Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a 14th-century historical novel attributed to Luo Guanzhong. It is set in the turbulent years towards the end of the Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history, starting in 169 AD and ending with the reunification of the land in 280; the story – part historical, part legend, part mythical – romanticises and dramatises the lives of feudal lords and their retainers, who tried to replace the dwindling Han dynasty or restore it. While the novel follows hundreds of characters, the focus is on the three power blocs that emerged from the remnants of the Han dynasty, would form the three states of Cao Wei, Shu Han, Eastern Wu; the novel deals with the plots and military battles and struggles of these states to achieve dominance for 100 years. Romance of the Three Kingdoms is acclaimed as one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature; the novel is among the most beloved works of literature in East Asia, its literary influence in the region has been compared to that of the works of Shakespeare on English literature.
It is arguably the most read historical novel in late imperial and modern China. According to Andrew H. Plaks, stories from the heroes of the Three Kingdoms was the basis of entertainment dating back to the Sui and Tang dynasty. Plaks states, "By Sung times several contemporary accounts inform us that there existed professional oral storytellers who specialized in the Three Kingdoms hero cycles." The earliest written work to combine these stories was a pinghua, Sanguozhi Pinghua, published sometime between 1321 and 1323. Romance of the Three Kingdoms is traditionally attributed to Luo Guanzhong, a playwright who lived sometime between 1315 and 1400 known for compiling historical plays in styles which were prevalent during the Yuan period, it was first printed in 1522 as Sanguozhi Tongsu Yanyi in an edition which bore a spurious preface date 1494. The text may well have circulated before either date in handwritten manuscripts. In any case, whether an earlier or date of composition, whether or not Luo Guanzhong was responsible, the author made use of available historical records, including the Records of the Three Kingdoms compiled by Chen Shou, which covered events from the Yellow Turban Rebellion in 184 to the unification of the Three Kingdoms under the Jin dynasty in 280.
The novel includes material from Tang dynasty poetic works, Yuan dynasty operas and his own personal interpretation of elements such as virtue and legitimacy. The author combined this historical knowledge with a gift for storytelling to create a rich tapestry of personalities. Several versions of the expanded Sanguozhi are extant today. Luo Guanzhong's version in 24 volumes, known as the Sanguozhi Tongsu Yanyi, is now held in the Shanghai Library in China, Tenri Central Library in Japan, several other major libraries. Various 10-volume, 12-volume and 20-volume recensions of Luo's text, made between 1522 and 1690, are held at libraries around the world. However, the standard text familiar to general readers is a recension by Mao Lun and his son Mao Zonggang. In the 1660s, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor in the Qing dynasty, Mao Lun and Mao Zonggang edited the text, fitting it into 120 chapters, abbreviating the title to Sanguozhi Yanyi; the text was reduced from 900,000 to 750,000 characters.
Scholars have long debated whether the Maos' viewpoint was pro-Qing. The famous opening lines of the novel, "The empire, long divided, must unite, thus it has been", long understood to be Luo's introduction and cyclical philosophy, were added by the Maos in their revised edition of 1679. None of the earlier editions contained this phrase. In addition, Mao added Yang Shen's The Immortals by the River as the famous introductory poem to the novel; the earlier editions, spend less time on the process of division, which they found painful, far more time on the process of reunification and the struggles of the heroes who sacrificed for it. One of the greatest achievements of Romance of the Three Kingdoms is the extreme complexity of its stories and characters; the novel contains numerous subplots. The following consists of some well-known highlights in the novel. In the final years of the Eastern Han dynasty, treacherous eunuchs and villainous officials deceived the emperor and persecuted good officials.
