leaves, cloves, pepper and beef stock and slow cooked until the meat melts. Polenta e renga: polenta accompanied by typical oil preserved herrings. Salted herrings are boiled or grilled cleaned, cut into pieces, pickled in olive oil with garlic and capers; this dish originated in the Parona neighbourhood of Verona and is traditionally eaten on Ash Wednesday.
Riso Vialone Nano: a rice variety typical of southern Veronese lowlands. It lends itself best to the preparation of excellent risottos, used as such throughout Veneto and Italy. Risotto all'Amarone: risotto with the local Amarone red wine, it is typical of the Valpolicella wine region. Rixoto col tastasal: risotto made with the same seasoned ground pork used in salame and sausages. Tortellini di Valeggio: hand-made fresh pasta of tortellini kind, stuffed wit
Italy is the world's largest producer of wine, is home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions. Its contribution is about 45–50 million hl per year, represents about a quarter of global production. Italian wine is exported around the world, as popular among Italians. Italians rank fifth on the world wine consumption list by volume with 42 litres per capita consumption. Grapes are grown in every region of the country and there are more than one million vineyards under cultivation. Etruscans and Greek settlers produced wine in Italy before the Romans planted their own vineyards in the 2nd century BC; the Romans increased Italy's area under vine using efficient viticultural and winemaking methods, pioneered large-scale production and storage techniques such as barrel-making and bottling. Although vines had been cultivated from the wild Vitis vinifera grape for millennia, it was not until the Greek colonization that wine-making flourished. Viticulture was introduced into Sicily and southern Italy by the Mycenaean Greeks, was well established when the extensive Greek colonization transpired around 800 BC.
It was during the Roman defeat of the Carthaginians in the 2nd century BC that Italian wine production began to further flourish. Large-scale, slave-run plantations sprang up in many coastal areas and spread to such an extent that, in AD 92, emperor Domitian was forced to destroy a great number of vineyards in order to free up fertile land for food production. During this time, viticulture outside of Italy was prohibited under Roman law. Exports to the provinces were reciprocated in exchange for more slaves from Gaul. Trade was intense with Gaul, according to Pliny, because the inhabitants tended to drink Italian wine unmixed and without restraint. Although unpalatable to adults, it was customary, at the time, for young people to drink wine mixed with a good proportion of water; as the laws on provincial viticulture were relaxed, vast vineyards began to flourish in the rest of Europe Gaul and Hispania. This coincided with the cultivation such as biturica, an ancestor of the Cabernets; these vineyards became so successful that Italy became an import centre for provincial wines.
Depending on the vintage, modern Italy is the world's largest or second largest wine producer. In 2005, production was about 20% of the global total, second only to France, which produced 26%. In the same year, Italy's share in dollar value of table wine imports into the U. S. was 32%, Australia's was 24%, France's was 20%. Along with Australia, Italy's market share has increased in recent years. In 1963, the first official Italian system of classification of wines was launched. Since several modifications and additions to the legislation have been made, including a major modification in 1992; the last modification, which occurred in 2010, established four basic categories which are consistent with the latest European Union wine regulations. The categories, from the bottom to the top level, are: Vini: wines can be produced anywhere in the territory of the EU, label includes no indication of geographical origin of the grape varieties used or the vintage. Vini Varietali: generic wines that are made either from one kind of authorized'international' grape variety or from two or more of them, grape variety or varieties and vintage may be indicated on the label.
Vini IGP: wines produced in a specific territory within Italy and following a series of specific and precise regulations on authorized varieties and vinification practices and chemico-physical characteristics, labeling instructions, etc. There exist 118 IGPs/IGTs. Vini DOP: This category includes two sub-categories: Vini DOC and Vini DOCG. DOC wines must have been IGP wines for at least 5 years, they come from smaller regions within a certain IGP territory that are vocated for their climatic and geological characteristics and originality of local winemaking traditions. They must follow stricter production regulations than IGP wines. A DOC wine can be promoted to DOCG. In addition to fulfilling the requisites for DOC wines, DOCG wines must pass stricter analyses prior to commercialization, including a tasting by a appointed committee. DOCG wines must demonstrate a superior commercial success. There exist 332 DOCs and 73 DOCGs for a total of 405 DOPs. A number of sub-categories exist pertaining to the regulation of sparkling wine production.
