Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
Indianapolis shortened to Indy, is the state capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Indiana and the seat of Marion County. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the consolidated population of Indianapolis and Marion County was 872,680; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-autonomous municipalities in Marion County, was 863,002. It is the 16th most populous city in the U. S; the Indianapolis metropolitan area is the 34th most populous metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. with 2,028,614 residents. Its combined statistical area ranks 27th, with a population of 2,411,086. Indianapolis covers 368 square miles, making it the 16th largest city by land area in the U. S. Indigenous peoples inhabited the area dating to 2000 BC. In 1818, the Delaware relinquished their tribal lands in the Treaty of St. Mary's. In 1821, Indianapolis was founded as a planned city for the new seat of Indiana's state government; the city was platted by Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham on a 1 square mile grid next to the White River.
Completion of the National and Michigan roads and arrival of rail solidified the city's position as a manufacturing and transportation hub. Two of the city's nicknames reflect its historical ties to transportation—the "Crossroads of America" and "Railroad City". Since the 1970 city-county consolidation, known as Unigov, local government administration operates under the direction of an elected 25-member city-county council headed by the mayor. Indianapolis anchors the 27th largest economic region in the U. S. based on the sectors of finance and insurance, manufacturing and business services and health care and wholesale trade. The city has notable niche markets in auto racing; the Fortune 500 companies of Anthem, Eli Lilly and Company and Simon Property Group are headquartered in Indianapolis. The city has hosted international multi-sport events, such as the 1987 Pan American Games and 2001 World Police and Fire Games, but is best known for annually hosting the world's largest single-day sporting event, the Indianapolis 500.
Indianapolis is home to two major league sports clubs, the Indiana Pacers of the National Basketball Association and the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. It is home to a number of educational institutions, such as the University of Indianapolis, Butler University, Marian University, Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis; the city's robust philanthropic community has supported several cultural assets, including the world's largest children's museum, one of the nation's largest funded zoos, historic buildings and sites, public art. The city is home to the largest collection of monuments dedicated to veterans and war casualties in the U. S. outside of Washington, D. C; the name Indianapolis is derived from the state's name and polis, the Greek word for city. Jeremiah Sullivan, justice of the Indiana Supreme Court, is credited with coining the name. Other names considered were Concord and Tecumseh. In 1816, the year Indiana gained statehood, the U. S. Congress donated four sections of federal land to establish a permanent seat of state government.
Two years under the Treaty of St. Mary's, the Delaware relinquished title to their tribal lands in central Indiana, agreeing to leave the area by 1821; this tract of land, called the New Purchase, included the site selected for the new state capital in 1820. The availability of new federal lands for purchase in central Indiana attracted settlers, many of them descendants of families from northwestern Europe. Although many of these first European and American settlers were Protestants, a large proportion of the early Irish and German immigrants were Catholics. Few African Americans lived in central Indiana before 1840; the first European Americans to permanently settle in the area that became Indianapolis were either the McCormick or Pogue families. The McCormicks are considered to be the first permanent settlers. Other historians have argued as early as 1822 that John Wesley McCormick, his family, employees became the area's first European American settlers, settling near the White River in February 1820.
On January 11, 1820, the Indiana General Assembly authorized a committee to select a site in central Indiana for the new state capital. The state legislature approved the site, adopting the name Indianapolis on January 6, 1821. In April, Alexander Ralston and Elias Pym Fordham were appointed to survey and design a town plan for the new settlement. Indianapolis became a seat of county government on December 31, 1821, when Marion County, was established. A combined county and town government continued until 1832. Indianapolis became an incorporated city effective March 30, 1847. Samuel Henderson, the city's first mayor, led the new city government, which included a seven-member city council. In 1853, voters approved a new city charter that provided for an elected mayor and a fourteen-member city council; the city charter continued to be revised. Effective January 1, 1825, the seat of state government moved to Indianapolis from Indiana. In addition to state government offices, a U. S. district court was established at Indianapolis in 1825.
