Romandy is the French-speaking part of western Switzerland. In 2018, about 2.1 million people, or 25.1% of the Swiss population, lived in Romandy. The majority of the romand population lives in the western part of the country the Arc Lémanique region along Lake Geneva, connecting Geneva and the Lower Valais; the adjective romand is a regional dialectal variant of roman. Use of the adjective romand in reference to the Franco-Provençal dialects can be traced to the 15th century; the term Suisse romande has become used since World War I. Suisse romande is used in contrast to Suisse alémanique, "Alemannic Switzerland", the term for Alemannic German speaking Switzerland. Formed by analogy is Suisse italienne, composed of Ticino and of a part of Grisons. In Swiss German, French-speaking Switzerland is known as Welschland or Welschschweiz, the French-speaking Swiss as Welsche, using the old Germanic term for "Celts" used in English of Welsh; the terms Welschland and Welschschweiz are used in written Swiss Standard German but in more formal contexts they are sometimes exchanged for französischsprachige Schweiz or französische Schweiz.
Simple Westschweiz "western Switzerland" may be used as a loose synonym. "Romandy" is not an official territorial division of Switzerland any more than there is a clear linguistic boundary: substantial parts of the canton of Fribourg and the western canton of Bern are traditionally bilingual, most prominently in the Drei-Seen-Land or Pays des trois lacs surrounding the lakes of Morat, Neuchâtel, Bienne. In four Swiss cantons, French is the sole official language: Geneva, Neuchâtel, Jura. There are three cantons where French and German have co-official status: Bern and Valais; the linguistic boundary between French and German is known as Röstigraben. The term is humorous in origin and refers both to the geographic division and to perceived cultural differences between the Romandy and the German-speaking Swiss majority; the term can be traced to the WWI period, but it entered mainstream usage in the 1970s in the context of the Jurassic separatism virulent at the time. The linguistic boundary cuts across Switzerland north-to-south, forming the eastern boundary of the canton of Jura and encompassing the Bernese Jura, where the boundary frays to include a number of bilingual communities, the largest of, Biel/Bienne.
It follows the border between Neuchâtel and Bern and turns south towards Morat, again traversing an areal of traditional bilinguism including the communities of Morat and Fribourg. It divides the canton of Fribourg into a western French-speaking majority and an eastern German-speaking minority and follows the eastern boundary of Vaud with the upper Saane/Sarine valley of the Bernese Oberland. Cutting across the High Alps at Les Diablerets, the boundary separates the French-speaking Lower Valais from the Alemannic-speaking Upper Valais beyond Sierre, it cuts southwards into the High Alps again, separating the Val d'Anniviers from the Mattertal. The linguistic boundary in the Swiss Plateau would have more or less followed the Aare during the early medieval period, separating Burgundy from Alemannia; the Valais has a separate linguistic history. Traditionally speaking the Franco-Provençal or Patois dialects of Upper Burgundy, the romand population now speak a variety of Standard French. Today, the differences between Swiss French and Parisian French are minor and lexical, although in rural speakers, remnants of dialectal lexicon or phonology may remain more pronounced.
In particular, some parts of the Swiss Jura participate in the Frainc-Comtou dialect spoken in the Franche-Comté region of France. Since the 1970s, there has been a limited amount of linguistic revivalism. In this context, the Franco-Provençal dialects are called their area Arpitania; the cultural identity of the Romandy is supported by Télévision Suisse Romande, Radio Suisse Romande and the universities of Geneva, Fribourg and Neuchâtel. Most of the Romandy has been Protestant Calvi
Élodie Olivarès is a French athlete specialising in the 3000 metres steeplechase. She represented her country at three consecutive World Championships starting in 2005. Outdoor 1500 metres – 4:15.17 3000 metres – 9:04.73 5000 metres – 15:44.36 3000 metres steeplechase – 9:33.12 Indoor 3000 metres – 9:03.13 cross country runningFrench Champion - long course in 2002, 2003 and 2006 Vice-champion of France for Cross Country long course in 2004. Vice-champion of France for Cross Country short course in 2009. Champion of France in 3000m steeplechase in 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2009 Vice champion of France in 3000m steeplechase in 2001, 2005, 2007, 2008 and 2011. Champion of France in Indoor 3000m in 2006 and 2007. Record de France in 3000m steeplechase from 2001 to 2007 Gold medal at Mediterranean Games in 2001 winner at European Cup of nations in 2004 Team Bronze medal in 2001 at European Cross Country Championships. 22 selections for French teams
The Football League First Division is a former division of the Football League and from 1888 to 1992, it was the top tier division in the English football league system. Following the creation of the Premier League, the name was given to the second tier division The Football League was founded in 1888 by Aston Villa director William McGregor, it consisted of a single division of 12 clubs, known as The Football League. When the League admitted additional members from the rival Football Alliance in 1892, it was split into two divisions. For the next 100 years, the First Division was the top professional league in English football. In 1992 the 22 clubs making up the First Division elected to resign from the Football League and set up the Premier League; the Football League was re-organised, with the Second and Fourth Divisions now renamed the First and Third respectively. Thus, the First Division, while still the top level of the Football League, now became the second level of the entire English football league system.
The First Division was renamed as the Football League Championship prior to the start of the 2004–05 season, as part of a league-wide rebrand. The Football League rebranded itself as the English Football League prior to the 2016–17 season, with its top level becoming the EFL Championship at that time. Liverpool were the most frequent winners of the First Division when it was the top flight of English football, winning it a total of 18 times; the Football League First Division trophy was first awarded in 1891, was presented to the winners through to 1992. As of the 1947–48 season making 7 appearance for their club during the season was not enough for a player to qualify for a winners medal; as of the 1975–76 season players had to make 14 appearances for their club during the season in order to qualify for a winners medal. See List of English football champions and List of winners of English Football League Championship and predecessors