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Romansh language

Romansh is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons, where it has official status alongside German and Italian. It is used as the medium of instruction in schools in Romansh-speaking areas. Romansh has been recognized as a national language of Switzerland since 1938, as an official language in correspondence with Romansh-speaking citizens since 1996, along with German and Italian, it is sometimes grouped by linguists with Ladin and Friulian as a Rhaeto-Romance language, though this is disputed. Romansh is one of the descendant languages of the spoken Latin language of the Roman Empire, which by the 5th century AD replaced the Celtic and Raetic languages spoken in the area. Romansh retains a small number of words from these languages. Romansh has been influenced by German in vocabulary and morphosyntax; the language retreated to its current area over the centuries, being replaced in other areas by Alemannic and Bavarian dialects. The earliest writing identified as Romansh dates from the 10th or 11th century, although major works did not appear until the 16th century, when several regional written varieties began to develop.

During the 19th century the area where the language was spoken declined, but the Romansh speakers had a literary revival and started a language movement dedicated to halting the decline of the language. In the 2000 Swiss census, 35,095 people indicated Romansh as the language of "best command", 61,815 as a "regularly spoken" language. In 2010, Switzerland switched to a yearly system of assessment that uses a combination of municipal citizen records and a limited number of surveys; as of 2017, they make up 44,354 inhabitants of Switzerland, or 0.85% of its population, 28,698 inhabitants of the canton of Grisons, or 14.7% of Grisons' population. About 28% of the Romansh-speaking people in the Romansh-speaking areas speak one other language fluently, e.g. German or Italian, which are the other official languages of Grisons. Romansh is divided into five different regional dialects, each with its own standardized written language. In addition, a pan-regional variety called Rumantsch Grischun was introduced in 1982, controversial among Romansh speakers.

Romansh is a Romance language descending from the spoken language of the Roman Empire. Within the Romance languages, Romansh stands out because of its peripheral location, which has resulted in several archaic features. Another distinguishing feature is the centuries-long language contact with German, most noticeable in the vocabulary and to a lesser extent the syntax of Romansh. Romansh belongs to the Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages, which includes languages such as French and Lombard; the main feature placing Romansh within the Gallo-Romance languages is the fronting of Latin /u/ to or, as seen in Latin muru, mür or mir in Romansh. The main features distinguishing Romansh from the Gallo-Italic languages to the south, placing it closer to French, are: Palatalization of Latin K and G in front of A, as in Latin canem, tgaun in Sursilvan, tgang in Surmiran, chaun in Putèr and Vallader; this sound change is absent in some varieties of Romansh, however in Sursilvan, where it may have been reversed at some point: Sursilvan casa and Vallader chasa'house'.

Pluralisation with "-s" suffix, derived from the Latin Accusative case, as in buns chavals as opposed to Italian buoni cavalli. Retention of L following / p b k ɡ f /: clav from Latin clavem. Another defining feature of the Romansh language is the use of unstressed vowels. All unstressed vowels disappeared. Whether or not Romansh and Ladin should compose a separate "Rhaeto-Romance" subgroup within Gallo-Romance is an unresolved issue, known as the Questione ladina; some linguists posit that these languages are descended from a common language, fractured geographically through the spread of German and Italian. The Italian linguist Graziadio Ascoli first made the claim in 1873; the other position holds that any similarities between these three languages can be explained through their relative geographic isolation, which shielded them from certain linguistic changes. By contrast, the Gallo-Italic varieties of Northern Italy were more open to linguistic influences from the South. Linguists who take this position point out that the similarities between the languages are comparatively few.

This position was first introduced by the Italian dialectologist Carlo Battisti. This linguistic dispute became politically relevant for the Italian irredentist movement. Italian nationalists interpreted Battisti's hypothesis as implying that Romansh and Ladin were not separate languages but rather Italian dialects, they used this as an argument to claim the territories for Italy. From a sociolinguistic perspective, this question is irrelevant; the speakers of Romansh have always identified as speaking a language distinct from both Italian and other Romance varieties. Romansh comprises a group of related dialects, which are most divided into five different varieties, each of which has developed a standardized form; these standardized regional standards are referred to as idioms in Romansh to distinguish them fro

2016–17 Arizona State Sun Devils men's basketball team

The 2016–17 Arizona State Sun Devils men's basketball team represented Arizona State University during the 2016–17 NCAA Division I men's basketball season. The Sun Devils were led by second-year head coach Bobby Hurley, played their home games at Wells Fargo Arena in Tempe, Arizona as members of Pac–12 Conference; the Sun Devils finished the season 7 -- 11 in Pac-12 play to finish in eighth place. In the Pac-12 Tournament, they defeated Stanford in the first round before losing to Oregon in the quarterfinals The Sun Devils finished the 2015–16 season 15–17, 5–13 in Pac-12 play to finish in 11th place, they lost in the first round of the Pac-12 Tournament to Oregon State. Freshman Sam Cunliffe left team 10 games into the season and elected to transfer

