Los Angeles Lakers
The Los Angeles Lakers are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles. The Lakers compete in the National Basketball Association, as a member of the league's Western Conference in the Pacific Division; the Lakers play their home games at Staples Center, an arena shared with the NBA's Los Angeles Clippers, the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association, the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League. The Lakers are one of the most successful teams in the history of the NBA, have won 16 NBA championships, the second-most behind the Boston Celtics; the franchise began with the 1947 purchase of a disbanded team, the Detroit Gems of the National Basketball League. The new team began calling themselves the Minneapolis Lakers. A member of the NBL, the Lakers won the 1948 NBL championship before joining the rival Basketball Association of America, where they would win five of the next six championships, led by star George Mikan. After struggling financially in the late 1950s following Mikan's retirement, they relocated to Los Angeles before the 1960–61 season.
Led by Hall of Famers Elgin Baylor and Jerry West, Los Angeles made the NBA Finals six times in the 1960s, but lost each series to the Celtics, beginning their long and storied rivalry. In 1968, the Lakers acquired four-time NBA Most Valuable Player Wilt Chamberlain, won their sixth NBA title—and first in Los Angeles—in 1972, led by new head coach Bill Sharman. After the retirement of West and Chamberlain, the team acquired Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, who won multiple MVP awards, but was unable to make the Finals in the late 1970s; the 1980s Lakers were nicknamed "Showtime" due to their fast break-offense led by Magic Johnson. The team won five championships in a nine-year span, contained Hall of Famers Johnson, Abdul-Jabbar, James Worthy, was led by Hall of Fame coach Pat Riley. After Abdul-Jabbar and Johnson retired, the team struggled in the early 1990s, before acquiring Shaquille O'Neal and Kobe Bryant in 1996. With the duo, who were led by another Hall of Fame coach Phil Jackson, the team won three consecutive titles between 2000 to 2002, securing the franchise its second "three-peat".
The Lakers won two more championships in 2009 and 2010, but failed to regain their former glory in the following decade. The Lakers hold the record for NBA's longest winning streak, 33 straight games, set during the 1971–72 season. 21 Hall of Famers have played for Los Angeles. Four Lakers—Abdul-Jabbar, Johnson, O'Neal, Bryant—have won the NBA MVP Award for a total of eight awards; the Lakers' franchise began in 1947 when Ben Berger and Morris Chalfen of Minnesota purchased the disbanded Detroit Gems of the National Basketball League for $15,000 from Gems owner Maury Winston. Minneapolis sportswriter Sid Hartman played a key behind the scenes role in helping put together the deal and the team. Inspired by Minnesota's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", the team christened themselves the Lakers. Hartman helped them hire John Kundla from College of St. Thomas, to be their first head coach, by meeting with him and selling him on the team; the Lakers had a solid roster, which featured forward Jim Pollard, playmaker Herm Schaefer, center George Mikan, who became the most dominant player in the NBL.
In their first season, they led the league with a 43–17 record winning the NBL Championship that season. In 1948, the Lakers moved from the NBL to the Basketball Association of America, Mikan's 28.3 point per game scoring average set a BAA record. In the 1949 BAA Finals they won the championship; the following season, the team improved to 51–17, repeating as champions. In the 1950–51 season, Mikan won his third straight scoring title at 28.4 ppg and the Lakers went 44–24 to win their second straight division title. One of those games, a 19–18 loss against the Fort Wayne Pistons, became infamous as the lowest scoring game in NBA history. In the playoffs, they defeated the Indianapolis Olympians in three games but lost to the Rochester Royals in the next round. During the 1951 -- 52 season, the Lakers won 40 games, they faced the New York Knicks in the NBA Finals. In the 1952–53 season, Mikan led the NBA in rebounding, averaging 14.4 rebounds per game, was named MVP of the 1953 NBA All-Star Game.
After a 48–22 regular season, the Lakers defeated the Fort Wayne Pistons in the Western playoffs to advance to the NBA Finals. They defeated the New York Knicks to win their second straight championship. Though Lakers star George Mikan suffered from knee problems throughout the 1953–54 season, he was still able to average 18 ppg. Clyde Lovellette, drafted in 1952, helped the team win the Western Division; the team won its third straight championship in the 1950s and fifth in six seasons when it defeated the Syracuse Nationals in seven games. Following Mikan's retirement in the 1954 off-season, the Lakers struggled but still managed to win 40 games. Although they defeated the Rochester Royals in the first round of the playoffs, they were defeated by the Fort Wayne Pistons in the semifinals. Although they had losing records the next two seasons, they made the playoffs each year. Mikan came back for the last half of the 1955–56 season, but struggled and retired for good after the season. Led by Lovellette's 20.6 points and 13.5 rebounds, they advanced to the Conference Finals in 1956–57.
