Constantine Lekapenos or Lecapenus was the third son of the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, co-emperor from 924 to 945. With his elder brother Stephen, he deposed Romanos I in December 944, but was overthrown and exiled by the legitimate emperor Constantine VII a few weeks later. Constantine was exiled to the island of Samothrace, where he was killed while attempting to escape sometime between 946 and 948. Constantine was one of the youngest sons of his wife Theodora. Theophanes Continuatus mentions him as the youngest son of the imperial couple, while the 11th-century chronicler George Kedrenos mentions him as the third of four known sons, his older brothers were Christopher Lekapenos and Stephen Lekapenos. It is unclear if Theophylact was his younger brother or older than he was, his sisters included Helena, who married Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos, Agatha, who married Romanos Argyros. He also had at least two unnamed sisters, known only because of their marriages to the magistroi Romanos Mosele and Romanos Saronites.
Romanos Lekapenos had risen to power in 919, when he had managed to appoint himself regent over the young Constantine VII and marry his daughter Helena to him. Within a year, he successively rose from basileopator to Caesar, was crowned senior emperor on 17 December 920. To consolidate his hold on power, with a view of supplanting the ruling Macedonian dynasty with his own family, he raised his eldest son Christopher to co-emperor in May 921, while Stephen and Constantine were proclaimed co-emperors on 25 December 924. Following Christopher's early death in 931, given Constantine VII's de facto sidelining and Constantine assumed an increased prominence, although formally they still ranked after their brother-in-law in the college of emperors. In 939, Constantine married a daughter of the patrikios Adrian, an Armenian. Symeon Magister records the death of Helena on 14 January 940, on 2 February of the same year, Constantine married his second wife, Theophano Mamas. Constantine had a son, named Romanos.
This Romanos was castrated in 945, after the Lekapenoi lost power, to prevent him from claiming the Byzantine throne. He pursued a career in the court reaching the rank of patrikios and the post of Eparch of Constantinople. Stephen and Constantine Lekapenos came to the fore in 943, when they opposed a dynastic marriage for their nephew, Romanos II, their father wanted to have his eldest surviving grandson married to Euphrosyne, a daughter of his successful general John Kourkouas. Although such a union would cement the loyalty of the army, it would strengthen the position of the legitimate Macedonian line, represented by Romanos II and his father Constantine VII, over the imperial claims of Romanos's own sons. Predictably and Constantine opposed this decision, prevailed upon their father, by this time ill and old, to dismiss Kourkouas in the autumn of 944. Romanos II instead married Bertha, an illegitimate daughter of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, who changed her name to Eudokia after her marriage.
With Romanos I approaching the end of his life, the matter of his succession became urgent. In 943, Romanos drafted a will which would leave Constantine VII as the senior emperor following his death; this upset his two sons, who feared that their brother-in-law would have them deposed and force them to take monastic vows. Motivated, in the opinion of Steven Runciman by self-preservation and from genuine ambition, they started planning to seize power through a coup d'état, with Stephen the ringleader and Constantine a rather reluctant partner, their fellow conspirators included Marianos Argyros, the protospatharios Basil Peteinos, Manuel Kourtikes, the strategos Diogenes and Philip. Kedrenos, considers Peteinos to have served as an agent of Constantine VII among the conspirators. On 20 December 944, the conspirators set their plans in motion; the two brothers smuggled their supporters in the Great Palace of Constantinople during the midday break in palace activities. They led their men into the chamber of Romanos I, where they captured the "ill old man".
They were able to transport him to the nearest harbour and from there to Prote, one of the Princes' Islands and a popular place of exile. There, Romanos agreed to retire from the throne. Having managed to depose their father, the brothers now had to deal with Constantine VII. For them, rumours soon spread around Constantinople, to the effect that, following Romanos's deposition, Constantine VII's life was in danger. Before long, crowds gathered before the palace; the contemporary Lombard historian Liutprand of Cremona notes that the ambassadors and envoys from Amalfi, Gaeta and Provence present in the capital supported Constantine VII. Stephen and his brother had to succumb to the inevitable, recognizing their brother-in-law as the senior emperor; the new triumvirate lasted for about 40 days. The three emperors soon appointed new leaders for the military services. Bardas Phokas the Elder was appointed as the new Domestic of the Schools, Constantine Gongyles as head of the Byzantine navy. Stephen and his brother managed to reward their fellow conspirators.