Growth occurred with the opening of the National Road through the town in 1827, the first major federally funded highway in the United States. A small segment of the failed Indiana Central
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 15,250 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning, its history and wealth have made it one of the world's most prestigious universities; the Harvard Corporation is its first chartered corporation. Although never formally affiliated with any denomination, the early College trained Congregational and Unitarian clergy, its curriculum and student body were secularized during the 18th century, by the 19th century, Harvard had emerged as the central cultural establishment among Boston elites. Following the American Civil War, President Charles W. Eliot's long tenure transformed the college and affiliated professional schools into a modern research university. A. Lawrence Lowell, who followed Eliot, further reformed the undergraduate curriculum and undertook aggressive expansion of Harvard's land holdings and physical plant.
James Bryant Conant led the university through the Great Depression and World War II and began to reform the curriculum and liberalize admissions after the war. The undergraduate college became coeducational after its 1977 merger with Radcliffe College; the university is organized into eleven separate academic units—ten faculties and the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study—with campuses throughout the Boston metropolitan area: its 209-acre main campus is centered on Harvard Yard in Cambridge 3 miles northwest of Boston. Harvard's endowment is worth $39.2 billion, making it the largest of any academic institution. Harvard is a large residential research university; the nominal cost of attendance is high, but the university's large endowment allows it to offer generous financial aid packages. The Harvard Library is the world's largest academic and private library system, comprising 79 individual libraries holding over 18 million items; the University is cited as one of the world's top tertiary institutions by various organizations.
Harvard's alumni include eight U. S. presidents, more than thirty foreign heads of state, 62 living billionaires, 359 Rhodes Scholars, 242 Marshall Scholars. As of October 2018, 158 Nobel laureates, 18 Fields Medalists, 14 Turing Award winners have been affiliated as students, faculty, or researchers. In addition, Harvard students and alumni have won 10 Academy Awards, 48 Pulitzer Prizes and 108 Olympic medals, have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Harvard was established in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1638, it acquired British North America's first known printing press. In 1639, it was named Harvard College after deceased clergyman John Harvard, an alumnus of the University of Cambridge, who had left the school £779 and his scholar's library of some 400 volumes; the charter creating the Harvard Corporation was granted in 1650. A 1643 publication gave the school's purpose as "to advance learning and perpetuate it to posterity, dreading to leave an illiterate ministry to the churches when our present ministers shall lie in the dust".
It offered a classic curriculum on the English university model—many leaders in the colony had attended the University of Cambridge—but conformed to the tenets of Puritanism. It was never affiliated with any particular denomination, but many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Congregational and Unitarian churches; the leading Boston divine Increase Mather served as president from 1685 to 1701. In 1708, John Leverett became the first president, not a clergyman, marking a turning of the college from Puritanism and toward intellectual independence. Throughout the 18th century, Enlightenment ideas of the power of reason and free will became widespread among Congregational ministers, putting those ministers and their congregations in tension with more traditionalist, Calvinist parties; when the Hollis Professor of Divinity David Tappan died in 1803 and the president of Harvard Joseph Willard died a year in 1804, a struggle broke out over their replacements. Henry Ware was elected to the chair in 1805, the liberal Samuel Webber was appointed to the presidency of Harvard two years which signaled the changing of the tide from the dominance of traditional ideas at Harvard to the dominance of liberal, Arminian ideas.
In 1846, the natural history lectures of Louis Agassiz were acclaimed both in New York and on the campus at Harvard College. Agassiz's approach was distinctly idealist and posited Americans' "participation in the Divine Nature" and the possibility of understanding "intellectual existences". Agassiz's perspective on science combined observation with intuition and the assumption that a person can grasp the "divine plan" in all phenomena; when it came to explaining life-forms, Agassiz resorted to matters of shape based on a presumed archetype for his evidence. This dual view of knowledge was in concert with the teachings of Common Sense Realism derived from Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid and Dugald Stewart, whose works were part of the Harvard curriculum at the time; the popularity of Agassiz's efforts to "soar with Plato" also derived from other writings to which Harvard students
Janet Wood Reno was an American lawyer who served as the Attorney General of the United States from 1993 until 2001. President Bill Clinton nominated Reno on February 11, 1993, the Senate confirmed her the following month, she was the first woman to serve as Attorney General and the second-longest serving Attorney General in U. S. history, after William Wirt. Reno was raised in Miami, Florida. After leaving to attend Cornell University and Harvard Law School, she returned to Miami where she started her career at private law firms, her first foray into government was as a staff member for the Judiciary Committee of the Florida House of Representatives. She worked for the Dade County State Attorney's Office before returning to private practice, she was elected to the Office of State Attorney five times. Reno was born in Florida. Reno's mother, Jane Wallace, wrote a weekly home improvement column for The Miami News under a male pseudonym and became an investigative reporter for the paper, her father, Henry Olaf Reno, was an emigrant from Denmark and a reporter for the Miami Herald for 43 years.