Within the DOP category,'Classico' is a wine produced in the original historic centre of the protected territory.'Superiore' is a wine with at least 0.5 more alc%/vol than its corresponding regular DOP wine and produced using a smaller allowed quantity of grapes per hectare yielding a higher quality.'Riserva' is a wine, aged for a minimum period of time. The length of time varies with. Sometimes,'Classi
Ricotta is an Italian whey cheese made from sheep, goat, or Italian water buffalo milk whey left over from the production of other cheeses. Like other whey cheeses, it is made by coagulating the proteins that remain after the casein has been used to make cheese, notably albumin and globulin. Ricotta protein can be harvested if the whey is first allowed to become more acidic by additional fermentation; the acidified whey is heated to near boiling. The combination of low pH and high temperature denatures the protein and causes it to precipitate, forming a fine curd. Once cooled, it is separated by passing the liquid through a fine cloth. Ricotta curds are creamy white in appearance, sweet in taste; the fat content changes depending on the type of milk used. In this form, it is somewhat similar in texture to some cottage cheese variants, though lighter, it is perishable. However, ricotta is made in aged varieties which are preservable for much longer; the production of ricotta in the Italian peninsula dates back to the Bronze Age.
In the second millennium BC, ceramic vessels called milk boilers started to appear and were unique to the peninsula. These were designed to prevent the milk from boiling over; the fresh acid-coagulated cheeses produced with these boilers were made with whole milk. However, the production of rennet-coagulated cheese overtook the production of fresh whole-milk cheeses during the first millennium BC. Bronze cheese graters found in the graves of the Etruscan elite prove that hard-grating cheeses were popular with the aristocracy. Cheese graters were commonly used in ancient Roman kitchens. Unlike the fresh acid-coagulated cheese, aged rennet-coagulated cheese could be preserved for much longer; the increased production of rennet-coagulated cheese led to a large supply of sweet whey as a byproduct. Cheesemakers started using a new recipe, which used a mixture of whey and milk to make the traditional ricotta as it is known today; the ancient Romans made ricotta, but writers on agriculture such as Cato the Elder, Marcus Terentius Varro, Columella do not mention it.
They described the production of rennet-coagulated cheese but did not write about milk boilers or acid-coagulated cheese. A reason is that ricotta was not profitable because its short shelf life did not allow distribution to urban markets. Ricotta was most consumed by the shepherds who made it. So, evidence from paintings and literature indicates that ricotta was known and eaten by Roman aristocrats as well. Ceramic milk boilers were still used by Apennine shepherds to make ricotta in the 19th century AD. Today, metal milk boilers are used. Whey protein is a kind of milk protein but there are numerous other milk proteins. Whey itself is less than 1% protein by weight; this means ricotta production is a low-yield process, considering the amount of whey required to produce it. The whey is heated, sometimes with additional acid such as vinegar or lemon juice to catalyze the coagulation through heat of albumin and globulin in the whey; the whey is heated to a near-boiling temperature, much hotter than during the production of the original cheese, of which the whey is a remnant.
The original ricotta is made of whey with the addition of a small amount of milk, but more ricotta has been made of whole milk as well. Whole-milk ricotta is popular in the USA, where whey ricotta is known by the name ricottone. Ricotta di Bufala Campana and Ricotta Romana are notable varieties produced in Italy and protected by the European Union's Protected Designation of Origin regulation. Ricotta di Bufala Campana is made from the whey left over after the production of Mozzarella di Bufala Campana, a protected variety of buffalo mozzarella. Ricotta Romana is made from the whey of sheep milk. Fresh ricotta can be subject to extra processing to produce variants which have a much longer shelf life; these production methods include salting, baking and further fermentation. Ricotta salata is a pressed, salted and aged variety of the cheese, it is firm and used for grating or shaving. Ricotta salata is sold in wheels, decorated by a delicate basket-weave pattern. Ricotta infornata is produced by placing a large lump of soft ricotta in the oven until it develops a brown charred crust, sometimes until it becomes sandy brown all the way through.
