The Roman provinces were the lands and people outside of Rome itself that were controlled by the Republic and the Empire. Each province was ruled by a Roman, appointed as governor. Although different in many ways, they were similar to the states in Australia or the United States, the regions in the United Kingdom or New Zealand, or the prefectures in Japan. Canada refers to some of its territory as provinces. A province was the basic and, until the tetrarchy, the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy; the word province in Modern English has its origins in the Latin term used by the Romans. Provinces were governed by politicians of senatorial rank former consuls or former praetors. A exception was the province of Egypt, incorporated by Augustus after the death of Cleopatra; this exception was unique, but not contrary to Roman law, as Egypt was considered Augustus' personal property, following the tradition of the kings of the earlier Hellenistic period.
The Latin term provincia had a more general meaning of "jurisdiction". The Latin word provincia meant any task or set of responsibilities assigned by the Roman Senate to an individual who held imperium, a military command within a specified theater of operations. Under the Roman Republic, the magistrates were elected to office for a period of one year, those serving outside the city of Rome, such as consuls acting as generals on a military campaign, were assigned a particular provincia, the scope of authority within which they exercised their command; the territory of a people who were defeated in war might be brought under various forms of treaty, in some cases entailing complete subjection. The formal annexation of a territory created a province, in the modern sense of an administrative unit, geographically defined. Republican-period provinces were administered in one-year terms by the consuls and praetors who had held office the previous year and who were invested with imperium. Rome started expanding beyond Italy during the First Punic War.
The first permanent provinces to be annexed were Sicilia in 241 BC and Corsica et Sardinia in 237 BC. Militarized expansionism kept increasing the number of these administrative provinces, until there were no longer enough qualified individuals to fill the posts; the terms of provincial governors had to be extended for multiple years, on occasion the senate awarded imperium to private citizens, most notably Pompey the Great. Prorogation undermined the republican constitutional principle of annual elected magistracies, the amassing of disproportionate wealth and military power by a few men through their provincial commands was a major factor in the transition from a republic to imperial autocracy. 241 BC – Sicilia taken over from the Carthaginians and annexed at the end of the First Punic War 237 BC – Corsica et Sardinia. It was annexed after a rebellion by the Achaean League. 146 BC – Africa home territory of Carthage. It was annexed following attacks on the allied Greek city of Massalia. 67 BC – Creta et Cyrenae.
However, it was not organised as a province. It was incorporated into the province of Creta et Cyrenae when Crete was annexed in 67 BC. 63 BC – Pontus et Bithynia. It was organised as a Roman province at the end of the Third Mithridatic War by Pompey, who incorporated the eastern part of the defeated Kingdom of Pontus into it in 63 BC. 63 BC – Syria. The Romans controlled only a small area. In 74 BC Lycia and Pamphylia were added to the small Roman possessions in Cilicia. Cilicia came under Roman control towards the end of the Third Mithridatic War – 73–63 BC; the province was reorganised by Pompey in 63 BC. Cyprus was annexed and added to this province in 58 BC. 46 BC – Africa Nova, Julius Caesar annexed eastern Numidia and the new province called Africa Nova to distinguish it from the older province of Africa, which become known as Africa Vetus. Gallia Cisalpina was a province in the sense of an area of military command, but was never a province in the sense of an administrative unit. During Rome's expansion in the Italian peninsula, the Romans assigned some areas as provinces in the sense of areas of military command assigne
Robert Mayer White was an American meteorologist. He headed several national organizations, including the United States Weather Bureau, the Environmental Science Services Administration, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Academy of Engineering, he graduated from Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and was a member of the French Legion of Honor. White was born in Boston and was an alumnus of Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, holding degrees in geology and meteorology, he was the director of the United States Weather Bureau from 1963 to 1965, the first and only administrator of the Environmental Science Services Administration from 1965 to 1970, the first administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration from 1970 to 1977, president of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research from 1980 to 1983, president of the National Academy of Engineering from 1983 to 1995. He was the first chairman of the World Climate Conference in 1979.