The Lakers had one of the worst seasons in team history in 1957–58 when they won a league-low 19 games. They had hired Mikan, the team's general manager for the previous two seasons, as head coach to replace Kundla. Mikan was fired in January when
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is a men's professional basketball league in North America. It is considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world; the NBA is an active member of USA Basketball, recognized by FIBA as the national governing body for basketball in the United States. The NBA is one of the four major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada. NBA players are the world's best paid athletes by average annual salary per player; the league was founded in New York City on June 1946, as the Basketball Association of America. The league adopted the name National Basketball Association on August 3, 1949, after merging with the competing National Basketball League; the league's several international as well as individual team offices are directed out of its head offices located in the Olympic Tower at 645 Fifth Avenue in Midtown Manhattan. NBA Entertainment and NBA TV studios are directed out of offices located in New Jersey; the Basketball Association of America was founded in 1946 by owners of the major ice hockey arenas in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States and Canada.
On November 1, 1946, in Toronto, Canada, the Toronto Huskies hosted the New York Knickerbockers at Maple Leaf Gardens, in a game the NBA now refers to as the first game played in NBA history. The first basket was made by Ossie Schectman of the Knickerbockers. Although there had been earlier attempts at professional basketball leagues, including the American Basketball League and the NBL, the BAA was the first league to attempt to play in large arenas in major cities. During its early years, the quality of play in the BAA was not better than in competing leagues or among leading independent clubs such as the Harlem Globetrotters. For instance, the 1948 ABL finalist Baltimore Bullets moved to the BAA and won that league's 1948 title, the 1948 NBL champion Minneapolis Lakers won the 1949 BAA title. Prior to the 1948–49 season, however, NBL teams from Fort Wayne, Indianapolis and Rochester jumped to the BAA, which established the BAA as the league of choice for collegians looking to turn professional.
On August 3, 1949, the remaining NBL teams–Syracuse, Tri-Cities, Sheboygan and Waterloo–merged into the BAA. In deference to the merger and to avoid possible legal complications, the league name was changed to the present National Basketball Association though the merged league retained the BAA's governing body, including Podoloff. To this day, the NBA claims the BAA's history as its own, it now reckons the arrival of the NBL teams as an expansion, not a merger, does not recognize NBL records and statistics. The new league had seventeen franchises located in a mix of large and small cities, as well as large arenas and smaller gymnasiums and armories. In 1950, the NBA consolidated to eleven franchises, a process that continued until 1953–54, when the league reached its smallest size of eight franchises: the New York Knicks, Boston Celtics, Philadelphia Warriors, Minneapolis Lakers, Rochester Royals, Fort Wayne Pistons, Tri-Cities Blackhawks, Syracuse Nationals, all of which remain in the league today.
The process of contraction saw. The Hawks shifted from the Tri-Cities to Milwaukee in 1951, to St. Louis in 1955; the Rochester Royals moved from Rochester, New York, to Cincinnati in 1957 and the Pistons relocated from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Detroit in 1957. Japanese-American Wataru Misaka broke the NBA color barrier in the 1947–48 season when he played for the New York Knicks, he remained the only non-white player in league history prior to the first African-American, Harold Hunter, signing with the Washington Capitols in 1950. Hunter was cut from the team during training camp, but several African-American players did play in the league that year, including Chuck Cooper with the Celtics, Nathaniel "Sweetwater" Clifton with the Knicks, Earl Lloyd with the Washington Capitols. During this period, the Minneapolis Lakers, led by center George Mikan, won five NBA Championships and established themselves as the league's first dynasty. To encourage shooting and discourage stalling, the league introduced the 24-second shot clock in 1954.
If a team does not attempt to score a field goal within 24 seconds of obtaining the ball, play is stopped and the ball given to its opponent. In 1957, rookie center Bill Russell joined the Boston Celtics, which featured guard Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, went on to lead the club to eleven NBA titles in thirteen seasons. Center Wilt Chamberlain entered the league with the Warriors in 1959 and became a dominant individual star of the 1960s, setting new single game records in scoring and rebounding. Russell's rivalry with Chamberlain became one of the greatest rivalries in the history of American team sports; the 1960s were dominated by the Celtics. Led by Russell, Bob Cousy and coach Red Auerbach, Boston won eight straight championships in the NBA from 1959 to 1966; this championship streak is the longest in NBA history. They did not win the title in 1966–67, but regained it in the 1967–68 season and repeated in 1969; the domination totaled nine of the ten championship banners of the 1960s.