Peteinos became patrikios and Great Hetaeriarch, Argyros was appointed Count of the Stable, Kourtikes a patrikios and droungarios of the Watch. On 26 January 945, however, at the urging of their sister, the Augusta Helena, another coup removed the two
Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman Empire, of the Byzantine Empire, of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire, until falling to the Ottoman Empire. It was reinaugurated in 324 from ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was named, dedicated on 11 May 330; the city was located in what is now the core of modern Istanbul. From the mid-5th century to the early 13th century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe; the city was famed for its architectural masterpieces, such as the Greek Orthodox cathedral of Hagia Sophia, which served as the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate, the sacred Imperial Palace where the Emperors lived, the Galata Tower, the Hippodrome, the Golden Gate of the Land Walls, the opulent aristocratic palaces lining the arcaded avenues and squares. The University of Constantinople was founded in the fifth century and contained numerous artistic and literary treasures before it was sacked in 1204 and 1453, including its vast Imperial Library which contained the remnants of the Library of Alexandria and had over 100,000 volumes of ancient texts.
It was instrumental in the advancement of Christianity during Roman and Byzantine times as the home of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople and as the guardian of Christendom's holiest relics such as the Crown of Thorns and the True Cross. Constantinople was famed for its complex defences; the first wall of the city was erected by Constantine I, surrounded the city on both land and sea fronts. In the 5th century, the Praetorian Prefect Anthemius under the child emperor Theodosius II undertook the construction of the Theodosian Walls, which consisted of a double wall lying about 2 kilometres to the west of the first wall and a moat with palisades in front; this formidable complex of defences was one of the most sophisticated of Antiquity. The city was built intentionally to rival Rome, it was claimed that several elevations within its walls matched the'seven hills' of Rome; because it was located between the Golden Horn and the Sea of Marmara the land area that needed defensive walls was reduced, this helped it to present an impregnable fortress enclosing magnificent palaces and towers, the result of the prosperity it achieved from being the gateway between two continents and two seas.
Although besieged on numerous occasions by various armies, the defences of Constantinople proved impregnable for nearly nine hundred years. In 1204, the armies of the Fourth Crusade took and devastated the city, its inhabitants lived several decades under Latin misrule. In 1261 the Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos liberated the city, after the restoration under the Palaiologos dynasty, enjoyed a partial recovery. With the advent of the Ottoman Empire in 1299, the Byzantine Empire began to lose territories and the city began to lose population. By the early 15th century, the Byzantine Empire was reduced to just Constantinople and its environs, along with Morea in Greece, making it an enclave inside the Ottoman Empire. According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, the first known name of a settlement on the site of Constantinople was Lygos, a settlement of Thracian origin founded between the 13th and 11th centuries BC; the site, according to the founding myth of the city, was abandoned by the time Greek settlers from the city-state of Megara founded Byzantium in around 657 BC, across from the town of Chalcedon on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus.
The origins of the name of Byzantion, more known by the Latin Byzantium, are not clear, though some suggest it is of Thraco-Illyrian origin. The founding myth of the city has it told that the settlement was named after the leader of the Megarian colonists, Byzas; the Byzantines of Constantinople themselves would maintain that the city was named in honour of two men and Antes, though this was more just a play on the word Byzantion. The city was renamed Augusta Antonina in the early 3rd century AD by the Emperor Septimius Severus, who razed the city to the ground in 196 for supporting a rival contender in the civil war and had it rebuilt in honour of his son Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, popularly known as Caracalla; the name appears to have been forgotten and abandoned, the city reverted to Byzantium/Byzantion after either the assassination of Caracalla in 217 or, at the latest, the fall of the Severan dynasty in 235. Byzantium took on the name of Kōnstantinoupolis after its refoundation under Roman emperor Constantine I, who transferred the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium in 330 and designated his new capital as Nova Roma'New Rome'.
