The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006. As a seventh-generation console, the Wii competed with Microsoft's Xbox 360 and Sony's PlayStation 3. Nintendo states; as of the first quarter of 2016, the Wii led its generation over the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 in worldwide sales, with more than 101 million units sold. The Wii introduced the Wii Remote controller, which can be used as a handheld pointing device and which detects movement in three dimensions; the console runs games supplied on Wii optical discs. It supported the now discontinued WiiConnect24 service, which enabled Wii to receive messages and updates over the Internet while in standby mode. Like other seventh-generation consoles it supported a service, called "Virtual Console", that downloaded emulated games from past Nintendo consoles, support for online video streaming such as BBC iPlayer, other services provided by Nintendo over the Internet. Internet services were withdrawn. Wii Points could no longer be purchased after March 2018, could not be used and were permanently lost from 31 January 2019.
The Wii succeeded the GameCube. Nintendo first spoke of the console at the E3 2004 press conference and unveiled it at E3 2005. Nintendo CEO Satoru Iwata revealed a prototype of the controller at the September 2005 Tokyo Game Show. At E3 2006, the console won the first of several awards. By December 8, 2006, it had completed its launch in the four key markets. Models are no longer compatible with Nintendo GameCube. In late 2011, Nintendo released a reconfigured model, the "Wii Family Edition", not released in Japan; the Wii Mini, Nintendo's first major console redesign since the compact SNES, succeeded the standard Wii model and was released first in Canada on December 7, 2012. The Wii Mini can only play Wii optical discs, as it has neither GameCube compatibility nor any networking capabilities; the Wii's successor, the Wii U, was released on November 18, 2012. On October 20, 2013, Nintendo confirmed it had discontinued production of the Wii in Japan and Europe; the console was conceived in 2001.
According to an interview with Nintendo game designer Shigeru Miyamoto, the concept involved focusing on a new form of player interaction. "The consensus was. Too many powerful consoles can't coexist. It's like having only ferocious dinosaurs, they might fight and hasten their own extinction."In 2003, game engineers and designers were brought together to develop the concept further. By 2005 the controller interface had taken form, but a public showing at that year's Electronic Entertainment Expo was canceled. Miyamoto stated. So we decided not to reveal the controller and instead we displayed just the console." Nintendo president Satoru Iwata unveiled and demonstrated the Wii Remote at the September Tokyo Game Show. The Nintendo DS is said to have influenced the Wii's design. Designer Ken'ichiro Ashida noted, "We had the DS on our minds as we worked on the Wii. We thought about copying the DS's touch-panel interface and came up with a prototype." The idea was rejected because of the notion that the two gaming systems would be identical.
Miyamoto stated, " if the DS had flopped, we might have taken the Wii back to the drawing board." In June 2011 Nintendo unveiled the prototype of its successor to the Wii, to be known as the Wii U. The console was known by the code name "Revolution" from May 11, 2004 when its codename was announced at Nintendo's 2004 pre-Electronics Entertainment Expo press conference in Los Angeles, California until April 27, 2006 before E3. Before the Wii's codename was announced, the media referred to the console as "GCNext" or Gamecube Next and "N5" or Nintendo's fifth major home console. Nintendo's spelling of "Wii" is intended to resemble two people standing side-by-side and to represent the Wii Remote and Nunchuk. One reason the company has given for this name choice since the announcement is: Some video game developers and members of the press stated that they preferred "Revolution" over "Wii". Forbes expressed a fear "that the name would convey a continued sense of'kidiness' to the console." The BBC reported the day after the name was announced that "a long list of puerile jokes, based on the name," had appeared on the Internet.