The government became corrupt on all levels, leading to widespread deterioration of the Han Empire. During the reign of Emperor Ling, the Yellow Turban Rebellion broke out under the leadership of Zhang Jiao; the rebellion was suppressed by imperial forces led by the general He Jin. Upon Emperor Ling's death, He Jin installed the young Emperor Shao on the throne and took control of the central government; the Ten Attendants, a group of influential court eunuchs, feared that He Jin was growing too powerful, so they lured him into the palace and assassinated him. In revenge, He Jin's supporters br
Richard Alan Dutcher is an American independent filmmaker who produces, directs and stars in his films. After making God's Army, a successful 2000 movie about LDS missionaries, Dutcher became well known among members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Film critic Jeff Vice, of the Deseret News, dubbed Dutcher "The Godfather of Mormon Cinema," a title, important for Dutcher. In 2007, Dutcher left the LDS Church. Dutcher was born in Illinois as Richard Hill, his family moved and at age seven his parents divorced. As a member of the LDS Church, Dutcher served a two-year mission in Mexico. Dutcher lived in his car during high school and was so financially strapped while attending college that he had to choose between eating and going to the movies; because of his love of film, he went to the movies. Dutcher graduated from Brigham Young University in 1988 with a degree in film. Dutcher was married in 1988 to Gwen, moving to Mapleton, Utah in 1999, they have seven children together. The third youngest is a local actor in central Oregon.
After 23 years of marriage, they divorced in 2011. Dutcher began work on his first feature film, Girl Crazy, in the early 1990s while living in an apartment in Van Nuys, California. Girl Crazy is a romantic comedy written by, directed by, starring Dutcher. Dutcher raised the budget of the movie shot it in and near his apartment building, he raised more money to finish the movie. It was a sweet story and it was fun, but it was such a long process," said Dutcher. "Probably a five-year process before I found a distributor. The movie had a brief run in 1997 on HBO and Cinemax. While the movie did not make enough money to pay off investors, it did begin Dutcher's feature filmmaking career. Of the movie, Dutcher said: I'm never going to spend five years of my life again on something so trivial, but if you like the movie – and if you do like it a lot, you have pretty low expectations – if you like it, you walk away and say, it was fun, it was 90 minutes of disposable fun, you'd forget about it. Nobody would be thinking about it the next day.
And I thought. The amount of work and sacrifice and time and risk... if I'm going to do that again, I am going to do that again, next time it's going to be for something that means something. Dutcher's next film was the 2000 indie smash God's Army. Distributed by Excel Entertainment Group, the movie grossed over ten times its $250,000 production budget. Dutcher produced, wrote and starred in this film about Mormon missionaries, focusing on a Mormon elder determined to finish his two-year mission though he is dying of brain cancer; the film debuted with a world premiere in Sandy and was taken on tour around North America for limited engagements to Mormon audiences, who were eager to see LDS characters portrayed on screen. The movie received mixed reviews by critics and holds a 50% Rotten Tomato score; the success of God's Army among Mormon audiences is credited for launching the LDS Cinema movement of the early to mid-2000s, a small film niche of LDS movies made by and for Mormon audiences. Dutcher followed this film in 2001 with Brigham City, a movie about the search for a serial murderer in a small Utah town which has never had a murder before.
As with God's Army, Dutcher wrote and cast himself as the lead, while Excel Entertainment Group distributed the film. The movie explores how residents of a close-knit religious community, who are LDS, react to and deal with the situation. Overall, Brigham City garnered better reviews with critics than God's Army, earning a 71% Rotten Tomato score, but only grossed $852,206 during its theatrical run, far less than God's Army, despite being made with a much higher budget. In 2003, Dutcher announced his most ambitious movie project to date: The Prophet, a biopic about the life of LDS Church founder Joseph Smith, based on a screenplay written by Dutcher. In a press conference held in Utah, Dutcher called the movie "the Mount Everest of Mormon filmmaking" and said that he planned to do "the bulk of the filming" in 2004 for a 2005 theatrical release, he announced that both Val Kilmer and F. Murray Abraham had agreed to portray Joseph Smith and Gov. Thomas Ford of Illinois, respectively; the budget of the movie was projected at more than $12 million.