Janet Reno had three younger siblings: Mark. The family moved to a property near the Everglades when Reno was 8 years old, living in a house Reno's mother built; the house sat on 21 acres of property, some of which the family sold to pay for the children's education. Reno attended public school in Miami-Dade County, where she was a debating champion, was salutatorian at Coral Gables Senior High School. In 1956 she enrolled at Cornell University, where she majored in chemistry, became president of the Women's Self-Government Association, earned her room and board. After graduating from Cornell, Reno enrolled at Harvard Law School, one of only 16 women in a class of 500 students, she graduated from Harvard in 1963. From 1963 to 1971 Reno worked as an attorney for two Miami law firms. In 1971, she joined the staff of the Judiciary Committee of the Florida House of Representatives; the following year, Reno ran for a seat in Florida's state house. She did not win. In 1973, she worked on a project to revise the state's system of rules and regulations for criminal procedures.
In the same year, she accepted a position with the Dade County State Attorney's Office led by Richard Gerstein. Shortly after joining the office, Gerstein made Reno his chief assistant. Reno did not try any cases during her time working for Gerstein, she worked for the Judiciary Circuit, left the state attorney's office in 1976 to become a partner in a private law firm, Hector & Davis. Gerstein decided to retire in 1977, creating a vacancy with Florida governor Reubin Askew to appoint a successor. Reno was one of two candidates. In January 1978, Governor Askew appointed Reno the State Attorney for Dade County, she was the first woman to serve as a state attorney in Florida. She was elected to the Office of State Attorney in November 1978 and was returned to office by the voters four more times. Reno ran as a liberal, pro-choice Democrat though Miami-Dade was a conservative county. Reno did not always face serious challengers, although in 1984 Cuban-American lawyer Jose Garcia-Pedrosa ran against Reno, picked up the endorsement of the Miami Herald editorial board.
In spite of his support among Miami's Hispanic voters, Reno won the election decisively. The office she led included 95 attorneys and an annual caseload that included 15,000 felonies and 40,000 misdemeanors; as state attorney, she developed a reputation for ethical behavior, going so far as to purchase a car at sticker price to avoid the appearance of impropriety. She established a Drug Court, replicated in other parts of the country, she worked in various civic organizations, including the Miami Coalition for a Safe and Drug Free Community and the Beacon Council, formed to address Miami-Dade's economic development. In May 1980, Reno prosecuted five white policemen who were accused of beating a black insurance salesman, named Arthur McDuffie, to death; the policemen were all acquitted. During the resulting 1980 Miami riots, eighteen people were killed, with looters in Liberty City angrily chanting "Reno! Reno! Reno!" Reno met with nearly all of her critics, a few months she won reelection in a landslide.
During Reno's tenure as state attorney, she began what the PBS series Frontline described as a "crusade" against accused child abusers. Reno "pioneered a controversial technique for eliciting intimate details from young children and inspired passage of a law allowing them to testify by closed-circuit television, out of the intimidating presence of their suspected molesters." Several of those prosecuted by Reno were either acquitted or released by appellate judges. One defendant, "a 14-year-old boy, was acquitted after his attorneys discredited the children's persistent interrogations by a psychologist who called herself the'yucky secrets doctor'. Another was freed by a federal appeals court after 12 years in prison."In 1984, Frank Fuster, the owner of the Country Walk Babysitting Service, in a suburb of Miami, was found guilty of 14 counts of abuse and sentenced to prison with a minimum of 165 years. Fuster was convicted based in large part on the testimony of his 18-year-old wife, Ileana Flores, who pleaded guilty and testified against him.
