Earl of Romney
Earl of Romney is a title, created twice. It was first created in the Peerage of England in 1694 in favour of the soldier and politician Henry Sydney, he had been made Baron Milton and Viscount Sydney at the same time in 1689. Sydney was the younger son of 2nd Earl of Leicester, he never married and the titles became extinct on his death in 1704. It was created for the second time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1801 in favour of Charles Marsham, 3rd Baron Romney; the Marsham family descends from Sir John Marsham, one of the six Clerks of the Court of Chancery from 1638 to 1644 and from 1660 to 1680. In 1663 he was created a Baronet, of Cuckston in the County of Kent, in the Baronetage of England, his grandson, the fourth Baronet, was a Clerk of the Court of Chancery and represented Maidstone in the House of Commons. His son, the fifth Baronet sat as Member of Parliament for Maidstone and served as Governor of Dover Castle. In 1716 he was raised to the Peerage of Great Britain as Baron of Romney, of Romney in the County of Kent.
His grandson, the aforementioned third Baron, represented Maidstone and Kent in Parliament and served as Lord Lieutenant of Kent. In 1801 he was created Viscount Marsham, of The Mote in the County of Kent, Earl of Romney, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, he was succeeded by the second Earl. He was Member of Parliament for Downton, his son, the third Earl, represented Kent West in the House of Commons. He was succeeded by his son, the fourth Earl, who held political office in the second Conservative government of Lord Salisbury as a Lord-in-waiting from 1889 to 1892; the line of his eldest son, the fifth Earl, failed on the death of the latter's son, the sixth Earl, in 1975. The late Earl was succeeded by the seventh Earl, he was the son of Lieutenant-Colonel the Hon. Reginald Hastings Marsham, second son of the fourth Earl; as of 2010 the titles are held by his first cousin once removed, the eighth Earl, who succeeded in 2004. He is the son of Colonel Peter William Marsham, son of the Hon. Sydney Edward Marsham, youngest son of the fourth Earl.
The family seat was at Mote House, near Maidstone, but since 1891 it has been the Gayton Hall Estate at Gayton near Kings Lynn, Norfolk. Henry Sydney, 1st Earl of Romney Sir John Marsham, 1st Baronet Sir John Marsham, 2nd Baronet Sir John Marsham, 3rd Baronet Sir Robert Marsham, 4th Baronet Sir Robert Marsham, 5th Baronet Robert Marsham, 1st Baron Romney Robert Marsham, 2nd Baron Romney Charles Marsham, 3rd Baron Romney Charles Marsham, 1st Earl of Romney Charles Marsham, 2nd Earl of Romney Charles Marsham, 3rd Earl of Romney Charles Marsham, 4th Earl of Romney Charles Marsham, 5th Earl of Romney Charles Marsham, 6th Earl of Romney Michael Henry Marsham, 7th Earl of Romney Julian Charles Marsham, 8th Earl of Romney The heir apparent is the present holder's son David Charles Marsham, Viscount Marsham. Earl of Leicester Kidd, Williamson, David. Debrett's Baronetage. New York: St Martin's Press, 1990, Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Obituary of Charles Marsham, 2nd Earl of Romney from the Gentleman's Magazine Published 1845 at Google Books Obituary of Michael Henry Marsham, 7th Earl of Romney at The Daily Telegraph, 9 June 2004 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Michael Henry Marsham, 7th Earl of Romney
Robert Marsham was an English naturalist considered to be the founding father of phenology, the study of the effects of the seasons on plants and animals. He was born in 1708 and admitted to Clare College, Cambridge in 1728. From a early age he had shown a passion for the natural world. In life, he owned a modest sized country estate in Stratton Strawless and became friendly with the naturalist Gilbert White, with whom he carried on a lengthy correspondence and who described him as a'painful and accurate naturalist', he is best known for his Indications of Spring, the phenology notes in which he recorded 27 signs of spring, starting in 1736 and continuing for over 60 years. Successive generations of his family added to his work until well into the 20th century and this information now provides immensely valuable data to the UK phenology database, giving us a wealth of knowledge about how spring is influenced by prevailing weather conditions, This is now of huge interest in the climate change debate.
