SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Romanians

The Romanians are a Romance ethnic group and nation native to Romania, that share a common Romanian culture and speak the Romanian language, the most widespread spoken Balkan Romance language, descended from the Latin language. According to the 2011 Romanian census, just under 89% of Romania's citizens identified themselves as ethnic Romanians. In one interpretation of the census results in Moldova, the Moldovans are counted as Romanians, which would mean that the latter form part of the majority in that country as well. Romanians are an ethnic minority in several nearby countries situated in Central Eastern Europe in Hungary, Czech Republic, Ukraine and Bulgaria. Today, estimates of the number of Romanian people worldwide vary from 26 to 30 million according to various sources, evidently depending on the definition of the term'Romanian', Romanians native to Romania and Republic of Moldova and their afferent diasporas, native speakers of Romanian, as well as other Balkan Romance-speaking groups considered by most scholars and the Romanian Academy as a constituent part of the broader Romanian people Aromanians, Megleno-Romanians, Istro-Romanians, Vlachs of Serbia, in Croatia, in Bulgaria, or in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Inhabited by the ancient Dacians, part of today's territory of Romania was conquered by the Roman Empire in 106, when Trajan's army defeated the army of Dacia's ruler Decebalus. The Roman administration withdrew two centuries under the pressure of the Goths and Carpi. Two theories account for the origin of the Romanian people. One, known as the Daco-Roman continuity theory, posits that they are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous peoples living in the Roman Province of Dacia, while the other posits that the Romanians are descendants of Romans and Romanized indigenous populations of the former Roman provinces of Illyria, Moesia and Macedon, the ancestors of Romanians migrated from these Roman provinces south of the Danube into the area which they inhabit today. According to the first theory, the Romanians are descended from indigenous populations that inhabited what is now Romania and its immediate environs: Thracians and Roman legionnaires and colonists. In the course of the two wars with the Roman legions, between AD 101–102 and AD 105–106 the emperor Trajan succeeded in defeating the Dacians and the greatest part of Dacia became a Roman province.

The colonisation with Roman or Romanized elements, the use of the Latin language and the assimilation of Roman civilisation as well as the intense development of urban centres led to the Romanization of part of the autochthonous population in Dacia. This process was concluded by the 10th century when the assimilation of the Slavs by the Daco-Romanians was completed. According to the south-of-the-Danube origin theory, the Romanians' ancestors, a combination of Romans and Romanized peoples of Illyria and Thrace, moved northward across the Danube river into modern-day Romania. Small population groups speaking several versions of Romanian still exist south of the Danube in Greece, Macedonia and Serbia, but it is not known whether they themselves migrated from more northern parts of the Balkans, including Dacia; the south-of-the Danube theory favours northern Albania and/or Moesia as the more specific places of Romanian ethnogenesis. Small genetic differences were found among Southeastern European populations and those of the Dniester–Carpathian region.

Despite this low level of differentiation between them, tree reconstruction and principal component analyses allowed a distinction between Balkan–Carpathian and Balkan Mediterranean population groups. The genetic affinities among Dniester–Carpathian and southeastern European populations do not reflect their linguistic relationships. According to the report, the results indicate that the ethnic and genetic differentiations occurred in these regions to a considerable extent independently of each other. During the Middle Ages Romanians were known as Vlachs, a blanket term of Germanic origin, from the word Walha, used by ancient Germanic peoples to refer to Romance-speaking and Celtic neighbours. Besides the separation of some groups during the Age of Migration, many Vlachs could be found all over the Balkans, in Transylvania, across Carpathian Mountains as far north as Poland and as far west as the regions of Moravia, some went as far east as Volhynia of western Ukraine, the present-day Croatia where the Morlachs disappeared, while the Catholic and Orthodox Vlachs took Croat and Serb national identity.