During this time, the city was called'Second Rome','Eastern Rome', Roma Constantinopolitana. As the city became the sole remaining capital of the Roman Empire after the fall of the West, its wealth and influence grew, the city came to have a multitude of nicknames; as the largest and wealthiest city in Europe during the 4th–13th centuries and a centre of culture and education of the Mediterranean basin, Constantinople came to be known by prestigious titles such as Basileuousa and Megalopol
Droungarios of the Fleet
The droungarios of the Fleet, sometimes anglicized as Drungary of the Fleet, was the commander of the Imperial Fleet, the central division of the Byzantine navy stationed at the capital of Constantinople, as opposed to the provincial fleets. From the late 11th century, when the Byzantine fleets were amalgamated into a single force under the megas doux, the post, now known as the Grand droungarios of the Fleet, became the second-in-command of the megas doux and continued in this role until the end of the Byzantine Empire. In response to the Muslim conquests, some time in the latter half of the 7th century, the bulk of the Byzantine navy was formed into a single command, the great fleet of the Karabisianoi, like the land themes that appeared around the same time, by a stratēgos; the Karabisianoi, proved inadequate and were replaced in the early 8th century by a more complex system composed of three elements, with minor alterations, survived until the 11th century: a central fleet based at Constantinople.
A fleet was based in Constantinople at least since the 7th century, indeed played a central role in the repulsion of the two Arab sieges of Constantinople in 674–678 and 717–718, but the exact date of the establishment of the Imperial Fleet as a distinct command is unclear. The Irish historian J. B. Bury, followed by the French Byzaninist Rodolphe Guilland, considered it "not improbable" that the Imperial Fleet existed as a subordinate command under the stratēgos tōn karabisianōn in the 7th century; the droungarios of the Fleet first appears in the Taktikon Uspensky of c. 842/43. From that point on, the Imperial Fleet formed the main naval reserve force and provided the core of various expeditionary fleets. In the Taktikon Uspensky, the droungarios of the Fleet is positioned lowly in the hierarchy, coming after all the senior military and civilian officials, placed between the prōtostratōr and the ek prosōpou of the themes. By the time of the 899 Klētorologion of Philotheos, however, he had risen in importance, being placed variously either before or after the logothetēs tou dromou and in the 35th or 38th position of the overall hierarchy, ahead of the domestikoi of the guard regiments of the Hikanatoi and the Noumeroi, as well as of the various chartoularioi.
Indeed, he was not classed with the other military commanders, whether of the themes or of the tagmata, but in the special class of military officials, the stratarchai, where he is listed second, after the hetaireiarchēs, the commander of the imperial bodyguard. This rise coincided with the revival in the Byzantine navy's fortunes, begun under Michael III but carried to fruition under the first two emperors of the Macedonian dynasty, Basil I the Macedonian and Leo VI the Wise; the Klētorologion further lists his subordinate officials as comprising his deputy or topotērētēs, the secretary or chartoularios, the head messenger or prōtomandatōr and the other messengers, the commanders of squadrons or komētes, the centurions of the individual ships. In addition, there was a komēs tēs hetaireias, whose function is disputed: according to Bury, he commanded the foreign mercenaries Rus' or Scandinavians, who served as marines, but the Greek historian Nicolas Oikonomides considered him the head of the droungarios' personal guard.