According to a 2002 episode of Frontline, Flores maintained. In 1989, as Florida state attorney, Reno pressed adult charges against 13-year-old Bobby Fijnje, accused of sexually molesting 21 children in his care during church services; the charges were driven by the testimony of children
Ebola virus cases in the United States
In December 2014, Ebola virus cases in the United States occurred due to four laboratory-confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease in the United States. Eleven cases have been reported, including these four cases and seven cases medically evacuated from other countries. Nine of the people contracted the disease outside the US and traveled into the country, either as regular airline passengers or as medical evacuees. Two people have contracted Ebola in the United States. Both were nurses. On September 30, 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that Thomas Eric Duncan, a 42-year-old Liberian national visiting the United States from Liberia, had been diagnosed with Ebola in Dallas, Texas. Duncan, visiting family in Dallas, was treated at Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital Dallas. By October 4, Duncan's condition had deteriorated from "serious but stable" to "critical". On October 8, Duncan died of Ebola; the other three cases diagnosed in the United States as of October 2014 were: October 11, 2014, a nurse, Nina Pham, who had provided care to Duncan at the hospital.
October 14, 2014, Amber Joy Vinson, another nurse who treated Duncan. October 23, 2014, physician Craig Spencer, diagnosed in New York City. Hundreds of people were tested or monitored for potential Ebola virus infection, but the two nurses were the only confirmed cases of locally transmitted Ebola. Public health experts and the Obama administration opposed instituting a travel ban on Ebola endemic areas, stating that it would be ineffective and would paradoxically worsen the situation. No one both died of Ebola virus disease while in the United States. No new cases have been diagnosed in the United States since Dr. Spencer was released from a New York City hospital on November 11, 2014. Thomas Eric Duncan was from Monrovia, Liberia, to date the country hit hardest by the Ebola virus epidemic. Duncan worked as a personal driver for the general manager of Safeway Cargo, a FedEx contractor in Liberia. According to manager Henry Brunson, Duncan had abruptly quit his job on September 4, 2014, giving no reason.
On September 15, 2014, the family of Marthalene Williams, who died of Ebola virus disease, could not call an ambulance to transfer the pregnant Williams to a hospital. Duncan, their tenant, helped to transfer Williams by taxi to an Ebola treatment ward in Monrovia. Duncan rode in the taxi to the treatment ward with her father and her brother. On September 19, Duncan went to Monrovia Airport, according to Liberian officials, Duncan lied about his history of contact with the disease on an airport questionnaire before boarding a Brussels Airlines flight to Brussels. In Brussels, Duncan boarded United Airlines Flight 951 to Washington Dulles Airport. From Dulles, he boarded United Airlines Flight 822 to Dallas/Fort Worth, he arrived in Dallas at 7:01 p.m. CDT on September 20, 2014, stayed with his partner and her five children, who lived in the Fair Oaks apartment complex in the Vickery Meadow neighborhood of Dallas. Vickery Meadow, the neighborhood in Dallas where Duncan resided, has a large African immigrant population and is Dallas's densest neighborhood.
Duncan began experiencing symptoms on September 24, 2014, arrived at the Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital emergency room at 10:37 p.m. on September 25. At 11:36 p.m. a triage nurse asked Duncan about his symptoms, Duncan reported feeling "abdominal pain, dizziness and headache." The nurse recorded a fever of 100.1 °F, but did not inquire as to his travel history as this was not triage protocol at the time. At 12:05 a.m. Duncan was admitted into a treatment area room where the on-duty physician accessed the electronic health record; the physician noted nasal congestion, a runny nose, abdominal tenderness. Duncan was given paracetamol at 1:24 a.m. CT scan results came back noting "no acute disease" for the abdominal and pelvic areas and "unremarkable" for the head. Lab results returned showing low white blood cells, low platelets, increased creatinine, elevated levels of the liver enzyme AST, his temperature was noted at 103.0 °F at 3:02 a.m. and 101.2 °F at 3:32 a.m. Duncan was diagnosed with sinusitis and abdominal pain and sent home at 3:37 a.m. with a prescription for antibiotics, which are not effective for treating viral diseases.