Through this period, the NBA continued to evolve with the shift of the Minneapolis Lakers to Los Angeles, the Philadelphia Warriors to San Francisco, the Syracuse Nationals to Philadelphia to become the Philadelphia 76ers, the St. Louis Hawks moving to Atlanta, as well as the addition of its first expansion franchises; the Chicago Packers (now Wa
1989 NBA Playoffs
The 1989 NBA playoffs was the postseason tournament of the National Basketball Association's 1988–89 season. The tournament concluded with the Eastern Conference champion Detroit Pistons defeating the Western Conference champion Los Angeles Lakers 4 games to 0 in the NBA Finals. Joe Dumars was named NBA Finals MVP; the Pistons had one of the most dominant playoff runs in NBA history, finishing 15–2 with their only losses to the Chicago Bulls in the Eastern Conference Finals. The Lakers won the Western Conference title without losing a game, entered the NBA Finals as the heavy favorites. However, they were swept in the Finals by the Pistons, due in part to season-ending injuries suffered by Magic Johnson and Byron Scott; the Lakers became the first team in NBA history to open an NBA post-season with 11 straight victories and to sweep three series in an NBA post-season. Chicago advanced to the Eastern Conference Finals for the first time since 1975, but their season was ended by Detroit for the second straight year.
Two rounds earlier, he hit "The Shot" over Craig Ehlo at the buzzer to beat the Cavs. The Boston Celtics' first-round playoff sweep by the Pistons was the first time they failed to get past the round of 16. Boston's chances were hampered by the absence of Larry Bird during these playoffs due to a season-ending injury earlier in the season. Former Utah Jazz head coach Jerry Sloan made the first of 19 playoff appearances in a 22-year tenure; the only time he missed the playoffs with Utah was 2004–2006. Prior to this, he had last appeared in the playoffs in 1981 with the Bulls, his Jazz were ousted by the Golden State Warriors 3–0, the second time a seventh seed had beaten the second seed in the playoffs. Under Don Nelson, the Warriors became famous for their up-tempo game that made up for an undersized lineup, as well as their ability to create mismatches; the Warriors made history as the only team to beat either of the top two seeds thrice in the NBA Playoffs. Champion: Los Angeles Lakers 1st Round Los Angeles Lakers vs. Portland Trail Blazers: Lakers win series 3–0 Game 1 @ Great Western Forum, Los Angeles: Los Angeles 128, Portland 108 Game 2 @ Great Western Forum, Los Angeles: Los Angeles 113, Portland 105 Game 3 @ Memorial Coliseum, Portland: Los Angeles 116, Portland 108This was the fourth playoff meeting between these two teams, with the Lakers winning two of the first three meetings.
Utah Jazz vs. Golden State Warriors: Warriors win series 3–0 Game 1 @ Salt Palace, Salt Lake City: Golden State 123, Utah 119 Game 2 @ Salt Palace, Salt Lake City: Golden State 99, Utah 91 Game 3 @ Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum Arena, Oakland: Golden State 120, Utah 106This was the second playoff meeting between these two teams, with the Warriors winning the first meeting. Phoenix Suns vs. Denver Nuggets: Suns win series 3–0 Game 1 @ Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Phoenix: Phoenix 104, Denver 103 Game 2 @ Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Phoenix: Phoenix 132, Denver 114 Game 3 @ McNichols Sports Arena, Denver: Phoenix 130, Denver 121This was the third playoff meeting between these two teams, with each team winning one series apiece. Seattle SuperSonics vs. Houston Rockets: Sonics win series 3–1 Game 1 @ Seattle Center Coliseum, Seattle: Seattle 111, Houston 107 Game 2 @ Seattle Center Coliseum, Seattle: Seattle 109, Houston 97 Game 3 @ The Summit, Houston: Houston 126, Seattle 107 Game 4 @ The Summit, Houston: Seattle 98, Houston 96This was the third playoff meeting between these two teams, with the SuperSonics winning the first two meetings.