Marsham was the first to record the effects of nature and seasonal change. Marsham provided insight into the winter of 1739/40, the coldest year on record, when the contents of his chamber pot froze overnight and the turnip crop was destroyed. Turnips, being a Norfolk speciality, feature elsewhere: he recorded turnip flowering dates. On a lighter note he was amazed at the size a turnip achieved and he was very proud. Marsham is still the only person in Norfolk to have recorded the wallcreeper bird, his interest in trees resulted in his being elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1780. His Indications of Spring were published in'Philosophical Transactions' by the Royal Society in 1789, he married twice: firstly Mary Browne of Yaxham, who died in 1752, with whom he had one son, Robert Marsham of Stratton Strawless. The tree is located in Reed-house grove to the east of the Stratton Strawless hall. Robert Marsham's Tricentenary Celebrations website Woodland Trust Nature's Calendar page
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and Blind
The West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and Blind were established by an Act of the Legislature on March 3, 1870. The School for the Deaf and the School for the Blind offer comprehensive educational programs for hearing impaired and visually impaired students respectively. There is a unit for deafblind and multihandicapped children. Students are eligible to enroll at the age of three, must be residents of the state of West Virginia and exhibit a hearing or visual loss sufficient to prevent normal progress in the usual public school setting; the West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and Blind are located on a campus in Romney in West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. Locally, the schools are referred to as The state school. Both the School for the Deaf and the School for the Blind are supervised by the West Virginia Board of Education, supported by the state of West Virginia, accredited by the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools at the elementary and secondary levels; the idea to establish a school in West Virginia for the deaf and blind began in 1869 or early 1870.
Professor Howard Hille Johnson of Franklin, himself blind, was instrumental in bringing a school for the deaf and blind to West Virginia. During his youth, Johnson had attended the Virginia School for the Deaf and the Blind in Staunton, Virginia. Shortly after West Virginia's statehood, Johnson recognized the need for such a school in the state and he began canvassing the state, gathering support for his project. Several towns including Romney and Parkersburg all lobbied to have the school located there, but Romney was selected following an offer consisting of the buildings and grounds of the Romney Literary Society's Romney Classical Institute; the Romney Classical Institute had lain dormant since the American Civil War when its libraries' volumes were destroyed and its campus was left beyond repair. On March 3, 1870, H. H. Johnson's dreams became a reality when the West Virginia Legislature approved a measure calling for the creation of the West Virginia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind.
The school opened on September 29, 1870 with thirty students, twenty-five deaf and five blind students. Through the years, additional buildings and grounds have been added to accommodate increasing enrollment; the main campus consists of sixteen major buildings, containing 302,000 square feet, situated on seventy-nine acres of land. On May 17, 1916, Helen Keller visited the West Virginia Schools for the Blind. Marshall S. Cornwell, Board of Regents secretary John Collins Covell, principal Samuel Lightfoot Flournoy, trustee Henry Bell Gilkeson and principal Howard Hille Johnson and professor Robert White, trustee Big Run Literary Hall WVXS Media related to West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and Blind at Wikimedia Commons West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and the Blind Act Establishing the West Virginia Schools for the Deaf and the Blind Goldenseal: "A Campus Called Home"
New Romney is a small town in Kent, England, on the edge of Romney Marsh, an area of flat, rich agricultural land reclaimed from the sea after the harbour began to silt up. New Romney, one of the original Cinque Ports, was once a sea port, with the harbour adjacent to the church, but is now more than a mile from the sea. A mooring ring can still be seen in front of the church, it is the headquarters of the Romney and Dymchurch Railway. New Romney is not different in age from the nearby village of Old Romney; however New Romney, now about a mile and a half from the seafront, was a harbour town at the mouth of the River Rother. The Rother estuary was always difficult to navigate, with sandbanks. To make navigation easier two large rocks, one bigger than the other, were placed at the entrance to the main channel; the names of two local settlements and Littlestone, are a reminder of these aids. Another possible explanation for these place-names is a result of the effects of Longshore Drift, which disperses shingle and sand deposits, from west to east, with heavier stones accumulating in the area known as Greatstone, while far smaller shingle is to be found in great quantities at Littlestone.