Duncan's condition worsened, he was transported on September 28 to the same Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital emergency room by ambulance. Duncan arrived in the emergency room at 10:07 a.m. experiencing diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever. Within fifteen minutes, a doctor noted that Duncan had come from Liberia and needed to be tested for Ebola; the doctor described following "strict C. D. C. Protocol" including wearing a mask and gloves. At 12:58 p.m. the doctor called the CDC directly. By 9:40 p.m. Duncan was experiencing projectile vomiting. At 8:28 a.m. the next morning, the doctor noted that Duncan "appeared to be deteriorating." By 11:32 a.m. Duncan was suffering from fatigue severe enough to prevent him from using the bedside toilet; that day, Duncan was transferred to an intensive care unit after all other patients had been evacuated. The next day, September 30, Duncan was diagnosed with Ebola virus disease after a positive test result. Duncan's diagnosis was publicly confirmed during a CDC news conference the same day.
That evening, Duncan requested to watch a movie. The follow
Executive Office of the President of the United States
The Executive Office of the President of the United States is a group of agencies at the center of the executive branch of the United States federal government. The EOP supports the work of the President, it consists of several offices and agencies, such as the White House Office, National Security Council or Office of Management and Budget. With the increase in technological and global advancement, the size of the White House staff has increased to include an array of policy experts to address various fields of the modern day. There are about 4,000 positions in the Executive Office of the President, most of which do not require confirmation from the U. S. Senate; the budget for the EOP in FY 2017 was $714 million. The Executive Office is overseen by the White House Chief of Staff, since January 2, 2019 held by acting Chief of Staff, Mick Mulvaney, appointed by Donald Trump, the current and 45th President of the United States. In 1939, during Franklin D. Roosevelt's second term in office, the foundations of the modern White House staff were created.
Based on the recommendations of a presidentially commissioned panel of political science and public administration experts, known as the Brownlow Committee, Roosevelt was able to get Congress to approve the Reorganization Act of 1939. The Act led to Reorganization Plan No. 1, which created the EOP. The EOP encompassed two subunits at its outset: the White House Office and the Bureau of the Budget, the predecessor to today's Office of Management and Budget, created in 1921 and located in the Treasury Department, it absorbed most of the functions of the National Emergency Council. The new staff system appeared more ambitious on paper than in practice, but it laid the groundwork for the large and organizationally complex White House staff that would emerge during the presidencies of Roosevelt's successors. Roosevelt's efforts are notable in contrast to those of his predecessors in office. During the 19th century, presidents had few staff resources. Thomas Jefferson had one messenger and one secretary at his disposal, both of whose salaries were paid by the president personally.
It was not until 1857. By Ulysses S. Grant's presidency, the staff had grown to three. By 1900, the White House staff included one "secretary to the president", two assistant secretaries, two executive clerks, a stenographer, seven other office personnel. Under Warren G. Harding, there were thirty-one staff. During Herbert Hoover's presidency, two additional secretaries to the president were added by Congress, one of whom Hoover designated as his Press Secretary. From 1933 to 1939 as he expanded the scope of the federal government's policies and powers in response to the Great Depression, Roosevelt muddled through: his "brains trust" of top advisers were appointed to vacant positions in agencies and departments, whence they drew their salaries since the White House lacked statutory or budgetary authority to create new staff positions. After World War II, in particular during the presidency of Dwight David Eisenhower, the staff was expanded and reorganized. Eisenhower, a former U. S. Army general, had been Supreme Allied Commander during the war, brought ideas of effective organization from that experience.
Today, the staff is much bigger. Estimates indicate some 3,000 to 4,000 persons serve in EOP staff positions with policy-making responsibilities, with a budget of $300 to $400 million. Senior staff within the EOP have the title Assistant to the President, second-level staff have the title Deputy Assistant to the President, third-level staff have the title Special Assistant to the President; the core White House staff appointments, most EOP officials are not required to be confirmed by the U. S. Senate, although there are a handful of exceptions; the information in the following table is current as of April 4, 2018. Only principal executives are listed; the White House Office is a sub-unit of the Executive Office of the President. The various agencies of the EOP are listed above. Title 3 of the Code of Federal Regulations Title 5 of the Code of Federal Regulations White House Records Office Executive Office of the President The Debate Over Selected Presidential Assistants and Advisors: Appointment and Congressional Oversight Congressional Research Service Proposed and finalized federal regulations from the Executive Office of the President of the United States Works by Executive Office of the President of the United States at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Executive Office of the President of the United States at Internet Archive
Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. is an American politician who served as the 47th vice president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he represented Delaware in the U. S. Senate from 1973 to 2009. Biden was born in Scranton and lived there for ten years before moving with his family to Delaware, he became an attorney in 1969 and was elected to the New Castle County Council in 1970. He was first elected to the U. S. Senate in 1972, when he became the sixth-youngest senator in American history. Biden was re-elected to the upper house of Congress six times and was the fourth most senior senator when he resigned to assume the vice presidency in 2009. Biden was a long-time former chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, he opposed the Gulf War in 1991, but advocated U. S. and NATO intervention in the Bosnian War in 1994 and 1995. He voted in favor of the resolution authorizing the Iraq War in 2002 but opposed the surge of U. S. troops in 2007. He has served as chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee, dealing with issues related to drug policy, crime prevention, civil liberties.