According to the De Ceremoniis of Emperor Constantine VII, he had a role in imperial ceremonies in association with the droungarios tēs viglēs. Typical dignities associated with the post where the senior ranks of prōtospatharios and anthypatos; the office reached its heyday during the 10th century, when several important personages held it, most notably Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, who used it as a springboard to the throne. The office continued in the 11th century, but as the fleet was no longer active, the droungarios chiefly commanded the Constantinopolitan fleet instead of leading expeditions. With the accession of Alexios I Komnenos. With the great naval themes having suffered a long decline as military formations, Alexios gathered the remnants of the provincial fleets and amalgamated them with the Imperial Fleet into a single force based in Constantinople, placed it under the command of the megas doux; the post of the droungarios of the Fleet remained in existence, now with the addition of the prefix
Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria
Sviatoslav's invasion of Bulgaria refers to a conflict beginning in 967/968 and ending in 971, carried out in the eastern Balkans, involving the Kievan Rus', the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantines encouraged the Rus' ruler Sviatoslav to attack Bulgaria, leading to the defeat of the Bulgarian forces and the occupation of the northern and north-eastern part of the country by the Rus' for the following two years; the allies turned against each other, the ensuing military confrontation ended with a Byzantine victory. The Rus' withdrew and eastern Bulgaria was incorporated into the Byzantine Empire. In 927, a peace treaty had been signed between Bulgaria and Byzantium, ending many years of warfare and establishing forty years of peace. Both states prospered during this interlude, but the balance of power shifted in favour of the Byzantines, who made great territorial gains against the Abbasid Caliphate in the East and formed a web of alliances surrounding Bulgaria. By 965/966, the warlike new Byzantine emperor Nikephoros II Phokas refused to renew the annual tribute, part of the peace agreement and declared war on Bulgaria.
Preoccupied with his campaigns in the East, Nikephoros resolved to fight the war by proxy and invited the Rus' ruler Sviatoslav to invade Bulgaria. Sviatoslav's subsequent campaign exceeded the expectations of the Byzantines, who had regarded him only as a means to exert diplomatic pressure on the Bulgarians; the Rus' prince conquered the core regions of the Bulgarian state in the northeastern Balkans in 967–969, seized the Bulgarian tsar Boris II, ruled the country through him. Sviatoslav intended to continue his drive south against Byzantium itself, which in turn regarded the establishment of a new and powerful Russo-Bulgarian state in the Balkans with great concern. After stopping a Rus' advance through Thrace at the Battle of Arcadiopolis in 970, the Byzantine emperor John I Tzimiskes led an army north into Bulgaria in 971 and captured Preslav, the capital. After a three-month siege of the fortress of Dorostolon, Sviatoslav agreed to terms with the Byzantines and withdrew from Bulgaria.
Tzimiskes formally annexed Eastern Bulgaria to the Byzantine Empire. However, most of the country in the central and western Balkans remained in effect outside imperial control. By the beginning of the 10th century, two powers had come to dominate the Balkans: the Byzantine Empire controlled the south of the peninsula and the coasts, the Bulgarian Empire held the central and northern Balkans; the early decades of the century were dominated by Tsar Simeon, who expanded his empire at Byzantium's expense in a series of wars and secured for himself recognition of his imperial title. Simeon's death in May 927 was soon followed by a rapprochement between the two powers, formalized with a treaty and a marriage alliance that same year. Simeon's second son and successor, Peter I, married Maria, the granddaughter of the Byzantine emperor Romanos I Lekapenos, his imperial title was recognized. An annual tribute was agreed to be paid to the Bulgarian ruler in exchange for peace; the agreement was kept for forty years as peaceful relations suited both sides.
Bulgaria, despite the barrier formed by the Danube, was still menaced in its northern reaches by steppe peoples, the Magyars and the Pechenegs. They launched raids throughout Bulgaria reaching Byzantine territory as well; the Byzantine–Bulgarian peace meant less trouble from the north, as many Pecheneg raids had been sponsored by the Byzantines. Peter's reign, although lacking the military splendour of Simeon's, was still a "golden age" for Bulgaria, with a flourishing economy and a thriving urban society. Byzantium used the peace to focus its energy on wars against the Abbasid Caliphate in the East, where a series of campaigns under generals John Kourkouas and Nikephoros Phokas expanded imperial territory. At the same time, military reforms created a offensively-oriented army; the Byzantines did not neglect the Balkans, working to improve their contacts with the peoples of central and eastern Europe, subtly altering the balance of power in the peninsula. Their Crimean outpost of Cherson maintained trade with the Pechenegs and the emerging power of the Kievan Rus'.