Nintendo of America's Vice President of Corporate Affairs Perrin Kaplan defended the choice of "Wii" over "Revolution" and responded to critics of the name, stating "Live with it, sleep with it, eat with it, move along with it and they'll arrive at the same place." Nintendo of America's president Reggie Fils-Aime acknowledged the initial reaction and further explained the change: The Nintendo Style Guide refers to the console as "simply Wii, not Nintendo Wii", making it the first home console Nintendo has marketed outside Japan without the company name in its trademark. The Wii's successor, the Wii U, was marketed without Nintendo in its name, although its successor, the Nintendo Switch, brought back the Nintendo name in marketing. On September 14, 2006 Nintendo announced release information for J
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
Famitsu Famicom Tsūshin, is a line of Japanese video game magazines published by Enterbrain, Inc. and Tokuma. Famitsu is published in both weekly and monthly formats as well as in the form of special topical issues devoted to only one console, video game company, or other theme. Shūkan Famitsū, the original Famitsū publication, is considered the most read and respected video game news magazine in Japan. From October 28, 2011 Enterbrain began releasing the digital version of the magazine on BookWalker weekly; the first issue of Famitsū was published on June 1986 as Famicom Tsūshin. It was published semiregularly thereafter, going through periods of monthly and quarterly publication. On July 19, 1991 the magazine was renamed to Shūkan Famicom Tsūshin and issues were published weekly thereafter. Alongside the weekly magazine, a monthly version called Gekkan Famicom Tsūshin was published. At the start of 1996 the magazines underwent another name change, truncating their titles to Shūkan Famitsū and Gekkan Famitsū.
The magazine was published by ASCII from its founding through March 2000 when it was sold to Enterbrain, Inc. The name Famitsū is a portmanteau abbreviation of Famicom Tsūshin; the first issue was published on June 6, 1986. Today, Shūkan Famitsū features multi-platform coverage. Shūkan Famitsū is a weekly publication concentrating on video game news and reviews, is published every Thursday with a circulation of 500,000 per issue. Gekkan Famitsū is published monthly. Famitsū magazine covers alternately feature pop idols or actresses on even-numbered issues and the Famitsū mascot, Necky the Fox in odd-numbered issues. Year-end and special editions all feature Necky dressed as popular contemporary video game characters. Necky is the cartoon creation of artist Susumu Matsushita, he takes the form of a costumed fox; the costumes worn by Necky reflect current popular video games. Necky's name was chosen according to a reader poll, it derives from a complex Japanese pun: "Necky" is the reverse of the Japanese word for fox, キツネ, his original connection to Famicom Tsūshin is intended to evoke the bark of the fox, the Japanese onomatopoeia of, コンコン.
Necky makes a cameo appearance in Super Mario Maker. Famitsū publishes other magazines dedicated to particular consoles. In circulation are: Entamikusu is written for an older audience and covers retrogaming, it has been published monthly since November 2010. Famitsū Connect! On reports on online gaming. Famitsū DS+Wii reports on Nintendo platforms; the magazine was known as Famitsū 64 and Famitsū Cube based on whatever platforms Nintendo was producing games for at the time. Famitsū GREE reports on mobile gaming via GREE. Famitsū Mobage reports on mobile gaming via Mobage. Famitsū spin-offs that are no longer in circulation include: Famitsū Bros. was written for younger audiences and concentrated on video game hints and strategy. It was published monthly and went defunct in September 2002. Famicomi was a comic and manga magazine published irregularly between 1992 and 1995. Famitsū DC covered the Dreamcast. Previous incarnations of this magazine included Sega Saturn Tsūshin which covered the Sega Saturn, with earlier issues covering earlier Sega platforms.
Famitsū Sister covered bishōjo games. Satellaview Tsūshin covered the Satellaview, it was published monthly and ran for only 12 issues from May 1995 to May 1996. Its inaugural issue was the May 1995 issue of Gekkan Famicom Tsūshin. Virtual Boy Tsūshin covered the Virtual Boy. Only one issue was published in 1995. Famitsū PS began publication in May 1996, reported on Sony platforms news, it was known as Famitsū PS2 and Famitsū PSP+PS3 before being discontinued in March 2010. Famitsū Wave DVD covered events and previews; each magazine included a DVD disc with video game footage. It was published monthly and went defunct in May 2011. Famitsū Xbox 360 reported on Xbox 360 news, it went defunct in 2013. Video games are graded in Famitsū via a "Cross Review" in which a panel of four video game reviewers each give a score from 0 to 10; the scores of the four reviewers are added up for a maximum possible score of 40. From the twenty-four games awarded with a perfect score as of 2017, three are for the Nintendo DS and five are for the Wii.
