Alexandru Hâjdeu was a Russian writer of Romanian origin, who lived in Bessarabia. He was the father of philologist Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu. Alexandru Hâjdeu was one of the founding members of the Romanian Academy, he studied at the Theological Seminary in Chișinău at the Law School of the University of Kharkov. In 1830, the first philosophical writings of Alexandru Hajduu - About the Divine Poetry Quality and About the Purpose of Philosophy - are published in the Moscow magazine "Vestnik Evropa". In 1836, he married Elisaveta Dauksz. In the same year he became an ephor of the schools in Hotin County. In 1838 his son Bogdan. On June 24, 1840, he held a famous speech in front of the graduates and pedagogical staff of the county school in Hotin - The souvenirs from the past, the present and shows the future of Moldova, translated in Romanian by Constantin Stamati. In 1842, he was "forced” to resign from the ephor position of the schools in the Hotin County, he was employed as a teacher of French language and mathematics at the boys' school in Vinnytsia.
In this period he wrote the study "The Problem of Our Time" which will be translated and published in Bucharest only in 1938. In 1860, in "History and Literature Note" appears his work Notiţă on the work of Kantemir Voievod. In 1866, he was elected as founder member of the Romanian Philological Society. Hâjdeu made an important contribution to the unification of the Romanian Principalities through his speeches held in 1837 and 1840, his speech held in 1837 and published in 1838 in Brașov and in 1839 in Bucharest, was the cornerstone of the unification of the Romanian Principalities on January 24, 1859. By the letter Epistle to the Romanians, Hâjdeu defines the key element of "Romanian Messianism" called the "Bessarabian School", by which he proves the intelligent implication of the Basarabians in unification process of the Romanian nation
A by-law is a rule or law established by an organization or community to regulate itself, as allowed or provided for by some higher authority. The higher authority a legislature or some other government body, establishes the degree of control that the by-laws may exercise. By-laws may be established by entities such as a business corporation, a neighborhood association, or depending on the jurisdiction, a municipality. In the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth countries, the local laws established by municipalities are referred to as bye-laws because their scope is regulated by the central governments of those nations. Accordingly, a bylaw enforcement officer is the Canadian equivalent of the American Code Enforcement Officer or Municipal Regulations Enforcement Officer. In the United States, the federal government and most state governments have no direct ability to regulate the single provisions of municipal law; as a result, terms such as code, ordinance, or regulation, if not law are more common.
The Merriam-Webster Dictionary indicates that the origin of the word by-law is from the English word bilawe from Old Norse *bȳlǫg, from Old Norse bȳr town + lag-, lǫg law. The earliest use of the term, which originates from the Viking town law in the Danelaw, wherein by is the Old Norse word for a larger settlement as in Whitby and Derby. However, it is possible that this usage was forgotten and the word was "reinvented" in modern times through the use of the adverbial prefix by- giving the meaning of subsidiary law or side-law. In either case, it is incorrect to claim that the origin of the word is the prepositional phrase "by law." Municipal by-laws are public regulatory laws. The main difference between a by-law and a law passed by a national/federal or regional/state body is that a by-law is made by a non-sovereign body, which derives its authority from another governing body, can only be made on a limited range of matters. A local council or municipal government derives its power to pass laws through a law of the national or regional government which specifies what things the town or city may regulate through by-laws.
It is therefore a form of delegated legislation. Within its jurisdiction and specific to those areas mandated by the higher body, a municipal by-law is no different than any other law of the land, can be enforced with penalties, challenged in court and must comply with other laws of the land, such as the country's constitution. Municipal by-laws are enforcable through the public justice system, offenders can be charged with a criminal offence for breach of a by-law. Common by-laws include vehicle parking and stopping regulations, animal control and construction, noise and business regulation, management of public recreation areas. Under Article 94 of the Constitution of Japan, regional governments have limited autonomy and legislative powers to create by-laws. In practice, such powers are exercised in accordance with the Local Autonomy Law. By-laws therefore constitute part of the legal system subordinate to the Japanese constitution. In terms of its mandatory powers and effective, it is considered the lowest of all legislation possible.
Such powers are used to govern the following: Location of the seat of government of the prefecture Frequency of routine meetings Number of prefectural vice-governors and vice village leaders Number of staff attached to administrative bodies governed Placement of regional autonomous areas Regulation of certain municipal monies Placement and removal of public facilities Appointment of subordinate offices by the prefectural governor In the United Kingdom, by-laws are laws of local or limited application made by local councils or other bodies, using powers granted by an Act of Parliament, so are a form of delegated legislation. In Australian Law there are five types of by-law, they are established by statute: State government authorities create By-laws as a type of "statutory rule" under an empowering Act, are made by the State governor. Local government by-laws are the most prevalent type of by-law in Australia, control things from Parking and Alcohol in parks to fire regulations and zoning controls.