Ricotta infornata is popular in Sardinia and Sicily, is sometimes called ricotta al forno. Ricotta affumicata is similar to ricotta infornata and is produced by placing a lump of soft ricotta in a smoker until it develops a grey crust and acquires a charred wood scent of oak or chestnut wood, although, in Friuli, beech wood is used, with the addition of juniper and herbs. Ricotta forte known as ricotta scanta, is produced from leftovers of any combination of cow, goat, or sheep milk ricotta; these are allowed to age for about a year, during which the cheese is mixed every two or three days to prevent the growth of mold. Salt is added as well; the end result is a soft and creamy brown paste which has a pungent and piquant taste. It is sold in glass jars, it is mixed with tomato sauces for pasta, or added to vegetable dishes. Like mascarpone in northern Italian cuisine, ricotta is a favorite component of many Italian desserts, such as cheesecakes and cannoli. A variety of different cookies include ricotta as
The globe artichoke known as French artichoke and green artichoke in the USA, is a variety of a species of thistle cultivated as a food. The edible portion of the plant consists of the flower buds; the budding artichoke flower-head is a cluster of many budding small flowers, together with many bracts, on an edible base. Once the buds bloom, the structure changes to a coarse edible form. Another variety of the same species is the cardoon, a perennial plant native to the Mediterranean region. Both wild forms and cultivated varieties exist; this vegetable grows to 1.4–2 m tall, with arching lobed, glaucous-green leaves 50–82 cm long. The flowers develop in a large head from an edible bud about 8–15 cm diameter with numerous triangular scales; the edible portions of the buds consist of the fleshy lower portions of the involucral bracts and the base, known as the "heart". These are inedible in larger flowers. Artichoke contains luteolin; the total antioxidant capacity of artichoke flower heads is one of the highest reported for vegetables.
Cynarine is a chemical constituent in Cynara. The majority of the cynarine found in artichoke is located in the pulp of the leaves, though dried leaves and stems of artichoke contain it; the artichoke is mentioned as a garden plant in the 8th century BC by Hesiod. The occurring variant of the artichoke, the cardoon, native to the Mediterranean area has records of use as a food among the ancient Greeks and Romans. Pliny the Elder mentioned growing of ` carduus' in Cordoba. In North Africa, where it is still found in the wild state, the seeds of artichokes cultivated, were found during the excavation of Roman-period Mons Claudianus in Egypt. Varieties of artichokes were cultivated in Sicily beginning in the classical period of the ancient Greeks. In that period, the Greeks ate the leaves and flower heads, which cultivation had improved from the wild form; the Romans called. Further improvement in the cultivated form appears to have taken place in the medieval period in Muslim Spain and the Maghreb, although the evidence is inferential only.
Names for the artichoke in English and many other European languages today come from medieval Andalusi Arabic الخرشوف al-ḫaršūf, still used in Maghrebi Arabic Le Roy Ladurie, in his book Les Paysans de Languedoc, has documented the spread of artichoke cultivation in Italy and southern France in the late 15th and early 16th centuries, when the artichoke appeared as a new arrival with a new name, which may be taken to indicate an arrival of an improved cultivated variety: The blossom of the thistle, improved by the Arabs, passed from Naples to Florence in 1466, carried by Filippo Strozzi. Towards 1480 it is noticed as a curiosity, but soon veers towards the northwest... Artichoke beds are mentioned in Avignon by the notaries from 1532 onward; the local name remains carchofas, from the Italian carciofo... They are small, the size of a hen's egg... and are still considered a luxury, a vaguely aphrodisiac tidbit that one preserved in sugar syrup. The Dutch introduced artichokes to England, where they grew in Henry VIII's garden at Newhall in 1530.
They were taken to the United States in the 19th century—to Louisiana by French immigrants and to California by Spanish immigrants. Today, cultivation of the globe artichoke is concentrated in the countries bordering the Mediterranean basin; the main European producers are Italy and France and the main American producers are Argentina and the United States. In the United States, California provides nearly 100% of the U. S. crop, about 80% of, grown in Monterey County. Most artichokes have been grown in South Africa in a small town called Parys located along the Vaal River. Artichokes can be produced from seeds or from vegetative means such as division, root cuttings, or micropropagation. Although technically perennials that produce the edible flower during only the second and subsequent years, certain varieties of artichokes can be grown from seed as annuals, producing a limited harvest at the end of the first growing season in regions where the plants are not winter-hardy; this means home gardeners in northern regions can attempt to produce a crop without the need to overwinter plants with special treatment or protection.