These relationships on the periphery of the Bulgarian Empire were an important asset for Byzantine diplomacy: instigating attacks against Bulgaria by the Pechenegs and the Khazars was a time-honoured method of applying pressure on the Bulgarians. Upon the sudden death of Emperor Romanos II in 963, Nikephoros Phokas usurped the throne from Romanos' infant sons and became senior emperor as Nikephoros II. Nikephoros, a prominent member of the Anatolian military aristocracy focused on the East, leading his army in campaigns that recovered Cyprus and Cilicia, thus things stood when a Bulgarian embassy visited Nikephoros in late 965 or early 966 to collect the tribute owed. Nikephoros, his confidence boosted by his recent successes, deeming the Bulgarian ruler's demand presumptuous, refused to pay, claiming that with Empress Maria's recent death any such obligations had ceased, he sent them home with threats and insults. He proceeded with his troops to Thrace, where he staged an elaborate parade as a display of mi
Nicholas I Mystikos or Nicholas I Mysticus was the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from March 901 to February 907 and from May 912 to his death in 925. His feast day in the Eastern Orthodox Church is 16 May. Nicholas had become a friend of the Patriarch Photios, he retired to a monastery. Emperor Leo VI the Wise retrieved him from the monastery and made him mystikos, a dignity designating either the imperial secretary or a judicial official. On 1 March 901, Nicholas was appointed patriarch. However, he fell out with Leo VI over the latter's fourth marriage to his mistress Zoe Karbonopsina. Although he reluctantly baptized the fruit of this relationship, the future Constantine VII, Nicholas forbade the emperor from entering the church and may have become involved in the revolt of Andronikos Doukas, he was replaced by Euthymios. Exiled to his own monastery, Nicholas regarded his deposition as unjustified and involved Pope Sergius III in the dispute. About the time of the accession of Leo VI's brother Alexander to the throne in May 912, Nicholas was restored to the patriarchate.
A protracted struggle with the supporters of Euthymios followed, which did not end until the new Emperor Romanos I Lekapenos promulgated the Tomos of Union in 920. In the meantime Alexander had died in 913 after provoking a war with Bulgaria, the underage Constantine VII succeeded to the throne. Nicholas Mystikos became the leading member of the seven-man regency for the young emperor, as such had to face the advance of Simeon I of Bulgaria on Constantinople. Nicholas negotiated a peaceful settlement, crowned Simeon emperor of the Bulgarians in a makeshift ceremony outside Constantinople, arranged for the marriage of Simeon's daughter to Constantine VII; this unpopular concession undermined his position, by March 914, with the support of the magistros John Eladas, Zoe Karbonopsina overthrew Nicholas and replaced him as foremost regent. She revoked the agreement with Simeon. With her main supporter Leo Phokas crushingly defeated by the Bulgarians at the Battle of Acheloos in 917, Zoe started to lose ground.
Embarrassed by further failures and her supporters were supplanted in 919 by the admiral Romanos Lekapenos, who married his daughter Helena Lekapene to Constantine VII and advanced to the imperial throne in 920. The Patriarch Nicholas came to be one of the strongest supporters of the new emperor, took the brunt of renewed negotiations with the Bulgarians until his death in 925. In addition to his numerous letters to various notables and foreign rulers, Nicholas Mystikos wrote a homily on the sack of Thessalonica by the Arabs in 904, he was a critical thinker who went as far as to question the authority of Old Testament quotations and the notion that the emperor's command was unwritten law. Nicholas I, Patriarch of Constantinople, Letters. Greek Text and English Tr. by R. J. H. Jenkins and L. G. Westerink; the Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium
The Danube is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Eastern Europe; the Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for 2,850 km, passing through or bordering Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria and Ukraine before draining into the Black Sea, its drainage basin extends into nine more countries. The Danube river basin is home to fish species such as pike, huchen, Wels catfish and tench, it is home to a large diversity of carp and sturgeon, as well as salmon and trout. A few species of euryhaline fish, such as European seabass and eel, inhabit the Danube Delta and the lower portion of the river. Since ancient times, the Danube has become a traditional trade route in Europe, nowadays 2,415 km of its total length being navigable; the river is an important source of energy and drinking water. Danube is an Old European river name derived from a Proto-Indo-European *dānu.