Biden led the efforts to pass the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act, the Violence Against Women Act. He chaired the Judiciary Committee during the contentious U. S. Supreme Court nominations of Robert Bork and Clarence Thomas. Biden unsuccessfully sought the Democratic presidential nomination in 1988 and in 2008, both times dropping out after lackluster showings. In 2008, Biden was chosen as the running mate of Democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama. After being elected vice president, Biden oversaw infrastructure spending aimed at counteracting the Great Recession and helped formulate U. S. policy toward Iraq up until the withdrawal of U. S. troops in 2011. His ability to negotiate with congressional Republicans helped the Obama administration pass legislation such as the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010, which resolved a taxation deadlock. Biden was reported to have advised President Obama against approving the 2011 military mission that resulted in the death of Osama bin Laden, though he has disputed this.
Obama and Biden were re-elected in 2012, defeating Republican nominee Mitt Romney and his running mate, Paul Ryan. In October 2015, after months of speculation, Biden announced he would not seek the presidency in the 2016 elections. In one of the final acts of his term in January 2017, President Obama awarded Biden the Presidential Medal of Freedom with distinction. After completing his second term as vice president, Biden joined the faculty of the University of Pennsylvania, where he was named the Benjamin Franklin Professor of Presidential Practice; as of March 2019, Biden was reported to be considering a 2020 presidential run, after a mid-2018 Hill/HarrisX poll placed him at the top among potential Democratic presidential candidates. Biden was born on November 20, 1942, at St. Mary's Hospital in Scranton, Pennsylvania, to Catherine Eugenia Biden and Joseph Robinette Biden Sr, he was the first of four siblings in a Catholic family, with two brothers. His mother was of Irish descent, with roots variously attributed to County Louth or County Londonderry.
His paternal grandparents, Mary Elizabeth and Joseph H. Biden, an oil businessman from Baltimore, were of English and Irish ancestry, his paternal great-great-great grandfather, William Biden, was born in Sussex and immigrated to the United States. His maternal great-grandfather, Edward Francis Blewitt, was a member of the Pennsylvania State Senate. Biden's father had been prosperous earlier in his life but suffered several business reversals by the time his son was born. For several years the family had to live with the Finnegans; when the Scranton area went into economic decline during the 1950s, Biden's father could not find enough work. In 1953, the Biden family moved to an apartment in Claymont, where they lived for a few years before moving to a house in Wilmington, Delaware. Joe Biden Sr. was more successful as a used car salesman, the family's circumstances were middle class. Biden attended the Archmere Academy in Claymont where he was a standout halfback/wide receiver on the high school football team.
He played on the baseball team as well. During these years, he participated in an anti-segregation sit-in at a Wilmington theatre. Academically, he was an above-average student, was considered a natural leader among the students, was elected class president during his junior and senior years, he graduated in 1961. He earned his bachelor's in 1965 from the University of Delaware, with a double major in history and political science, graduating with a class rank of 506 out of 688, his classmates were impressed by his cramming abilities, he played halfback with the Blue Hens freshman football team. In 1964, while on spring break in the Bahamas, he met and began dating Neilia Hunter, from an affluent background in Skaneateles, New York, attended Syracuse University, he told her that he aimed to become a senator by the age of 30 and President. He dropped a junior year plan to play for the varsity football team as a defensive back, enabling him to spend more time visiting out of state with her, he entered Syracuse University College of Law, receiving a half scholarship based on financial need with some additional assistance based on academics.
By his own description, he found law school to be "th