The PlayStation 3 has five games with a perfect score and the Xbox 360 has four, with both consoles having four titles in common. The others are for different platforms with only one title each. Franchises with multiple perfect score winners include The Legend of Zelda with four titles, Metal Gear with three titles, Final Fantasy with two titles; the most recent game to receive a perfect score is Dragon Quest XI. As of 2016, all but two games with perfect scores are from Japanese companies, nine being published/developed by Nintendo, four by Square Enix, three by Sega, three by Konami and one by Capcom; as of 2016, the only two foreign games to achieve a perfect score are The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim by Bethesda Softworks and Grand Theft Auto V, from Rockstar Games. Other foreign games that have achieved near-perfect scores are L. A. Noire, Red Dead Redemption and Grand Theft Auto IV – all three of which came from Rockstar Games.
Romancing SaGa 2
Romancing SaGa 2 is a role-playing video game developed by Square and released for the Super Famicom in Japan on December 10, 1993. It is the fifth title in the SaGa series. In March 2010 the Super Famicom version was released on the Wii Virtual Console in Japan. In January 2014 the game was released on the Wii U Virtual Console in Japan, it was released on the Nintendo 3DS Virtual Console in Japan in August 2017. In Romancing SaGa 2, the player plays as the Emperor or Empress of Avalon, a castle located in the northwest corner of the game's world map; the Treasurer, in the throne room, tells the player the fund reserve in her castle treasury. Development of new equipment and spells, establishment of services in Avalon will consume funds; the Treasurer fills the Emperor with walking about funds if the player needs it. In the throne room is the Accountant, he tells the player how much money she collects per battle. When the player controls more land on the map, the amount increases. In the southeast corner of the throne room is the Chancellor.
He tells the player where to solve them. Solving the problems he points out aids the player to advance to the next generation; the Fighters are the default characters. They are not the best characters, but as the player advances through the game, he or she will get other characters who specialize in areas that the Fighters are weak in; the Formation Soldiers demonstrate any battle formations the player happens to know and will collaborate with the player to make new formations. If the heir the player chooses knows a formation, it is recommended that the player consult the Formation Soldiers. Throughout the game the player will be able to expand the capital, they will not appear until the player cleared a generation though after accepting the offers to start the public works. The Emperor or Empress of Avalon begins the game as King Leon and plays as his various heirs down through the game years. Leon hands his kingdom over to Gellard. At the end of Gellard's reign, the player is able to choose his or her own successor and pass on Gellard's abilities to them.
At the end of each generation, he or she will be given a choice of four heirs. Their identity is based on a combination of chance and anyone whom the player has assisted or allied within in a past generation. Major characters: Bard: A recurring character throughout the SaGa series, he begins the game by rekindling the tale of the Empire of Avalon and the battle of the Seven Heroes. Waib: The woman who gifted the Avalon Dynasty with Inheritance magic. Leon: The First Emperor of Avalon, killed by Kzinssie during a retaliation against him. Victor: Leon's eldest son, killed by Kzinssie during his assault on Avalon. Gerard: Youngest son of Leon. Hiraga: A scientist who lives in Somon. Coppelia: An android that resides in Somon a few generations after Kzinssie is defeated, she can only be used once in the game, so it must be chosen when to recruit her. King Harold: Ruler of Douglas of Cumberland. George: King Harold's eldest son. Sofia: King Harold's daughter. Toma: Youngest son of King Harold. Lord Ato: Lord that rules Chontou Castle.
Sekishusai: Retainer to Lord Ato. Final Emperor/Empress: The culmination of the Avalon Dynasty's Inheritance magic. At the start of the game he/she will be at the same bar where the bard retells the Empire's battle against the Seven Heroes; the main villains of the game are the Seven Heroes who saved the world from a great and terrible evil vanished without a trace for centuries, before returning all turned into demons. Avalon royal family fights them through successive generations, defeating them one-by-one: Kzinssie: A floating demon with a scarf covering his face, wielding a sword. Can steal life energy or souls. Defeated by Gerard, he returns in the Final Scenario with an more grotesque appearance than when first met. Wagnas: A hero with both angelic and butterfly-like characteristics, the feminine-looking Lord Wagnas is male, he enslaves the Iris race to do his bidding, resides in a floating castle above the Eastern Kingdom. Dantarg: With features reminiscent of both elephants and sauropods as well as that of the mythical centaur, Lord Dantarg is one of the most physically powerful of the Seven Heroes.
