Clay Shaw (politician)
Eugene Clay Shaw Jr. was an American politician, a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from 1981 until 2007. He represented the 22nd District of Florida until he was defeated by Ron Klein in the 2006 midterm election. Shaw was born in Florida, he graduated in 1957 from Miami Edison Senior High School. He received a bachelor's degree in business in 1961 from Stetson University in Florida, where he joined Sigma Nu Fraternity, a master's degree in accounting in 1963 from the University of Alabama, a law degree in 1966 from Stetson University School of Law. Shaw married the former Emilie Costar on August 22, 1960. After graduating, Shaw worked as a certified public accountant. In 1968, he became assistant city attorney in Florida, he was chief city prosecutor from 1968 to 1969 and an associate municipal judge from 1969 to 1971. Shaw was the city commissioner from 1971 to 1973. and vice mayor 1973 to 1975. He served as mayor of Fort Lauderdale from 1975 to 1981. During his tenure as mayor, Shaw served on the Advisory Board and Executive Committee of the U.
S. Conference of Mayors, former President of the National Conference of Republican Mayors, was named Special U. S. Ambassador to Papua New Guinea by President Gerald Ford. 1980The 1980 election cycle provided National Republicans with the opportunity to gain Congressional seats. As Ronald Reagan and Jimmy Carter battled for the White House, the National Republican Campaign Committee was seeking a Republican candidate in South Florida to challenge freshman Democratic congressman Edward J. Stack; the district, one of Florida's first Republican areas, had been held by Republican J. Herbert Burke for 12 years before Stack ousted him in 1978. Having been turned down by two potential candidates, including state Senator Van B. Poole, National Congressional Republicans set their eyes on popular Fort Lauderdale mayor, Clay Shaw. After multiple attempts to convince Shaw to run for Congress, Shaw agreed. With the support of his wife and four young children, he undertook the task of defeating an incumbent.
However, Shaw's candidacy received a significant boost when Stack was upset in the Democratic primary by a young Fort Lauderdale lawyer, Allen Becker. Shaw and Becker faced off in a spirited November general election with Shaw winning 55 percent of the vote. Congressman-elect Shaw was on his way to Washington to represent Broward County's 15th Congressional district. In 1980, Ronald Reagan became the 40th President of the United States, Republicans gained control of the United States Senate. 1982Redistricting numbered Shaw's district as the 15th District. Shaw faced a rematch against Ed Stack. However, Shaw turned back this challenge easily, winning 57 percent of the vote. 1984Shaw won re-election with 66% against Democratic nominee Bill Humphrey. 1986Shaw won re-election without opposition. 1988Shaw won re-election with 66% against Democratic nominee Mike Kuhle. 1990Shaw was re-elected without opposition. 1992In November 1992, Shaw faced his toughest congressional opponent to date. Following the 1990 U.
S. Census, the Democratic-controlled Florida Legislature reapportioned the state's congressional districts. Shaw's district was renumbered as the 22nd District and altered. For his first five terms, he had represented a compact district in Broward County. However, it was reconfigured into a district that stretched for 90 miles along the coast, from Juno Beach to the north to Lincoln Road on Miami Beach to the south, his Democratic opponent was State Senate President Gwen Margolis, who had drawn her home in Dade County into the district. The Shaw–Margolis race was competitive. Both campaigns raised thousands of dollars in campaign contributions; the campaigns highlighted the other candidates' records. She claimed. Shaw called the claim "an absolute falsehood", she fought back concerns about her involvement with the failed Miami Beach Loan. In March 1992, the Resolute Trust Corporation filed suit against Margolis and other bank directors claiming they approved speculative loans and were responsible for $4.5 million in losses.
In the end, Shaw cruised to victory in November, claiming 58% of the general election vote. 1994Shaw won re-election with 63% of the vote against Democratic nominee Hermine Weiner. Shaw was a supporter of the Republican Contract with America that helped sweep the Republican Party to control of the United States Congress for the first time in forty years. 1996Shaw won re-election with 62% of the vote against Democratic nominee Ken Cooper. 1998Shaw was re-elected unopposed. 2000 Seeking his 10th term in Congress, Shaw faced a challenge in state Representative Elaine Bloom. Bloom declared her candidacy in June 1999. Aided by the Democratic presidential ticket of Al Gore and Joe Lieberman, Bloom was making the race competitive. In early October it was reported that Bloom served on the board of a Florida pharmaceutical company, accused of price fixing. Bloom denied the accusations, yet press reports, including a piece on Nightline, highlighted the price fixing scandal. Bloom remained on defense for the remainder of the campaign.
Shaw won by 599 votes out of more than 220,000 votes cast. It was only the second difficult re-election contest for Shaw; the district, once a Republican-leaning swing district, swung Democratic in the early 1990s along with much of South Florida. In 2000, Al Gore defeated George W. Bush in the district by 52% to 48%. 2002Following Shaw's close race in 2000, the state legislature, now controlled by Republicans, cut out the Democratic spur of Miami-Dade County that h
Boca Raton, Florida
Boca Raton is the southernmost city in Palm Beach County, United States, first incorporated on August 2, 1924 as "Bocaratone," and incorporated as "Boca Raton" in 1925. The 2015 population estimated by the U. S. Census Bureau was 93,235; however 200,000 people with a Boca Raton postal address reside outside its municipal boundaries. Such areas include newer developments like West Boca Raton; as a business center, the city experiences significant daytime population increases. It is one of the wealthiest communities in South Florida. Boca Raton is 43 miles north of Miami and is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, which had a population of 6,012,331 people as of 2015. Boca Raton is home to the main campus of Florida Atlantic University and the corporate headquarters of Office Depot, ADT, Lynn University, Cancer Treatment Centers of America, Bluegreen Corporation, the Gift of Life Marrow Registry, it is home to the Evert Tennis Academy, owned by former professional tennis player Chris Evert.