Conference Semifinals Los Angeles Lakers vs. Seattle SuperSonics: Lakers win series 4–0 Game 1 @ Great Western Forum, Los Angeles: Los Angeles 113, Seattle 102 Game 2 @ Great Western Forum, Los Angeles: Los Angeles 130, Seattle 108 Game 3 @ Seattle Center Coliseum, Seattle: Los Angeles 91, Seattle 86 Game 4 @ Seattle Center Coliseum, Seattle Angeles: Los Angeles 97, Seattle 95 This was the fifth playoff meeting between these two teams, with each team winning two series apiece. Phoenix Suns vs. Golden State Warriors: Suns win series 4–1 Game 1 @ Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Phoenix: Phoenix 130, Golden State 103 Game 2 @ Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Phoenix: Golden State 127, Phoenix 122 Game 3 @ Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum Arena, Oakland: Phoenix 113, Golden State 104 Game 4 @ Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum Arena, Oakland: Phoenix 135, Golden State 99 Game 5 @ Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Phoenix: Phoenix 116, Golden State 104This was the second playoff meeting between these two teams, with the Suns winning the first meeting.
Conference Finals Los Angeles Lakers vs. Phoenix Suns: Lakers win series 4–0 Game 1 @ Great Western Forum, Los Angeles: Los Angeles 127, Phoenix 119 Game 2 @ Great Western Forum, Los Angeles: Los Angeles 101, Phoenix 95 Game 3 @ Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Phoenix: Los Angeles 110, Phoenix 107 Game 4 @ Arizona Veterans Memorial Coliseum, Phoenix: Los Angeles 122, Phoenix 117This was the sixth playoff meeting between these two teams, with the Lakers winning the first five meetings. Champion: Detroit Pistons 1st Round Detroit Pistons vs. Boston Celtics: Pistons win series 3–0 Game 1 @ The Palace of Auburn Hills, Auburn Hills: Detroit 101
1986–87 Boston Celtics season
The 1986–87 Boston Celtics season was the 41st season of the Boston Celtics in the National Basketball Association. The Celtics entered the season as the defending NBA Champions, having defeated the Houston Rockets in the 1986 NBA Finals in six games, winning their sixteenth NBA championship. In the playoffs, the Celtics swept the Chicago Bulls in the First Round in three games, defeated the Milwaukee Bucks in the Semifinals in seven games, the Detroit Pistons in the Conference Finals in seven games to reach the NBA Finals for the fifth time in the 1980s. In the Finals, the Celtics faced off against their long time rival, the Los Angeles Lakers, in their third and final matchup in the NBA Finals in the 1980s; the Celtics would lose in six games to the Lakers, it marked the last time the Celtics made it to the NBA Finals until 2008. Thanks to the 1984 trade of Gerald Henderson and the subsequent fall of the Seattle SuperSonics, at the end of the 1985–86 season the Celtics owned not only the best team in the NBA but the second pick in the 1986 NBA Draft.
The Celtics had high hopes for the young Maryland Terrapins star. The hope was that his presence would ensure that the franchise would remain a powerhouse after Bird, McHale, Parish retired. Bias died 48 hours after he was drafted, after using cocaine at a party and overdosing. Unlike the prior year, the Celtics were forced to endure major injuries to several key players including Bill Walton, Kevin McHale and Robert Parish. With a road record of 20–21, the Celtics were a sub-.500 road team for the first time in the Larry Bird era and the first time since the 1978–79 season. However, they continued with the previous season's historic dominance at home with a record of 39–2 at Boston Garden. Note: GP= Games played. Detroit Pistons Celtics win series 4–3 Game 1 @ Boston: Boston 104, Detroit 91 Game 2 @ Boston: Boston 110, Detroit 101 Game 3 @ Detroit: Detroit 122, Boston 104 Game 4 @ Detroit: Detroit 145, Boston 119 Game 5 @ Boston: Boston 108, Detroit 107 Game 6 @ Detroit: Detroit 113, Boston 105 Game 7 @ Boston: Boston 117, Detroit 114 Despite the loss of Bias, the Celtics remained competitive in 1986–87, going 59–23 and again winning the Eastern Conference Championship.