The movie was never made. Dutcher's next film, States of Grace, was released November 4, 2005; this film follows a set of missionaries in Los Angeles caught in the middle of gang warfare. States of Grace received the highest percentage of positive reviews of any Dutcher movie holding an 82% Rotten Tomato score. Wade Major of Boxofficemagazine wrote of the director, "Dutcher has joined the ranks of the best independent filmmakers in the world." However, the movie was Dutcher's lowest-grossing movie up until that time. States of Grace grossed $203,144 during its theatrical run, less than one-tenth the theatrical gross of God's Army. Dutcher's next film, tells the story of a Hollywood videographer, Eric Boyle, who stumbles across a gang murder and sells the footage to a Los Angeles news station for a small fortune. Boyle's life falls apart when the exposed gang members come after anyone with a connection to the incriminating footage. In an interview, Dutcher said that this was the most personal of all his works, that he would self-distribute the film.
The movie was shown on a single screen in Utah for one
Sylvin Farms Winery is a winery in the Germania section of Galloway Township in Atlantic County, New Jersey. The vineyard was first planted in 1977, opened to the public in 1985. Sylvin Farms has 11 acres of grapes under cultivation, produces 1,000 cases of wine per year; the winery’s name is an amalgamation of Sylvia and sylvan, reflecting the owner's wife's name and the surrounding Pine Barrens, respectively. Sylvin Farms Winery was a pioneer in the growing of vinifera grapes in New Jersey, rather than French hybrid or native labrusca grapes. Sylvin Farms is located in the Outer Coastal Plain AVA, produces wine from Barbera, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Corvina, Merlot, Muscat Ottonel, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Pinot noir, Rkatsiteli, Sauvignon blanc, Sémillon, Tempranillo and Zinfandel grapes, it is the only winery in New Jersey that produces wine from Corvina and Pinot Blanc – Corvina is a red grape indigenous to the Veneto region of Italy, whereas Pinot blanc is a white grape native to the Alsace region of France.
Sylvin Farms has a farm winery license from the New Jersey Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control, which allows it to produce up to 50,000 gallons of wine per year, operate up to 15 off-premises sales rooms, ship up to 12 cases per year to consumers in-state or out-of-state. The winery is a member of the Garden State Wine Growers Association and the Outer Coastal Plain Vineyard Association. Alcohol laws of New Jersey American wine Judgment of Princeton List of wineries and distilleries in New Jersey New Jersey Farm Winery Act New Jersey Wine Industry Advisory Council New Jersey wine Garden State Wine Growers Association Outer Coastal Plain Vineyard Association
Jimmy Mak's was a jazz club in Portland, Oregon's Pearl District, in the United States. It was established in 1996 and closed on December 31, 2016. Jimmy Mak's opened in 1996. Owners included aka Jimmy Mak, his wife and his parents; the jazz club hosted many groups, including some led by Dan Balmer. In February 2016, the building which housed Jimmy Mak's was sold for development; the club’s final performance was held Dec. 31, 2016. Makarounis died two days at age 53, he made plans to relocate the club to the intersection of Northwest 10th and Everett, in 2017. However, in November 2016, Makarounis announced that the venue's last show would be on December 31, he told The Oregonian: It is with a heavy heart I make this announcement... As many of you know, I have been battling larynx cancer for these past four years, I need to step away from the business to focus on healing and beating this disease and for all... This is the last thing I wanted to see happen with the business, we have explored many options for trying to keep the business open and to try to find another operator or group of investors that could keep the business going.