In New South Wales these by-laws are called ordinances and Zoning Controls are called Environmental Planning Instruments created under the Environmental Planning and Assessment Act. Numerous specific institutions, including universities, are empowered to make by-laws by their establishing legislation. By-laws of a company or society are created as a contract among members, must be formally adopted and/or amended. Strata Title was developed in Australia and by-laws of body corporate are empowered by state legislation; these are the main type of by-law most people come into contact with on a regular basis as they control what people in Strata title housing can do in their own homes. The most well known of these is the "no pets in flats" rule. Corporate and organizational by-laws regulate only the organization to which they apply and are concerned with the operation of the organization, setting out the form, manner or procedure in which a company or organisation should be run. Corporate by-laws are drafted by a corporation's founders or directors under the authority of its Charter or Articles of Incorporation.
By-laws vary from organization to organization, but cover topics such as the purpose of the organization, who are its members, how directors are elected, how meetings are conducted, what officers the organization will have and a description of their duties. A common mnemonic device for remembering t
Alexandru Roman was an Austro-Hungarian ethnic Romanian cultural figure and journalist, as well as a founding member of the Romanian Academy. Born in Aușeu, Bihor County, in the Crișana region, he attended primary and secondary school at Beiuș and Oradea, he studied philosophy and theology at the University of Vienna. After graduation, Roman returned to his home region, was hired at the Romanian gymnasium in Beiuș in 1849, during the Hungarian Revolution, he became its first teacher to hold classes in Romanian. In 1851, he became a Romanian-language professor at the Oradea law academy. In 1862, following numerous petitions, he began teaching Romanian at the Royal University of Pest, founding the Romanian language and literature department, he prepared a Romanian-language manual for village schools, contributed articles on philology and politics to Bucovina, Gazeta Transilvaniei and Naționalul, the last based in Bucharest, capital of the nascent Romanian state. In 1866, Roman became a founding member of the Romanian Literary Society the Romanian Academy.
He helped found the Reading Society of Studious Romanian Youth and the Petru Maior Society. He edited the gazettes Concordia and Federațiunea, which he founded at Budapest. Roman published unusually virulent articles in these organs, causing him to be brought to trial a number of times; the culmination came in 1868. As a result, he was sentenced to a year's imprisonment at Vác. From 1865 to 1888, Roman sat in the House of Representatives at Budapest, where he advocated on behalf of the Romanians of Transylvania and Hungary, he died in Sebeș. Gelu Neamțu, "Alexandru Roman și Academia Română", in Anuarul Institutului de Istorie «G. Barițiu» din Cluj-Napoca, vol. XLVI, 2007, p. 77–84
V. A. Urechia
V. A. Urechia was a Moldavian Romanian historian, Romantic author of historical fiction and plays and politician; the author of Romanian history syntheses, a noted bibliographer, heraldist and folklorist, he founded and managed a private school holding teaching positions at the University of Iaşi and University of Bucharest. Urechia was one of the founding members of the Romanian Academy and, as frequent traveler to Spain and fluent speaker of Spanish, a corresponding member of the Royal Spanish Academy, he was the father of satirist Alceu Urechia. As an ideologue, Urechia developed "Romanianism", which offered a template for cultural and political cooperation among Romanians from several historical regions, formed part of a Pan-Latinist campaign. An activist in favor of the Moldavia's union to Wallachia and a representative of the liberal wing, he was Moldavian Minister of Religious Affairs, a prominent member of the National Liberal Party. For more than three decades, Urechia represented Covurlui County in the Romanian Kingdom's Chamber of Deputies and Senate.
He was Education Minister under two successive National Liberal administrations, during the 1890s, he founded the Cultural League for the Unity of All Romanians, which focused on encouraging the aspirations of Romanians living in Austria-Hungary. Portrayed as an amateurish and inconsequential presence in Romanian literature and science, Urechia was involved in a decade-long controversy with Junimea, a conservative literary society which advocated professionalization. Among those involved on the Junimist side were literary critic Titu Maiorescu and poet Mihai Eminescu. Like other contributors to the liberal magazine Revista Contimporană, Urechia was a notorious target of Maiorescu's campaign against "inebriation with words", sided with the anti-Junimist author Alexandru Macedonski, becoming a contributor to Literatorul magazine; the polemics touched on his private life, after claims surfaced that he was secretly leading a polygynous lifestyle. V. A. Urechia was known to his contemporaries by several name variants: his rival Eminescu once described him as having "seven names".