The seed cultivar'Imperial Star' has been bred to produce in the first year without such measures. An newer cultivar,'Northern Star', is said to be able to overwinter in more northerly climates, survives subzero temperatures. Commercial culture is limited to warm areas in USDA hardiness zone 7 and above, it requires good soil, regular watering and feeding, frost protection in winter. Rooted suckers can be planted each year, so mature specimens can be disposed of after a few years, as each individual plant lives only a few years; the peak season for artichoke harvesting is the spring, but t
Cuisine of Corsica
The cuisine of Corsica is the traditional cuisine of the island of Corsica. It is based on the products of the island, due to historical and geographical reasons, has much in common with Italian cuisine, marginally with those of Nice and Provence; the geographic conformation of Corsica, with its eastern coast low, malaria-ridden, impossible to defend, forced the population to settle in the mountains of the interior. The agricultural products exported during antiquity reflect this situation: these were sheep, plus honey and tar, produced by the widespread forests. Moreover, the island was famous for its cheap wines, exported to Rome; the concentration of settlement in the interior, typical of the nearby Sardinia, lasted until the beginning of the 20th century. In the Middle Ages, more during the 12th century, when Pisa was Corsica's hegemonic power, the large immigration from nearby Tuscany brought to the island, together with the Tuscan language and dishes typical of that Italian region; when it was the turn of Genoa to dominate the island, a major shift in people's eating habits took place.
The reason for this decree was to give means of subsistence to island populations. Still at the beginning of the 17th century, the Genoese administrator Baliano wrote that the Corsicans were living on barley bread and pure water. Other decrees were given on the same line, such as that issued in 1619, which ordered that 10 chestnut trees had to be planted every year by each landowner and tenant, with time changed radically the landscape of whole regions of the island, with the total substitution of cereals with chestnuts. In the 18th century, the chestnut had completely replaced cereals. Above all, chestnut plantations radically changed the diet of the islanders, preserving them from the recurrent famines, it was so that the historian of Corsica Jakob Von Wittelieb could write that in the 1730s travelers in the island brought with them a flask filled with wine and a pocket containing a chestnut bread or some roasted chestnuts. An old Corsican proverb from upper Niolo asserts: Pane di legnu e vinu di petra, explaining well the central place occupied by the chestnut in Corsica's alimentation.
During the Corsican independence before the French annexation, Pasquale Paoli tried to enrich the diet of his countrymen encouraging the cultivation of the potato, so his political opponents ridiculed him, calling him Il Generale delle patate. The French annexation in 1768 brought at first a change in this situation. After a while, the cutting down of chestnut trees ended, so that until the beginning of 20th century, chestnut in the form of pancakes, bread, or porridge remained the staple food of the larger part of Corsican population. Next to chestnuts, at the end of 700, the basis of Corsican diet was given from cereals, dried vegetables, charcuterie. Anyway, there were exceptions: from a testimony of 1775, during that year the owners of Cap Corse vineyards used the revenue from the sale of their wine to buy Italian pasta and pork meat, cod, with those foodstuffs they ate all year round; the poor of the same region instead worked in the vineyards in the spring till the harvest, but in winter, they fed on wild herb soups.
A few during summer went to reap the corn in the malaria plain of Aleria, but after that they lost their health or life. At the end of the 18th century eating was therefore eminently plant-based: the mayor of Stazzona, in Castagniccia, answering a questionnaire on the way of life drawn by the French authorities mentions as basis of the diet of the village chestnut, of which he lists 12 different ways to treat it, he writes that from November to June, only chestnut bread was consumed, that the villagers owned vegetable gardens devoted to their feeding. The monotony of this diet was broken eating eels. After the beginning of the 20th century, the autarchic village economy based upon chestnut and other locally produced aliments as pork faded away because of several factors. In 1990, only 20,000 people lived still in 1000 m above sea level; these changes brought an abandonment of the production of traditional food. This situation could be only reverted due to the demand of local food coming from the many tourists visiting the island and to the establishment of higher quality standards in food production due to the AOC and AOP origin designations.
Large-scale cultivation of the chestnut tree was introduced in Corsica during the Genoese domination. Rich in calories, the fruits were plucked (
An osteria in Italy was a place serving wine and simple food. The emphasis has shifted to the food, but menus tend to be short, with the emphasis on local specialities such as pasta and grilled meat or fish served at shared tables. Osterie tend to be cheap, they cater for after work and evening refreshment. Osterie vary in practice: some only serve drinks and clients are allowed to bring in their own food, some have retained a predominantly male clientele whilst others have reached out to students and young professionals; some provide other entertainment. Similar to osterie are bottiglierie, where customers can take a bottle or flask to be re-filled from a barrel, enoteche which pride themselves on the range and quality of their wine. In Emilia-Romagna are located three of the oldest Italian osterie: "Osteria del Sole" and "Osteria del Cappello" in Bologna, "Osteria al Brindisi" in Ferrara, established between the 14th and 15th century. Trattoria Riley, Gillian; the Oxford Companion to Italian Food.
Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198606178. OCLC 87771396