He terrorizes the migratory clans, prefers devastating physical attacks, including Grand Slam. He is the only hero with four different forms, depending on the time in which the character fights him. Bokhohn: A puppeteer demon with an elderly appearance, Bokhohn is in control of the majority of the Seven Heroes' forces. Situated in the Steppes region, he owns complete with innumerable slaves, his special technique allows him to manipulate all party members. Subier: A male octopus-human hybrid that controls various minions in the ocean. Defeating the narwhal known as Master of Ocean will unleash Subier's more powerful form. Noel: A swordsman who always keeps his word. Powerful, with a strict code of honor. If the player defeats Rocbouquet before a fight, he becomes unwilling to compromise, becomes unrelenting in combat. Rocbouquet: The only female of the Seven, she controls all the men in the Jungle villages. While there, she aspires to know the secret of a nearby temple, her Temptation skill charms all male party members.
Final Fantasy Legend III
Final Fantasy Legend III is a role-playing video game developed and published by Square Co. for the Game Boy handheld system as the third game of their SaGa series. Released for Japanese audiences in December 1991, the game was made available in North America nearly two years in August 1993. While the title retains many similarities to its predecessors in terms of style and gameplay, the game's development was headed by series newcomer Chihiro Fujioka, who served as composer alongside Ryuji Sasai; the North American version of the game saw a re-release alongside the two other Final Fantasy Legend titles in July 1998 courtesy of Sunsoft. In 2010, an enhanced remake of the game was announced for the Nintendo DS titled SaGa 3 Jikū no Hasha: Shadow or Light, featuring three-dimensional graphics, new story elements, an arranged soundtrack; the story of Final Fantasy Legend III combines fantasy and sci-fi elements, with the player assuming the role of three characters who were sent back in time to prevent a massive global flood caused by a being known as the Pureland Water Entity from destroying the world.
To accomplish their mission, the three heroes, along with companions aiding them on their journey, must travel through time by augmenting their flying time ship, the Talon, with 13 upgrade units from the past and future. Interface for the game is a basic menu system. Players can view information from a character menu pressing Start. During combat, the player gives battle orders with menu's for each character in turn; the directional pad moves an image of a character representing the party while not in combat. Information is learned by talking to monsters. Final Fantasy Legend III instead of choosing character classes at the start of the game, a character's class may change by eating the meat of monsters and beasts, or installing the parts of cyborgs and robots after they are defeated in battle. Doing so will effect a change in the character's class; each character starts at their default class, when fed meat will transform into a beast, a monster. When parts are installed into a character he/she will become a cyborg, a robot.
Meat and parts counter each other: if a Beast has parts installed, he will revert to the default class. Each class has specific weak and strong points. A creature known as the Pureland Water Entity engulfed the world in a great flood; the entity drew monsters onto the land and low lying cities have been abandoned. As a party of four warriors sets out to confront the entity, several youths from the future arrive to help, it is realized that the Entity's destruction is occurring in the past and future as well; the group collects pieces of the ship Talon in the past and future to defeat the Entity. Permanent party members Arthur – The main character of the game, he was sent back in time from the future to the present. He starts out as a human fighter. Curtis – A mutant, sent along with Arthur from the future, he is proficient in casting black magic. Gloria – A mutant, sent along with Curtis and Arthur from the future, she is a skilled user of white magic. Sharon – The granddaughter of the Elder of Dharm in the present.