Urechia, which the writer added in adult life, is a variant of urechea transcribed as ureche. An occasional rendition of the name, reflecting antiquated versions of the Romanian alphabet, is Urechiă; the writer was known as Vasile Alexandrescu, the latter being his patronymic, of which his family name, was an alternative. Spanish sources rendered Urechia's first name as Basilio, his full name was at times Francized as Basil Alexandresco. Born in Piatra Neamţ, Urechia was the son of Alexandru Popovici, a member of the boyar class in Moldavia and a titular culcer. Both had been widowed or divorced from previous marriages, Vasile had stepsiblings from each parent. After the culcer's death, he and three other of Eufrosina's youngest children, all of them below legal age, moved in with their mother, who remarried serdar Fotino. In spring 1848, he was in Iaşi, where he witnessed the failed rebellion provoked by the Romantic nationalist and liberal current with which he would affiliate, he debuted in journalism upon the end of the 1840s, when he wrote pieces condemning Transylvanian-born educators for promoting a version of Romanian which overemphasized the language's connection with Latin.
During most of the 1850s, the young Vasile Alexandrescu was in France, spending most of his time in Paris, where he received his Baccalauréat, trained for a Licence ès Lettres degree. Urechia frequented exiles from both Danubian Principalities, growing close to the Wallachian politico C. A. Rosetti. Having written his debut literary works, some grouped in 1854 under the title Mozaic de novele, cugetări, piese şi poezii, he completed a debut novel, Coliba Măriucăi; the plot was loosely based on Uncle Tom's Cabin, by the American abolitionist writer Harriet Beecher Stowe, was adapted to the realities of Romani slavery in Moldavia. He was at the time collaborating on Steaua Dunării, a unionist magazine co-edited by the Moldavian intellectuals Mihail Kogălniceanu and Vasile Alecsandri, where he published a Romanian-language translation of Canción a las ruinas de Itálica, a Spanish Renaissance poem written by Rodrigo Caro, but attributed by scholars of the day to Fernando de Rioja. A believer in Pan-Latinism, he popularized the cause of Romanians through articles published in the Romance-speaking press of France and Spain, founded Opiniunea, a magazine for Moldo-Wallachian exiles in Paris.
During 1856, as the Crimean War brought an end to Imperial Russian administration in the two countries and its Regulamentul Organic regime, the exiles saw an opportunity for action in favor of the union. During the Peace Treaty Conference of that year, Urechia was secretary of a Romanian Bureau which popularized the unionist cause among the participants, proposed a Romanian state under a foreign ruler, whom Urechia wanted to be of "Latin" origin. In August 1857, he married the upper-class Spanish woman Francisca Dominica de Plano, whose father had been the personal physician of Queen regent Isabella II; the wedding at the Romanian Orthodox Chapel in Paris. He was in Spain from 1857 to 1858 and again in 1862, researching local archives and Spanish edu
Andrei Mocioni de Foen was an Austrian and Hungarian jurist and informal leader of the ethnic Romanian community, one of the founding members of the Romanian Academy. Of a mixed Aromanian and Albanian background, raised as a Greek Orthodox, he belonged to the Mocioni family, elevated to Hungarian nobility, he was brought up at his family estate in the Banat, at Foeni, where he joined the administrative apparatus, identified as a Romanian since at least the 1830s. He rose to prominence during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848: he was a supporter of the House of Lorraine, trying to obtain increased autonomy for Banat Romanians in exchange for loyalism; the Austrians appointed Mocioni to an executive position over that region, but curbed his expectations by including the Banat as a whole into the Voivodeship of Serbia. This disappointment pushed Mocioni to renounce politics during much of the 1850s; the attempt by Austria to ensure a new administrative formula in the 1860s saw Mocioni's co-option into the Imperial Diet.
He organized, in 1860, the National Assembly in the Banat—an abortive project, seeking to obtain autonomy on ethnic grounds. He oscillated between ethnic federalism within a nominal Hungarian realm and full centralism in Austria's custody, while failing in his bid to promote election boycott as a political weapon, he had noted political rivalries with Romanians who sided with Hungarian radicalism, in particular Eftimie Murgu. Serving one full term in the Diet of Hungary, Mocioni turned to cooperation with the Romanians of Transylvania, helped Andrei Șaguna to reestablish an independent Transylvanian Metropolis for Romanian Orthodox Christians. Alongside his brothers Gheorghe and Anton, his lawyer Vincențiu Babeș, he founded the newspaper Albina of Vienna; the creation of Austria-Hungary and the Banat's absorption into the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen were significant blows for Mocioni's nationalist-loyalist campaign. Mocioni withdrew to Foeni and out of the public eye for the final decade of his life.