We have not been able to do so. Makarounis confirmed Jimmy Mak's availability if someone wanted to re-open the club after a funded relocation; the venue's closure marked an end to Portland's most prominent jazz performance space. There are plans to reopen Jimmy Mak's in the Pearl District in 2019. Blue Monk, another defunct Portland jazz club and restaurant Brasserie Montmartre, another defunct Portland jazz club and restaurant Jack London Revue List of jazz clubs List of jazz venues in the United States Media related to Jimmy Mak's at Wikimedia Commons Official website
John Scott, 1st Earl of Clonmell PC KC SL, known as The Lord Earlsfort between 1784 and 1789 and as The Viscount Clonmell between 1789 and 1793, was an Irish barrister and judge. Sometimes known as "Copperfaced Jack", he was Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench for Ireland from 1784 to 1798. Scott was the third son of Thomas Scott of Scottsborough, County Tipperary, by his wife, daughter of Mark Prim of Johnswell, County Kilkenny, his parents were cousins, being two of the grandchildren of Nicholas Purcell, 13th Baron of Loughmoe. His elder brother was the uncle of Bernard Phelan, who established Château Phélan Ségur, Dean John Scott, who first planted the gardens open to the public at Ballyin, County Waterford and was married to a niece of Clonmell's political ally, Henry Grattan. While at Kilkenny College, John Scott stood up to the tormentor of a boy named Hugh Carleton, who grew up to be Viscount Carleton of Clare, Scott's fellow Chief Justice, they became firm friends, Carleton's father, known as the'King of Cork', due to his wealth and influence, invited him to their home and became Scott's patron.
In 1756, Mr Carleton sent both the young men off, with equal allowances, to study at Trinity College and the Middle Temple in London. On being called to the Irish Bar in 1765, Scott's eloquence secured him a position that enabled him to pay £300 a year to his patron, Francis Carleton, who through a series of disappointments had at the same time as Scott's success been declared bankrupt, he continued to gratefully support his patron until Hugh Carleton was financially able to insist that he take up the payments to his father. Scott in life turned against Hugh, describing him in his diary as a "worthless wretch". Admitted to King's Inns in 1765, he was entitled to practice as a Barrister. In 1769 he was elected as the Member of Parliament for Mullingar, a seat he held until 1783; the following year he was made a K. C. In 1772 he was Counsel to the Board of Revenue, an lucrative office: in return he was expected to defend the Government's policy, which he did with great energy. In 1774 he was appointed Solicitor-General for Ireland.
Three years he was elected a Privy Councillor and Attorney-General for Ireland. He was dismissed from the latter position in 1782 for refusing to acknowledge the right of England to legislate for Ireland. In 1775, he was awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Law by Dublin, he held the office of Prime Serjeant-at-Law of Ireland between 1777 and 1782. He was Clerk of the Pleas of the Court of Exchequer in 1783 and was elected Member of Parliament for Portarlington between 1783 and 1784. In 1784, Scott was created 1st Baron Earlsfort of Lisson-Earl, County Tipperary, following his appointment to Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench. In 1789, he was created 1st Viscount Clonmell, of Clonmel, County Tipperary and in 1793 he was created 1st Earl of Clonmell. By the 1790s he had an annual income of £20,000. Due to heavy drinking and overeating he became grossly overweight, this no doubt contributed to his early death, although his diary shows that he made frequent good resolutions about living a more temperate life.
He wrote that too many of his colleagues, including Philip Tisdall, his predecessor as Attorney General, had died through failing to moderate their drinking as they grew older, but it seems that he could not take his own good advice. His heavy drinking is thought to have been responsible for the red face which earned him the nickname "Copper-faced Jack". According to fencing author Captain Anthony Gordon, the idea for the invention of bayonet fencing in Ireland came from Scott, was only developed and propagated by Gordon; the Irish fencing treatise "A Few Mathematical and Critical Remarks on the Sword", is dedicated to Scott. In its opening pages, the author writes to him: "if I knew but one man in the kingdom, to have a sounder judgment and a finer imagination, a more humane and expanded heart, a more spirited and judicious arm, I should have been still more presumtuous than I am, in prefixing YOUR NAME to so trifling a production." During his time as Attorney General, Scott publicly defended the custom of dueling, encouraged legal tolerance towards duelists who had acted honorably and fought for good cause.
