Roman square capitals called capitalis monumentalis, inscriptional capitals, elegant capitals and capitalis quadrata, are an ancient Roman form of writing, the basis for modern capital letters. Square capitals were used to write inscriptions, less to supplement everyday handwriting; when written in documents this style is known as Latin book hand. For everyday writing the Romans used a current cursive hand known as Latin cursive. Notable examples of square capitals used for inscriptions are found on the Roman Pantheon, Trajan's Column, the Arch of Titus, all in Rome. Square capitals are characterized by sharp, straight lines, supple curves and thin strokes, angled stressing and incised serifs; these Roman capitals are called majuscules, as a counterpart to minuscule letters such as Merovingian and Carolingian. Before the 4th century, square capitals were used to write de luxe copies of the works of authors categorized as "pagan" by Christians those of Virgil. After the 5th century the square capitals fell out of use, except as a display lettering for titles and chapter headings in conjunction with various script hands for body text: for example, uncials.
Square capitals were respected by artisans of the Renaissance such as Geoffroy Tory and Felice Feliciano. A few centuries they were a major inspiration for artisans of the Arts and Crafts movement such as Edward Johnston and Eric Gill, so many signs and engravings created with an intentionally artistic design in the twentieth century are based on them. Edward Catich is noted for the fullest development of the thesis that the inscribed Roman square capitals owed their form, including the serifs, wholly to the use of the flat brush, rather than to the exigencies of the chisel or other stone cutting tools. Although not universally accepted, the brushed-origin thesis had been proposed in the nineteenth century. Catich made a complete study and proposed a convincing ductus by which the forms were created, using a flat brush and chisel, he promulgated his views in two works, Letters Redrawn from the Trajan Inscription in Rome and The Origin of the Serif: Brush Writing and Roman Letters. During the early era of the movable type printing press, Roman square capitals became the primary inspiration for the capital letters in early serif typefaces.
Beth Koigi is a Kenyan entrepreneur working to improve the access of water for off-grid communities. Koigi is a founder of Majik Water, a company which aims to harvest drinking water from the air to serve communities across the world who are not able to access safe, clean drinking water. Koigi was born in Kimende in Kiambu County. Koigi earned a Bachelor of Science in Community Development, Project Planning and Management from Chuka University, a Masters in Project Planning and Management from the University of Nairobi. Following her bachelor's degree, she was a founder of Aqua Clean Initiative, founded in 2013. Koigi was awarded the Young Water Fellowship in September, 2018, has been a current associate fellow of the Royal Commonwealth Society, Nordic Baltic Hub since April 2015. Additionally, Koigi is a Grant Advisor for The Pollination Project since December 2015. Koigi is a founding member of Majik Water, founded in July 2017. Majik Water won the EDF Pulse Award Africa in 2017, Koigi was a shortlisted contender for the Royal Academy of Engineering Africa prize 2019.
She appeared at TEDxFasoKanu in 2019
The School of Military Science is an academic unit of the Namibian Defence Force. As per international norm the School is a military unit of the Namibian Defence Force and is co-located at the School of Military Science of the University of Namibia, it is an academic unit Namibian military and offers a variety of training ranging from undergraduate as well as postgraduate academic qualification. It provides officers from the branches-of-service an opportunity to earn a military science-oriented academic qualification. In 2012 it was announced that the Ministry of Defence and the UNAM agreed to twin up and come up with a degree level military science curriculum to provide cadet officers with a degree level qualification; the school is located at the University of Namibia main campus in Windhoek. Undergraduate offerings Bachelor of Military Science As of 2013, the University of Namibia and the military school jointly began offering the undergraduate Bachelor of Military Science degree with three specialization areas, Aeronautical and Nautical.
The Nautical specialization is sub-divided into an additional three fields: Nautical-Electronics, Nautical-Mechanical and Nautical-Weapon Systems. Postgraduate offerings Postgraduate diploma in Security and Strategic Studies Master of Arts in Security and Strategic Studies The MA-SSS programme was the first implemented as a joint curriculum between UNAM and the Ministry of Defence in 2007, it is a master's level degree. It enrolls senior officers of the Namibian military. In 2012 the postgraduate diploma in Security and Strategic Studies was initiated by the Ministry of Defence and UNAM as a "bridging" course to help students prepare for the tougher Master of Arts in Security and Strategic Studies degree course