He was still a noted philanthropist and sponsor of the Romanian press, but had conflicts with Krassó County voters and the Romanian peasants on his estates, a matter which contributed to his voluntary isolation. He was survived by his wife Laura, daughter of Petar Čarnojević, by his nephew, the politician Alexandru Mocioni; the Mocionis were descended from Petru Mucină, an Aromanian priest from Aspropotamos in Thessaly or Moscopole, who declared loyalty to the Habsburg Monarchy and served in the Great Turkish War. He and one of his brothers were killed in action somewhere in the Banat. Archpriest Constantin Mocioni, or "Constantinus Motsonyi", who may have been Mucină's son, settled among the Greek Orthodox community of Pest in the 1740s. Family documents suggest that he was from Moscopole, that he died at 110 years of age, his two sons Andrei and Mihai were raised into the nobility by King-Emperor Joseph II: the former in February 1783, the latter in June 1798, after distinguished service in the War of the First Coalition.
The Mocionis were thus one of some 200 Aromanian families to receive titles, became integrated with the 12,500 Romanian noble families attested in Hungary by 1800. Andrei the elder was killed in mysterious circumstances before he could receive his diploma, but this was granted to his wife; the more senior branch established by them became known as Mocioni de Foen, or fényi Mocsonyi, in reference to its core estate of Foeni. This was by contrast with Mihai's descendants, the armalist Mocionis, who did not hold a titular estate—although they built a manor at Birchiș, they were based in Pest, where they founded the Kefala Library. Andrei the second was a grandson of the original Andrei, born to lawyer Ioan Mocioni de Foen and his wife Iuliana Panaiot. On his mother's side, Andrei had Albanian roots, he had an elder brother, born in 1808, two junior ones: Anton and Gheorghe. Other siblings included brothers Lucian and sister Ecaterina. Ioan and Iuliana together had as many as 11 other children. Andrei was the uncle and cousin of writer Alexandru Mocioni, born from a consanguine marriage between Ecaterina and her uncle Mihai Mocioni.
Andrei the younger was a native of Pest, but grew up in Foeni where, according to scholar Păun Otiman, he received "a profoundly Christian Orthodox education, inspired by Macedo-Romanian traditions and culture". The Mocionis only spoke Aromanian and Hungarian; the family encouraged intercultural contacts, with Ioan speaking as many as eleven languages. According to the Banatian Serb journalist Mihailo Polit-Desančić, the local Mocionis, including Andrei made a point of learning Serbian, "sort of carried themselves like Serbs". Seen by his contemporaries as a man of outstanding culture and upbringing, Andrei had "perfect" command of Aromanian, Hungarian, Serbian, as well as Latin and German. Like his father, he took a law degree from the Royal University of Pest, he worked in the local administration of Banat. In 1836, he was the second-ranked notary of Torontál County, being appointed first pretor in 1843. Ethnologist Elena Rodica Colta dates the Mocionis' definitive self-ident
August Treboniu Laurian
August Treboniu Laurian was a Transylvanian Romanian politician and linguist. He was born in the village of Fofeldea in Nocrich, he was a participant in the 1848 revolution, an organizer of the Romanian school and one of the founding members of the Romanian Academy. Laurian was a member of the Latinist School, a mainly-Transylvanian movement in the Romanian culture which promoted the idea that Romanians are pure Romans, whose history was a continuation of the history of the Roman Empire, his book on History of the Romanians began with the Foundation of Rome in 753 BC and after the demise of Rome, it continues with the history of the Romanians, with all dates being converted to the Roman system, Ab urbe condita. Thus, in his book it is written that Vladimirescu's rebellion occurred in the year 2574 AUC; because of this alleged continuity, he supported the purification of the Romanian language by stripping it of non-Latin elements and attempting to bring it as close to Latin as possible. Between 1871 and 1876, Laurian collaborated with Ioan Massim for a two-volume Romanian language dictionary, commissioned by the Romanian Academy.