However, Scott acted unfavorably towards the notorious duelist George Robert "Fighting" Fitzgerald, who published a poem while in prison lampooning and attacking Scott. He regarded most of his judicial colleagues with suspicion and dislike, which extended to former friends like Hugh Carleton. Of his junior colleagues in the Court of King's Bench, he admired Samuel Bradstreet, but dismissed William Henn as a fool, while John Bennett, a man noted for independence of mind, he marked down as an enemy. After 1792, following the death of Bennett and the retirement of Henn, Scott became complete master in his own court, his rival William Downes, 1st Baron Downes, who became Lord Chief Justice in 1803, he described as "cunning and vain, one who wishes me ill". In Court his manner was arrogant, he treated barristers with a complete lack of courtesy, his rudeness to one barrister called Hackett led to the Bar passing a resolution that no barrister would appear in his Court until he apologised. Clonmell had no choice.
In 1797, in the last conversation he would have with his wife's cousin, Valentine Lawless, 2nd Baron Cloncurry, he exclaimed:'My dear Val, I have been a fortunate
Dom Fernando I of Braganza was the 2nd Duke of Braganza and the 1st Marquis of Vila Viçosa, among other titles. He took part in the Portuguese conquests in North Africa and served as governor of different territories there. Born in 1403, Fernando I was the son of Afonso, 1st Duke of Beatriz Pereira de Alvim; when still a child, he received the title of 3rd Count of Arraiolos from his grandfather Nuno Alvares Pereira. In 1432, young Fernando I was called upon by King John I of Portugal for consultation on a project, promoted by the King's son, Prince Henry the Navigator, to launch a campaign of conquest against the Marinid sultante of Morocco. Fernando advised against the project; when the project was raised again during the reign of King Edward of Portugal in 1436, Fernando reiterated his objections. Nonetheless, despite his opposition, King Edward appointed him as constable of the nobles for the 1437 expedition to seize Tangier. Although the expedition was under the overall command of his brother Prince Henry, King Edward felt that Fernando's military expertise was necessary to make up for his brother's inexperience.
After failing to conquer the city by assault, the Portuguese expeditionary army was surrounded and starved into submission by a Moroccan relief army. In return for being allowed to withdraw his troops unmolested, Henry agreed to a treaty to deliver Ceuta back to the Marinids. For the fulfillment of the treaty, Prince Henry handed over his own brother, Ferdinand the Saint Prince, as a hostage to the Moroccans. Back in Portugal, Fernando I led the opposition to this treaty. At the Cortes of Leiria assembled by King Edward early in 1438, he rallied the nobles and took to the floor, urging them to refuse the surrender of Ceuta back to the Marinids, he claimed that the treaty was signed under invalid. It was because of Fernando's energetic campaign that the Cortes rejected ratification and made known to the King to find some other way of securing his brother Prince Ferdinand's release. Fernando I was nominated Governor of Ceuta from 1445 until 1450. By royal decree dated from 25 May 1455, King Afonso V of Portugal granted Fernando I the new title of 1st Marquis of Vila Viçosa.
In 1458, Fernando I took part, along with his sons, in the expedition that conquered the Moroccan city of Alcácer Ceguer. In 1460, as his older brother, Marquis of Valença, died without legitimate issue, Fernando I became the 5th Count of Ourém and the House of Braganza's heir. One year following the death of his father in 1461, he became the 2nd Duke of Braganza, 9th Count of Barcelos, 3rd Count of Neiva, 3rd Count of Faria, he established his seat at the primitive Castle of Vila Viçosa. In 1471, when King Afonso V took to North Africa to conquer the city of Arzila, Fernando I remained in mainland Portugal as regent of the kingdom. Fernando I married on 28 December 1429, Joana de Castro, Lady of Cadaval, they had nine children. Marquis of Vila Viçosa Count of Neiva ”Nobreza de Portugal e do Brasil” – Vol. II, page 439. Published by Zairol Lda. Lisbon 1989. Genealogical information on Fernando I of Braganza Media related to Ferdinand I of Braganza at Wikimedia Commons