Other river names from the same root include the Dunaj, Dzvina/Daugava, Donets, Dniestr, Dysna and Tuoni. In Rigvedic Sanskrit, dānu means "fluid, drop", in Avestan, the same word means "river". In the Rigveda, Dānu once appears as the mother of Vrtra, "a dragon blocking the course of the rivers"; the Finnish word for Danube is Tonava, most derived from the word for the river in Swedish and German, Donau. Its Sámi name Deatnu means "Great River", it is possible that dānu in Scythian as in Avestan was a generic word for "river": Dnieper and Dniestr, from Danapris and Danastius, are presumed to continue Scythian *dānu apara "far river" and *dānu nazdya- "near river", respectively. The river was known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning "strong, swift", from a root also encountered in the ancient name of the Dniester and akin to Iranic turos “swift” and Sanskrit iṣiras "swift", from the PIE *isro-, *sreu “to flow”. In the Middle Ages, the Greek Tiras was borrowed into Italian as Tyrlo and into Turkic languages as Tyrla, the latter further borrowed into Romanian as a regionalism.
The Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas, "the bringer of luck". In Latin, the Danube was variously known as Ister; the Latin name is masculine, except Slovenian. The German Donau is feminine, as it has been re-interpreted as containing the suffix -ouwe "wetland". Romanian differs from other surrounding languages in designating the river with a feminine term, Dunărea; this form was not inherited from Latin. To explain the loss of the Latin name, scholars who suppose that Romanian developed near the large river propose that the Romanian name descends from a hypotetical Thracian *Donaris that shares the same PIE root with the Iranic don-/dan-, with the suffix -aris encountered in the ancient name of the Ialomița River, in the unidentified Miliare river mentioned by Jordanes in his Getica. Gábor Vékony says that this hypothesis is not plausible, because the Greeks borrowed the Istros form from the native Thracians, he proposes. The modern languages spoken in the Danube basin all use names related to Dānuvius: German: Donau.
Dunav. Dunai. Classified as an international waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen, in the Black Forest of Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Brigach and Breg; the Danube flows southeast for about 2,730 km, passing through four capital cities before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and Ukraine. Once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, the river passes through or touches the borders of 10 countries: Romania, Serbia, Germany, Slovakia, Croatia and Moldova, its drainage basin extends into nine more. In addition to the bordering countries, the drainage basin includes parts of nine more countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Czech Republic, Montenegro, Italy, North Macedonia and Albania, its total drainage basin is 801,463 km2. The highest point of the drainage basin is the summit of Piz Bernina at the Italy–Switzerland border, at 4,049 metres; the land drained by the Danube extends into many other countries. Many Danubian tributaries are important rivers in their own right, navigable by barges and other shallow-draught boats.