Celtics ran into the best Los Angeles Lakers team of the "Showtime" era. The biggest injury was yet another foot injury for Bill Walton, who only played 10 regular season games in 1986–87 after playing 80 games the year before. Walton fought through the injury, playing 12 games in the playoffs, but was not the same player as he was the year before. Kevin McHale played on a broken foot through the playoffs; this combined with injuries to Parish and Ainge forced reserves Darren Daye and Fred Roberts to play larger roles in the series, which the Celtics would lose 4 games to 2. Los Angeles Lakers vs. Boston Celtics Lakers win series 4–2 Game 1 @ Los Angeles: Los Angeles 126, Boston 113 Game 2 @ Los Angeles: Los Angeles 141, Boston 122 Game 3 @ Boston: Boston 109, Los Angeles 103 Game 4 @ Boston: Los Angeles 107, Boston 106 Game 5 @ Boston: Boston 123, Los Angeles 108 Game 6 @ Los Angeles: Los Angeles 106, Boston 93 Larry Bird, All-NBA First Team Kevin McHale, All-NBA First Team Kevin McHale, All-NBA Defensive First Team Celtics on Database Basketball Celtics on Basketball Reference
Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints, is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, many other body components. It is not as hard and rigid as bone; the matrix of cartilage is made up of glycosaminoglycans, collagen fibers and, elastin. Because of its rigidity, cartilage serves the purpose of holding tubes open in the body. Examples include the rings such as the cricoid cartilage and carina. Cartilage is composed of specialized cells called chondrocytes that produce a large amount of collagenous extracellular matrix, abundant ground substance, rich in proteoglycan and elastin fibers. Cartilage is classified in three types, elastic cartilage, hyaline cartilage and fibrocartilage, which differ in relative amounts of collagen and proteoglycan. Cartilage does not contain blood nerves. Nutrition is supplied to the chondrocytes by diffusion.
The compression of the articular cartilage or flexion of the elastic cartilage generates fluid flow, which assists diffusion of nutrients to the chondrocytes. Compared to other connective tissues, cartilage has a slow turnover of its extracellular matrix and does not repair. In embryogenesis, the skeletal system is derived from the mesoderm germ layer. Chondrification is the process by which cartilage is formed from condensed mesenchyme tissue, which differentiates into chondroblasts and begins secreting the molecules that form the extracellular matrix. Following the initial chondrification that occurs during embryogenesis, cartilage growth consists of the maturing of immature cartilage to a more mature state; the division of cells within cartilage occurs slowly, thus growth in cartilage is not based on an increase in size or mass of the cartilage itself. The articular cartilage function is dependent on the molecular composition of the extracellular matrix; the ECM consists of proteoglycan and collagens.
The main proteoglycan in cartilage is aggrecan, which, as its name suggests, forms large aggregates with hyaluronan. These aggregates hold water in the tissue; the collagen collagen type II, constrains the proteoglycans. The ECM responds to compressive forces that are experienced by the cartilage. Cartilage growth thus refers to the matrix deposition, but can refer to both the growth and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Due to the great stress on the patellofemoral joint during resisted knee extension, the articular cartilage of the patella is among the thickest in the human body; the mechanical properties of articular cartilage in load-bearing joints such as the knee and hip have been studied extensively at macro and nano-scales. These mechanical properties include the response of cartilage in frictional, compressive and tensile loading. Cartilage displays viscoelastic properties. Lubricin, a glycoprotein abundant in cartilage and synovial fluid, plays a major role in bio-lubrication and wear protection of cartilage.
Cartilage has limited repair capabilities: Because chondrocytes are bound in lacunae, they cannot migrate to damaged areas. Therefore, cartilage damage is difficult to heal; because hyaline cartilage does not have a blood supply, the deposition of new matrix is slow. Damaged hyaline cartilage is replaced by fibrocartilage scar tissue. Over the last years and scientists have elaborated a series of cartilage repair procedures that help to postpone the need for joint replacement. Bioengineering techniques are being developed to generate new cartilage, using a cellular "scaffolding" material and cultured cells to grow artificial cartilage. Several diseases can affect cartilage. Chondrodystrophies are a group of diseases, characterized by the disturbance of growth and subsequent ossification of cartilage; some common diseases that affect the cartilage are listed below. Osteoarthritis: Osteoarthritis is a disease of the whole joint, however one of the most affected tissues is the articular cartilage.