He is a member of the French Legion of Honor, received the International Meteorological Organization Prize in 1980 and the Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement in 1992. In 2014, he was honored by Congressman Frank R. Wolf for "groundbreaking contributions to the federal coordination of meteorology in the United States", he lived in Maryland. On October 14, 2015, he died of complications of dementia, his brother, Theodore H. White, was a historian
Indian Rocks Beach, or IRB, is a city in Pinellas County, United States. The population was 4,113 at the 2010 census. Indian Rocks Beach is part of the Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL Metropolitan Statistical Area, it has over two miles of beach with 27 beach accesses. Indian Rocks Beach is located at 27°53′45″N 82°50′51″W, it lies on a barrier island between the Gulf of the Intracoastal Waterway. It is south of Belleair Shore and Belleair Beach. Tourism is its primary industry, it was incorporated in 1956. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.4 square miles, of which 0.9 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 5,072 people, 2,700 households, 1,393 families residing in the city; the population density was 5,454.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 4,032 housing units at an average density of 4,336.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.18% White, 0.30% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.61% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 1.42% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.17% of the population. There were 2,700 households out of which 11.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 5.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.4% were non-families. 36.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.88 and the average family size was 2.39. In the city, the population was spread out with 10.1% under the age of 18, 4.3% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 36.9% from 45 to 64, 18.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $53,770, the median income for a family was $65,724. Males had a median income of $41,250 versus $31,833 for females; the per capita income for the city was $40,195. About 1.3% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 3.6% of those age 65 or over.
Casa Italia - between 26th and 27th Ave 18 On the Rocks - between 24th and 25th Ave Sandy's Restaurant - between 23rd and 24th Cafe de Paris Bakery - between 23rd and 24th Ave Thai-Pan Alley - between 23rd and 24th Ave Guppy's on the Beach - between 17th and 18th Ave, directly across Gulf Blvd from the main IRB beach access. Keegan's Seafood Grille - between 15th and 16th Ave TJ's Italian Cafe - between 15th and 16th Ave Chicago Jaqx Pizzeria and Taphouse - between 15th and 16th Ave Red Lion Pub - between 14th and 15th Ave Pinky's Ice Cream & Candy Shop - between 14th and 15th Ave Groupers IRB - between 14th and 15th Ave Salt Public House - between 13th and 14th Ave Pajanos Pizza & Subs - between 13th and 14th Ave Kooky Coconut - between 7th and 8th Ave Lulu's Oyster Bar & Tap House - North side of Walsingham Road P. J.'s Oyster Bar - South side of Walsingham Road Tropical Ice Cream and Coffee - between 4th and 5th Ave Ready Set Yo - between 4th and 5th Ave The Original Crabby Bill's - between 4th and 5th Ave Jimmy Guana's - between 3rd and 4th Ave Slyce Pizza Bar - between 3rd and 4th Ave Candy Kitchen - between 3rd and 4th Ave Los Mexicanos - between 3rd and 4th Ave Off the Grid - between 2nd and 3rd Ave Aqua Prime - between 2nd and 3rd JD's Resturaunt & Lounge - between 1st St and 2nd Ave Villa Gallace - between 1st St and 2nd Ave Nekton Surf Shop is between 13th and 14th Ave.
In addition to being a surf shop, you can rent paddle boards, surf boards, skim boards, kayaks. Indian Rocks Beach Boat Rentals is just south of the Walsingham Bridge, on the intracoastal waterway. You can rent motor boats. Indian Rocks Beach Historical Museum is located on 4th Ave; the museum's exhibits cover local history, it is operated by the Indian Rocks Historical Society. Splash Harbour Water Park is a Key West themed water amusement park for children and adults, located on 4th Ave. Island Surf Shop is a surf shop between 3rd and 4th Ave. From here, you can rent longboards, surf boards and skateboards. Brown Park is on Bay Blvd, just north of 27th Ave, on north end of Indian Rocks Beach, it has a playground and tennis courts. Kolb Park is home to Campalong Baseball Field, Indian Rocks Beach Skatepark, tennis courts, basketball courts, a large shaded playground area; this is wear a lot of city events take place, such as Oktoberfest. The park is across the street from the city hall, between 15th Ave and 16th Ave. Indian Rocks Beach Nature Preserve is located between 9th Ave and 10th Ave.
The preserve features multiple boardwalk trails, a dog park, a community garden. Chief Chic-A-Si Park is located on 4th Ave, it is home to the "Taste of IRB" event. Church of the Isles Calvary Episcopal Church Mobil Beach Art Center Indian rocks Beach Library Indian Rocks Beach City Hall Indian Rocks Tackle USA Grocers United States Post Office CVS Pinellas Suncoast Fire Rescue Turner "Tfue" Tenney, YouTuber with 11 million subscribers, Twitch streamer and a professional gamer. Sean Culkin, American football player Road Warrior Hawk, professional wrestler who had retired to Indian Rocks Beach George S