Fine sand is found further east at neighbouring St Mary's Bay. In the latter part of the thirteenth century a series of severe storms weakened the coastal defences of Romney Marsh, the South England flood of February 1287 destroyed the town, as it did destroy the nearby ancient parish of Broomhill; the harbour and town were filled with sand, silt and debris, the River Rother changed course to run out into the sea near Rye, Sussex. The mud and sand were never removed from the town, why many old buildings the church, have steps leading down into them from the present pavement level. New Romney is one of the original Cinque Ports of England, although its importance declined during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries after the loss of the harbour. Archaeological investigations in 2007 during replacement of the town's main drainage have cast new light on the medieval origins and development of the town. During World War II a fleet of floating concrete harbour sections were towed across the English Channel to France to aid the Allied landings.
One of these harbour pieces remains, embedded in a sandbank just off the coast by Littlestone-on-Sea, is visible at low tide. Further up the coast during the Pipe Line Under The Ocean, or PLUTO, oil was pumped to France under the English Channel for use by allied troops. New Romney is the main centre of population on the Romney Marsh. Founded in 1610 by John Southland and known locally as just "Southland's", John Southland's Community Comprehensive School, the only secondary school in the area, was renamed The Marsh Academy in August 2007. Like many towns on the marsh it has an impressive Norman church in the centre of town; this church stood at the harbourside, its entrances are several feet below ground level. The church is notable for the boat hooks still evident on the side walls. New Romney's historic high street has several interesting shops. A few businesses closed after the opening of a branch of supermarket chain Sainsbury's, but the town retains much of its character; the former almshouses in West Street are noted historic buildings of Kent.
Adjacent to these is Plantagenet House and No 3 Old Stone Cottage, which originated as a single house constructed c. 1300–1350. Researchers think it was the home of the Master of The Hospital of St John the Baptist, a large secular establishment; the hospital was operating by c. 1260 and flourished until the close of the fifteenth century.3/4-mile north of the town is the links golf course at Littlestone-on-Sea. The golf course was a favourite of Denis Thatcher, late husband of former British prime minister Margaret Thatcher, has been used several times for the qualifying rounds of The Open Championship; the Romney and Dymchurch Railway has a station at the extreme east of New Romney, which as well as being a major tourist attraction was used by students travelling to school until 2015. The station is about three-quarters of a mile east of the historic town centre. New Romney was once serviced by the New Romney and Littlestone-On-Sea railway station, part of the Lydd Line; the station was sited halfway between New Littlestone-on-Sea.
As built the station had two platforms and a small goods yard with four sidings, a goods shed, cattle dock, coal wharves, end loading dock, water tower and other small buildings. The up platform was used in latter years other than as a livestock loading dock; the station was called New Romney & Littlestone with on-Sea being added in October 1888. In 1927 a single line extension was built with an unprotected level crossing to an exchange siding with the adjacent Romney Hythe and Dymchurch Railway station on the opposite side of the Station Road; the signal box was taken out of use in the 1950s and goods service was withdrawn in 1964. The station was replaced with a bus service. New Romney is accessible by road, sitting astride the A259. Several bus services run to and through New Romney from Hastings and Ashford. New Romney has one dedicated weekly newspaper, the Kentish Express is the only weekly newspaper for the Romney Marsh covering the town. There is the Folkestone Herald (which incorporated the Romney Marsh Herald in 2014, published by Kent Regional News a
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government