The cartilage covering bones is thinned completely wearing away, resulting in a "bone against bone" within the joint, leading to reduced motion, pain. Osteoarthritis affects the joints exposed to high stress and is therefore considered the result of "wear and tear" rather than a true disease, it is treated by arthroplasty, the replacement of the joint by a synthetic joint made of a stainless steel alloy and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene. Chondroitin sulfate or glucosamine sulfate supplements, have been claimed to reduce the symptoms of osteoarthritis but there is little good evidence to support this claim. Traumatic rupture or detachment: The cartilage in the knee is damaged but can be repaired through knee cartilage replacement therapy; when athletes talk of damaged "cartilage" in their knee, they are referring to a damaged meniscus and not the articular cartilage. Achondroplasia: Reduced proliferation of chondrocytes in the epiphyseal plate of long bones during infancy and childhood, resulting in dwarfism.
Costochondritis: Inflammation of cartilage in the ribs, causing chest pain. Spinal disc herniation: Asymmetrical compression of an intervertebral disc ruptures the sac-like disc, causing a herniation of its soft content; the hernia compresses the adjacent nerves and causes back pain. Relapsing polychondritis: a destruction aut
Miami University is a public research university in Oxford, United States. The university was founded in 1809, although classes were not held until 1824. Miami University is the second-oldest university in Ohio and the 10th oldest public university in the United States; the school's system comprises the main campus in Oxford, as well as regional campuses in Hamilton and West Chester. Miami maintains an international boarding campus, the Dolibois European Center in Differdange, Luxembourg; the Carnegie Foundation classifies Miami University as a research university with a high research activity. It is affiliated with the University System of Ohio. Miami University is well known for its liberal arts education. In its 2017 edition, U. S. News & World Report ranked the university 79th among national universities and the 30th top public university in the United States. Additionally, Miami University is ranked 2nd best national university for undergraduate teaching. Miami is one of the original eight Public Ivy schools, a group of publicly funded universities considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League.
Miami University has a long tradition of Greek life. Today, Miami University hosts over 50 fraternity and sorority chapters, one-third of the undergraduate student population are members of the Greek community. Miami is renowned for its campus' beauty, having been called "The most beautiful campus that there was" by Pulitzer Prize-winning poet Robert Frost. Additionally, Forbes ranked the city of Oxford first on its 2016 list of the best college towns in the United States. Miami's athletic teams compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and are collectively known as the Miami RedHawks, they compete in the Mid-American Conference in all varsity sports except ice hockey, which competes in the National Collegiate Hockey Conference. The foundations for Miami University were first laid by an Act of Congress signed by President George Washington, stating an academy should be Northwest of the Ohio River in the Miami Valley; the land was within the Symmes Purchase. Congress granted one township to be in the District of Cincinnati to the Ohio General Assembly for the purposes of building a college, two days after Ohio was granted statehood in 1803.
The Ohio Legislature appointed three surveyors in August of the same year to search for a suitable township, they selected a township off of Four Mile Creek. The Legislature passed "An Act to Establish the Miami University" on February 2, 1809, the state created a board of trustees; the township granted to the university was known as the "College Township," and was renamed Oxford, Ohio, in 1810. The University temporarily halted construction due to the War of 1812. Cincinnati tried—and failed—to move Miami to the city in 1822 and to divert its income to a Cincinnati college. Miami created a grammar school in 1818 to teach frontier youth, but it was disbanded after five years. Robert Hamilton Bishop, a Presbyterian minister and professor of history, was appointed to be the first President of Miami University in 1824; the first day of classes at Miami was on November 1, 1824. At its opening, there were two faculty members in addition to Bishop; the curriculum included Greek, Algebra and Roman history.
An "English Scientific Department" was started in 1825, which studied modern languages, applied mathematics, political economy as training for more practical professions. It offered a certificate upon completion of coursework, not a diploma. Miami students purchased a printing press, in 1827 published their first periodical, The Literary Focus, it promptly failed. The Miami Student, founded in 1867, traces its foundation back to the Literary Register and claims to be the oldest college newspaper in the United States. A theological department and a farmer's college were formed in 1829. William Holmes McGuffey joined the faculty in 1826, began his work on the McGuffey Readers while in Oxford. By 1834 the faculty had grown to seven professors and enrollment was at 234 students. Eleven students were expelled including one for firing a pistol at another student. McGuffey resigned and became the President of the Cincinnati College, where he urged parents not to send their children to Miami. Alpha Delta Phi opened its chapter at Miami in 1833, making it the first fraternity chapter West of the Allegheny Mountains.
In 1839, Beta Theta Pi was created. In 1839 Old Miami reached its enrollment peak, with 250 students from 13 states. President Bishop resigned in 1840 due to escalating problems in the University, although he remained as a professor through 1844, he was replaced as President by George Junkin, former President of Lafayette College.