The dictionary was stripped of non-Latin words, including neologisms as replacements for such words, which were supposed to be eliminated from the language. The dictionary was written in an etymological spelling system, the result being an artificial language which only vaguely resembled Romanian and it provoked laughter, discrediting the Latinist school. Wallachian Revolution of 1848 Nicolae Bălcescu Mihail Kogălniceanu Works by or about August Treboniu Laurian at Internet Archive Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions: August Treboniu Laurian Lucian Boia and Myth in Romanian Consciousness, Budapest: Central European University Press, 2001
Bukovina is a historical region, variously described as in Central or Eastern Europe. The region is located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains, today divided between Romania and Ukraine. A region of Moldavia during the Middle Ages, the territory of what became known as Bukovina was, from 1774 to 1918, an administrative division of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire, Austria-Hungary. After World War I, Romania established its control over Bukovina. In 1940, the northern half of Bukovina was annexed by the Soviet Union in violation of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, is part of Ukraine; the name Bukovina came into official use in 1775 with the region's annexation from the Principality of Moldavia to the possessions of the Habsburg Monarchy, which became the Austrian Empire in 1804, Austria-Hungary in 1867. The official German name of the province under Austrian rule, die Bukowina, was derived from the Polish form Bukowina, which in turn was derived from the common Slavic form of buk, meaning beech tree.
Another German name for the region, das Buchenland, is used in poetry, means "beech land", or "the land of beech trees". In Romanian, in literary or poetic contexts, the name Țara Fagilor is sometimes used. In English, an alternative form is The Bukovina an archaism, however, is found in older literature. In modern Ukraine, the name "Bukovina" is unofficial, but is common when referring to the Chernivtsi Oblast, as over two thirds of the oblast is the northern part of Bukovina. In Romania the term Northern Bukovina is sometimes synonymous with the entire Chernivtsi Oblast of Ukraine, while Bukovina refers to the Suceava County of Romania; the territory of Bukovina had been part of Moldavia since the 14th century. It was first delineated as a separate district in 1775, was made a nominal duchy within the Austrian Empire in 1849; the Moldavian state had appeared by the mid-14th century expanding its territory all the way to the Black Sea. Bukovina and neighboring regions were the nucleus of the Moldavian Principality, with the city of Suceava as its capital from 1388.
The name of Moldavia is derived from a river flowing in Bukovina. In the 15th century, the region to the north, became the subject of disputes between the Principality of Moldavia and the Polish Kingdom. Pokuttya was inhabited by Hutsuls. In 1497 a battle took place at the Cosmin Forest, at which Stephen III of Moldavia, managed to defeat the much-stronger but demoralized army of King John I Albert of Poland; the battle is known in Polish popular culture as "the battle when the Knights have perished". In this period, the patronage of Stephen the Great and his successors on the throne of Moldavia saw the construction of the famous painted monasteries of Moldoviţa, Suceviţa, Humor, Voroneţ, Dragomirna and others. With their renowned exterior frescoes, these monasteries remain some of the greatest cultural treasures of Romania. Stephen settled the first Ruthenians in Bukovina with the hope of having a loyal and more numerous population that would contribute with taxes. In Suceava, in the 16th century, two percent of the population was Ruthenian.
In 1513, Moldavia started to pay annual tribute to the Ottoman Empire, but remained autonomous and was governed as before by a native Voivod / Prince. In May, 1600 Mihai Viteazul, united the two Romanian principalities and Transylvania under his leadership. For short periods of time, the Polish Kingdom occupied parts of northern Moldavia. However, the old border was re-established each time, as for example on 14 October 1703 the Polish delegate Martin Chometowski acknowledged "Between us and Wallachia God himself set Dniester as the border". In the course of the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, the Ottoman armies were defeated by the Russian Empire, which occupied the region during 15 December 1769 – September 1774, during 14 September–October 1769. Bukovina was the reward. Prince Grigore III Ghica of Moldavia protested and was prepared to take action to recover the territory, but was assassinated, a Greek-Phanariot foreigner was put on the throne of Moldavia by the Ottomans; the Austrian Empire occupied Bukovina in October 1774.
Following the First Partition of Poland in 1772, the Austrians claimed that they needed it for a road between Galicia and Transylvania. Bukovina was formally annexed in January 1775. On 2 July 1776, at Palamutka and Ottomans signed a border convention, Austria giving back 59 of the occupied villages, retaining 278 villages. Bukovina was a closed military district the largest district, Kreis Czernowitz of the Austrian constituent Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. On 4 March 1849, Bukovina became a separate Austrian Kronland'crown land' under a Landespräsident and was declared the Herzogtum Bukowina (a