She is raised by her grandfather, along with the three youths sent from the future. She starts out as a human fighter. Non-permanent party members, described in the game's instruction manual as "non-player characters" or "NPCs" Myron- A powerful human warrior who grows up with and trains the party. Lara- A young girl raised by Granny of Elan, she is brainwashed by Dogra, but Arthur saves her. Dion- A small boy of Dharm who grows up to be a rebel leader in the future. Faye- A small girl of Dharm who grows up as a powerful warrior and the only person who can take Xcalibur from Zhaakal. Borgin- An influential leader in the future, Borgin masterminds the plan to combat Pureland by sending Arthur and the youths back in time, to the present; the game was the first project by Square's Osaka development department, who were responsible for production of Final Fantasy Mystic Quest. Producer Chihiro Fujioka noted that in addition to creating the game, they were establishing themselves as a department, as a result a great deal of effort was put into the game.
The team decided to overcome the Game Boy's limitations by leaving some aspects to the player's imagination instead. In the case of graphics, this meant establishing first an object its shadows, allowing the player to visualize the missing colors themselves; as Fujioka worked on the game's programming, composer Ryuji Sasai stated he would handle the game's music. Sasai compared the limitations with the audio to a guitar capable of only six tones, though the cartridge capacity for the Game Boy at the time provided some difficulty; as a result, they concentrated on smaller songs, reducing the length of the tracks until they felt the music gave the proper impression. The English translation of Final Fantasy Legend III was the first project of translator Ted Woolsey at Square, given Final Fantasy II's translated script as an example and instructed to ensure "there
Android (operating system)
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google. It is based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software, is designed for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. In addition, Google has further developed Android TV for televisions, Android Auto for cars, Wear OS for wrist watches, each with a specialized user interface. Variants of Android are used on game consoles, digital cameras, PCs and other electronics. Developed by Android Inc. which Google bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007, with the first commercial Android device launched in September 2008. The operating system has since gone through multiple major releases, with the current version being 9 "Pie", released in August 2018. Google released the first Android Q beta on all Pixel phones on March 13, 2019; the core Android source code is known as Android Open Source Project, is licensed under the Apache License. Android is associated with a suite of proprietary software developed by Google, called Google Mobile Services that frequently comes pre-installed in devices, which includes the Google Chrome web browser and Google Search and always includes core apps for services such as Gmail, as well as the application store and digital distribution platform Google Play, associated development platform.
These apps are licensed by manufacturers of Android devices certified under standards imposed by Google, but AOSP has been used as the basis of competing Android ecosystems, such as Amazon.com's Fire OS, which use their own equivalents to GMS. Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013; as of May 2017, it has over two billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system, as of December 2018, the Google Play store features over 2.6 million apps. The name Andrew and the noun Android share the Greek root andros. Andy Rubin picked android.com as his personal website, his colleagues used Android as his nickname at work. That became the name of the company he founded, the name of the operating system they developed. Android Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California, in October 2003 by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears, Chris White. Rubin described the Android project as "tremendous potential in developing smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences".
The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, this was the basis of its pitch to investors in April 2004. The company decided that the market for cameras was not large enough for its goals, by five months it had diverted its efforts and was pitching Android as a handset operating system that would rival Symbian and Microsoft Windows Mobile. Rubin had difficulty attracting investors early on, Android was facing eviction from its office space. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope, shortly thereafter wired an undisclosed amount as seed funding. Perlman refused a stake in the company, has stated "I did it because I believed in the thing, I wanted to help Andy."In July 2005, Google acquired Android Inc. for at least $50 million. Its key employees, including Rubin and White, joined Google as part of the acquisition. Not much was known about the secretive Android at the time, with the company having provided few details other than that it was making software for mobile phones.
At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradeable system. Google had "lined up a series of hardware components and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation". Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. An early prototype had a close resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touchscreen and a physical QWERTY keyboard, but the arrival of 2007's Apple iPhone meant that Android "had to go back to the drawing board". Google changed its Android specification documents to state that "Touchscreens will be supported", although "the Product was designed with the presence of discrete physical buttons as an assumption, therefore a touchscreen cannot replace physical buttons". By 2008, both Nokia and BlackBerry announced touch-based smartphones to rival the iPhone 3G, Android's focus switched to just touchscreens.