Because of the migrations that followed – such as those of Slavs, Bulgars and Tatars – the Romanians were organised in agricultural communes, developing large centralised states only in the 14th century, when the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia emerged to fight the Ottoman Empire. During the late Middle Ages, prominent medieval Romanian monarchs such as Bogdan of Moldavia, Stephen the Great, Mircea the Elder, Michael the Brave, or Vlad the Impaler took part in the history of Central Europe by waging tumultuous wars and leading noteworthy crusades against the continuously expanding Ottoman Empire, at times

House of Dolls

House of Dolls is a 1953 novella by Ka-tzetnik 135633. The novella describes "Joy Divisions", which were groups of Jewish women in the concentration camps during World War II who were kept for the sexual pleasure of Nazi soldiers. Between 1942 and 1945, Auschwitz and nine other Nazi concentration camps contained camp brothels used to reward cooperative non-Jewish inmates. Not only prostitutes were forced to work there. In the documentary film Memory of the Camps, a project supervised by the British Ministry of Information and the American Office of War Information during the summer of 1945, camera crews filmed women, forced into sexual slavery for the use of guards and favoured prisoners; the film-makers stated that as the women died they were replaced by women from the concentration camp Ravensbrück. In his essay "Narrative Perspectives on Holocaust Literature", Leon Yudkin uses House of Dolls as one of his key examples of the ways in which authors have approached the Holocaust, using the work as an example of "diaries that look like novels" due to its reliance on its author's own experiences.

Ronit Lentin discusses House of Dolls in the Daughters of the Shoah. In her book Lentin interviews a child of Holocaust survivors, who recalls House of Dolls as one of her first exposures to the Holocaust. Lentin notes that the "explicit, painful" story made a huge impact when published and states that "many children of holocaust survivors who write would agree... that House of Dolls represents violence and sexuality in a manner which borders on the pornographic". Na'ama Shik, researching at Yad Vashem, the principal Jewish organization for the remembrance of the victims of the Holocaust, considers the book as fiction. Nonetheless it is part of the Israeli high school curriculum; the success of the book showed there was a market for Nazi exploitation popular literature, known in Israel as Stalags. However Yechiel Szeintuch from the Hebrew University rejects links between the smutty Stalags on the one hand, Ka-Tzetnik's works, which he insists were based on reality, on the other. Joy Division was a British post-punk band from 1976 to 1980, who took their name from the reference in this book.

One of their early songs, "No Love Lost", contains a short excerpt from the novella. Love Camp 7, considered to be the first Nazi exploitation film, is set in a concentration camp "Joy Division". Comfort women German camp brothels in World War II German military brothels in World War II German war crimes Japanese war crimes Rape during the occupation of Germany Recreation and Amusement Association Sexual slavery Ka-tzetnik 135633; the House of Dolls. ISBN 1-85958-506-X. Wyden, Peter. Stella: One Woman's True Tale of Evil and Survival in Hitler's Germany. ISBN 0-385-47179-3. Full text in English at Archive.org

Sanjeev Chimmalgi

Sanjeev Chimmalgi is an Indian music composer and Hindustani vocalist. He is a disciple of C. R. Vyas, his music reflects the voice culture of Kirana gharana as well as the bandish oriented singing of the Gwalior gharana/ Agra gharana. Chimmalgi was born in Mumbai to M. V. Chimmalgi, in a family hailing from Dharwad, Karnataka, his grandfather, Chimmalgi Master, was a noted tabla player. Chimmalgi is professionally trained as a computer engineer, he had his initial training from Madhava Gudi. He came under the tutelage of C. R. Vyas, he is receiving training in Carnatic music under T. R. Balamani and Balachandran in Mumbai and in Konnakol under renowned Mridangam player T S Nandakumar, he has performed at several venues in Mumbai, Indore, Kolkata and Nagpur. Quest Remembering Gunijaan: A Tribute to Pandit C R Vyas Runningshaadi.com Baahubali 2 Hindi Medium 2007 - Best male playback singing for the Marathi film'Aai Shappath'. 2006 - Nominated for Zee Gaurav Puraskar, V Shantaram Puraskar and Maharashtra Shasan Puraskar 2005-2006 - Sangeetha Shiromani Award consisting of a citation and Rs 25,000/- cash.

1995 to 98 - Awarded the National scholarship by the Government of India. 1993 - Winner of all India youth under-23 competition conducted by All India Radio. Official website Sanjeev Chimmalgi on Kshitij Group Sanjeev Chimmalgi at AllMusic