Alwi bin Thahir al-Haddad

Habib Alwi bin Thahir al-Haddad was an Islamic scholar known as the Mufti of Johor in twentieth century and the co-founder of Jamiat Kheir and Al-Rabithah al-Alawiyyah foundations in Batavia during colonial Dutch East Indies. ʻAlwī bin Ṭāhir al-Ḥaddād was born in Qaydun, Yemen on August 7, 1884 CE. His surname al-Ḥaddād is one of the family names in Ba'Alawi sadah; the first Ba'Alawi to acquire the name al-Haddad was son of Abu Bakr. This sayyid, who lived in the ninth century of the Hijra was an'alim who used to spend much of his time sitting at an ironsmith's shop in Tarim. There was another Sayyid with the name Ahmad, well known at the time. To distinguish between Sayyid Ahmad bin Abubakar and the other Ahmad, people started adding al-Haddad to Sayyid Ahmad bin Abubakr. Since his descendants continued to use surname al-Haddad; the family lineage of ʻAlwi bin Ṭāhir is as follows: ʻAlwi bin Ṭāhir bin ʻAbdullah bin Taha ʻAbdullah bin Omar bin ʻAbdullah bin ʻAlwi bin Muhammad bin ʻAlwi bin Ahmad bin Abi Bakr Abu Thahir.

Thahir is a Sayyid of Ba'Alawi sadah with his family lineage traces back to Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatimah. He had sons who moved to the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula, among them were Thahir and Hamid. ʻAlwī bin Ṭāhir al-Ḥaddād died on November 14, 1962, was buried in the Mahmudiah Islamic cemetery in Johor Bahru. ʻAlwi had childhood dream of becoming scholar. This was supported by the determination in his studies, he liked to approach many Islamic scholars during his youth time. Some of his teachers in Hadhramaut were Habib Ahmad bin al-Hasan al-Attas al-Alawi, Habib Thahir bin Umar al-Haddad, Habib Muhammad bin Thahir al-Haddad, al-Mu’ammar Sirajuddin Umar bin Othman bin Muhammad Ba-Othman al-'Amudi al-Shiddiqi al-Bakri, he studied Hadiths from Sayyid'Abdur Rahman bin Sulaiman al-Ahdal. He studied to his relatives, such as his uncle Habib Abdullah bin Tāha al-Ḥaddād, to Habib Ṭāhir bin Abi Bakri al-Ḥaddād.ʻAlwi finished reading the Ihya Ulum ad-Din of Imam al-Ghazali while he was still 12 years old.

In the age of 17 years he had started teaching, started teaching from serious and high caliber textbooks when he was just only 20 years old. The areas of his teachings including Tafsir, Fiqh, Usul al-fiqh, Astronomy, Sharaf, Balaghah and Tasawwuf. Habib ʻAlwi is known as the scholar in the history of Alawiyyin. During his life, ʻAlwi traveled to various places away from his hometown, such as to Somalia, Mecca, Dutch East Indies and others. In countries he stopped by, he always spent time to teach. In Batavia, Habib ʻAlwi taught at Madrasah Jamiat Kheir. In fact, he was the co-founder as well as the first vice principal of the school. In addition, he taught in Bogor and other places in Java. Everytime he taught, it was always crowded; some of popular figures learned from him were Sayyid ʻAlwi bin Sheikh Bilfaqih al-Alawi, Sayyid ʻAlwi bin Abbas al-Maliki, Sayyid Salim bin Ali al-Jindan, Sayyid Abu Bakar al-Habshi, Sayyid Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Haddad, Sayyid Abdullah bin Abdul Qadir Bilfaqih, Sayyid Husein bin Abdullah bin Husein al-Attas, Sayyid Hasan Muhammad al-Masyath al-Makki and Abdullah bin Nuh.

The Sultanate of Johor Bahru in Malaysia chose him to serve as mufti from 1934 to 1941, first as the third mufti of the Johor government to replace the preceding Mufti of Johor, Datuk Sayyid Abdul Qadir bin Mohsen al-Attas. and from 1947 to 1961 to replace the fifth mufti, Tan Sri Datuk Haji Hassan Bin Yunus. During his position as Mufti, ʻAlwi issued 12000 fatwas, he wrote several books, among them are: Al-Qaul al-Fashl fi Maa li Bani Hashim wa Quraisy wal-Arab Min al-Fadhl Masalah Durus al-Sirah al-Nabawiyah Mukhtashar Aqd al-Aali of Idrus bin Umar al-Habshi I’anah an-Nahidh fi Ilm al-Faraidh Majmuah min Ulum al-Falaq Ath-Thabaqat al-Alawiyyah Sejarah masuknya Islam di Timur Jauh