The first commercially available smartphone running Android was the HTC Dream known as T-Mobile G1, announced on September 23, 2008. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Motorola and Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint and T-Mobile, chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop "the first open and comprehensive platform for mobile devices". Within a year, the Open Handset Alliance faced two other open source competitors, the Symbian Foundation and the LiMo Foundation, the latter developing a Linux-based mobile operating system like Google. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases.
Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat, with the first few Android versions being called "Cupcake", "Donut"
The Final Fantasy Legend
The Final Fantasy Legend, known in Japan as Makai Toushi Sa·Ga, is a video game released for the Game Boy in December 1989 by Square Co. It is the first role-playing video game for the system. Square translated the game into English for worldwide release and renamed it, linking it with the Final Fantasy series to improve marketing. Sunsoft re-released it in North America during 1998; the Final Fantasy Legend operates on a turn-based system similar to that of Final Fantasy II. The game's characters battle monsters and fiends using a variety of weapons and skills that develop through the player's actions; the game follows the story of four heroes who attempt to scale a tower at the center of the world that leads to paradise. The four heroes may belong to one of three character classes, each housing a unique customization path; the Final Fantasy Legend was conceived by Nobuyuki Hoshino and developed under director Akitoshi Kawazu. The game is Square's first million seller with 1.37 million units shipped.
Though released to mixed reception, it has since been described as one of the Game Boy's greatest games and cited as an influence for series such as the Pokémon franchise. In The Final Fantasy Legend, the player navigates a character throughout the game world with a party of up to four characters, exploring areas and interacting with non-player characters. Most of the game occurs in towns, castles and similar areas. To aid exploration on the field screen, the game makes use of various signs within towns; the player is limited to the World of Continent to explore, given access to worlds as his or her party climbs the Tower. Players can save their game anytime and anywhere when not in combat to a save slot for play. Players can journey between field screen locations via the world map, a downsized representation of Final Fantasy Legend's various worlds. Players can navigate around the world map screen unless restricted by terrain, such as water or mountains; the goal in each world is to find the entrance to the next level of the Tower.
Random enemy encounters interrupt travel across the world map screen and hostile areas, as in other Final Fantasy related games. At the beginning of the game, the player must choose a character class and name for the group's "party leader". There are three available classes: humans and monsters, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. Character classes can not be changed; the player may recruit up to three additional party members through a similar process via "Member Guilds" in various towns. Characters may be recruited to replace fallen party members, though the party leader is irreplaceable. Higher-level party members may be recruited at towns in the game. A character's performance in battle is determined by numerical values for four categories; each statistic has a range of 1 to 99. The categories are the effectiveness of physical attacks. A character's health is measured in hit points, consisting of a current HP statistic and a maximum HP statistic, ranging from 0 to 999. Character statistics are relative to their class—humans have higher HP levels and defense, mutants are physically weaker but enjoy a higher mana statistic.
Human and mutant statistics can be amplified by worn equipment of different types. Monster-class characters are dependent on their sub-class, their statistics vary greatly. Humans raise their statistics through items that grant permanent bonuses, such as "STRENGTH" or "HP200". Mutant attributes increase by random increments after battles, new abilities may be gained in the process. Monsters change in power by consuming "meat" dropped in battles. Versions of the game released upon the WonderSwan and mobile phones removed the latter effect entirely; the basic function of equipment in SaGa games is to increase character attributes. Arming a character with a gold helmet increases his or her base defense statistic, for example; the amount of equipment that can be placed on any one character at any time depends on the character's class. Humans can hold eight, mutants four, monsters none. There are five types of armor: shields, breastplates and shoes. Only one of each at a time can not be added to monsters.
Weapons, consisting of swords, whips, spell books, guns, utilize either the strength, agility or mana attribute of a character, can be used only a certain number of times before breaking and being removed from the player's inventory. Shields can be used as items in combat, most with a limited number of uses, allow the user to evade enemy attacks. Mutants and monsters have different spells and abilities depending on their battle experience and sub-class; these come in one of four categories: attack, non-combative and resistances/weaknesses. When used in combat, attack spells and abilities will damage a target by an elemental type, while non-combative spells and abilities inflict various status ailments or grant benefits upon a target. Healing spells and abilities restore a target's HP and can be used outside of com