From its source to its outlet into the Black Sea, its main tribu
De Administrando Imperio
De Administrando Imperio is the Latin title of a Greek-language work written by the 10th-century Eastern Roman Emperor Constantine VII. The Greek title of the work is Πρὸς τὸν ἴδιον υἱὸν Ρωμανόν, it is a domestic and foreign policy manual for the use of Constantine's son and successor, the Emperor Romanos II. Constantine was a scholar-emperor, who sought to foster learning and education in the Eastern Roman Empire, he produced many other works, including De Ceremoniis, a treatise on the etiquette and procedures of the imperial court, a biography of his grandfather, Basil I. De Administrando Imperio was written between 948 and 952, it contains advice on running the ethnically-mixed empire as well as fighting foreign enemies. The work combines two of Constantine's earlier treatises, "On the Governance of the State and the various Nations", concerning the histories and characters of the nations neighbouring the Empire, including the Turks, Kievan Rus', South Slavs, Lombards and Georgians. To this combination were added Constantine's own political instructions to his son Romanus.
The book content, according to its preface, is divided into four sections: a key to the foreign policy in the most dangerous and complicated area of the contemporary political scene, the area of northerners and Scythians, a lesson in the diplomacy to be pursued in dealing with the nations of the same area a comprehensive geographic and historical survey of most of the surrounding nations and a summary of the recent internal history and organization of the Empire. As to the historical and geographic information, confusing and filled with legends, this information is in essence reliable; the historical and antiquarian treatise, which the Emperor had compiled during the 940s, is contained in the chapters 12—40. This treatise contains traditional and legendary stories of how the territories surrounding the Empire came in the past to be occupied by the people living in them in the Emperor's times. Chapters 1 -- 8, 10 -- 12 explain imperial policy toward the Turks. Chapter 13 is a general directive on foreign policy coming from the Emperor.
Chapters 43—46 are about contemporary policy in the north-east. The guides to the incorporation and taxation of new imperial provinces, to some parts of civil and naval administration, are in chapters 49—52; these chapters were designed to give practical instructions to the emperor Romanus II, are added during the year 951–52, in order to mark Romanus' fourteenth birthday. The earliest surviving copy, was made by John Doukas' confidential secretary, Michael, in the late 11th century; this manuscript was copied in 1509 by Antony Eparchus. 126, has a number of notes in Greek and Latin, added by late readers. A third complete copy, known as F=codex Parisinus gr.2967, is itself a copy of V, begun by Eparchus and completed by Michael Damascene. There is a incomplete, manuscript known as M = codex Mutinensis gr. 179, a copy of P made by Andrea Darmari between 1560 and 1586. Two of the manuscripts are now located in Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris, the third is in the Vatican Library; the partial manuscript is in Modena.
The Greek text in its entirety was published seven times. The editio princeps, based on V, was published in 1611 by Johannes Meursius, who gave it the Latin title by which it is now universally known, which translates as On Administering the Empire; this edition was published six years with no changes. The next edition belongs to the A. Bandur, collated copy of the first edition and manuscript P. Banduri's edition was reprinted twice: in 1729 in the Venetian collection of the Byzantine Historians and in 1864 Migne republished Banduri's text with a few corrections. Constantine himself had not given the work a name, preferring instead to start the text with the standard formal salutation: "Constantine, in Christ the Eternal Sovereign, Emperor of the Romans, to own son Romanos the Emperor crowned of God and born in the purple"; the language Constantine uses is rather straightforward High Medieval Greek, somewhat more elaborate than that of the Canonic Gospels, comprehensible to an educated modern Greek.
The only difficulty is the regular use of technical terms which, being in standard use at the time, may present prima facie hardships to a modern reader. For example, Constantine writes of the regular practice of sending basilikoí to distant lands for negotiations - in this case it is meant that "royal men", i.e. imperial envoys, were sent as ambassadors on a specific mission. In the preamble, the emperor makes a point that he has avoided convoluted expressions and "lofty Atticisms" on purpose, so as to make everything "plain as the beaten track of common, everyday speech" for his son and those high officials with whom he might choose to share the work, it is the extant written text that comes closest to the vernacular employed by the Imperial Palace bureaucracy in 10th century Constantinople. In 1892 R. Vari planned a new critical edition of this work and J. B. Bury proposed to include this work in his collection of Byzantine Texts, he gave up the plan for an edition, surrendering it to Gyula Moravcsik in 1925.
The first modern edition of the Greek text (by G