Town Center Mall, an upscale shopping center in Central Boca Raton, is the largest indoor mall in Palm Beach County. Another major attraction to the area is Boca Raton's downtown, known as Mizner Park. Many buildings in the area have a Mediterranean Revival or Spanish Colonial Revival architectural theme inspired by Addison Mizner, a resort architect who influenced the city's early development. Still today, Boca Raton has a strict development code for the size and types of commercial buildings, building signs, advertisements that may be erected within the city limits. No outdoor car dealerships are allowed in the municipality. No billboards are permitted; the strict development code has led to several major thoroughfares without large signs or advertisements in the traveler's view. Labeled in the first European maps of the area as "Boca de Ratones", many people mistakenly translate the name in English as "Rats' Mouth". Although incorrect, this translation continues to be popularized by several residents of the area itself.
For example, tailgating for football games at Florida Atlantic University is done in an area known as the "Rat's Mouth"."Boca", meaning mouth in Spanish, was a common term to describe an inlet on maps by sailors. The true meaning of the word "ratones" for the area is more controversial; some claim that the word "ratones" appears in old Spanish maritime dictionaries referring to "rugged rocks or stony ground on the bottom of some ports and coastal outlets, where the cables rub against." Thus, one possible translation of "Boca Raton" is "rugged inlet". Still other people claim that "ratones" referred to thieves who hid out in the area, thus the name could translate to "thieves' inlet". Residents of the city have kept the pronunciation of Boca Raton similar to its Spanish origins. In particular, the "Raton" in "Boca Raton" is pronounced as instead of; the latter is a common mispronunciation by non-natives to the region. The area where Boca Raton is now located was occupied by the Glades culture, a Native American tribe of hunter/gatherers who relocated seasonally and between shellfish sources, distinct from the Tequesta to the south and the Jaega to the north, a people that occupied an area along the southeastern Atlantic coast of Florida.
What Spanish voyagers called "Boca de Ratones" was to the south, in present-day Biscayne Bay in Miami-Dade County. The area of Boca Raton was labeled meaning "Dry River", during this time. By mistake during the 19th century, mapmakers moved this location to the north and began referring to the city's lake, today known as Lake Boca Raton, as "Boca Ratone Lagoon" and "Boca Ratone Sounde." An inland stream near the lake was renamed Spanish River, became part of the Intracoastal Waterway. When Spain surrendered Florida to Britain in 1763, the remaining Tequestas, along with other Indians that had taken refuge in the Florida Keys, were evacuated to Cuba. In the 1770s, Bernard Romans reported seeing abandoned villages in the area, but no inhabitants; the area remained uninhabited for long afterwards, during the early years of Florida's incorporation in the United States. The first significant European settler to this area was Captain Thomas Moore Rickards in 1895, who resided in a house made of driftwood on the east side of the East Coast Canal, south of what is now the Palmetto Park Road bridge.
He surveyed and sold land from the canal to beyond the railroad north of what is now Palmetto Park Road. Early settlement in the area increased shortly after Henry Flagler's expansion of the Florida East Coast Railway, connecting West Palm Beach to Miami. Boca Raton as a city was the creation of architect Addison Mizner. Prior to him, Boca Raton was an unincorporated farming town with a population of 100 in 1920. In 1925, Mizner announced his plan for “the foremost resort city on the North American continent,” “a new exclusive social capital in America.” After spending several years in Palm Beach, where, in his own words, he “did more than any one man to make the city beautiful,” and designed the Everglades Club among many other buildings, in Boca Raton his plan was to create from scratch “a resort as splendid in its entirety as Palm Beach is in spots.”Activity in that area began at least a year, more, before Mizner's announcement. Land acquisition, tens of thousands of acres, was the largest part.
But it is hard not to see Mizner's hand in the incorporation of Boca Raton in 1924. The Mizner Development Company was incorpo
The Juris Doctor degree known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, the United States, some other common law countries, it has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada. The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree. Originating from the 19th-century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers, it involves a three-year program in most jurisdictions. To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J. D. degree must pass a bar examination. The state of Wisconsin, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam—a practice called "diploma privilege"—provided they complete the courses needed to satisfy the diploma privilege requirements.
In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts known as "federal courts". Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a federal district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court. In the United States, the professional doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English as Juris Doctor and at some law schools Doctor of Law, or Doctor of Jurisprudence. "Juris Doctor" means "Teacher of Law", while the Latin for "Doctor of Jurisprudence"—Jurisprudentiae Doctor—literally means "Teacher of Legal Knowledge". The J. D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Legum Doctor. In institutions where the latter can be earned, e.g. Cambridge University and many other British institutions, it is a higher research doctorate representing a substantial contribution to the field over many years, beyond that required for a PhD and well beyond a taught degree such as the J.
D. The LL. D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States. The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the glossator school in that city; this served as the model for other law schools of the Middle Ages, other early universities such as the University of Padua. The first academic degrees may have been doctorates in civil law followed by canon law. While Bologna granted only doctorates, preparatory degrees were introduced in Paris and in the English universities; the nature of the J. D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law; the universities only taught civil and canon law but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions. Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
However, because of the lack of standardisation of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world. In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system; the original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, the demand for lawyers grew. Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only.
The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the same rules as the apprenti
Cleveland Heights High School
Cleveland Heights High School is the senior high school of the Cleveland Heights-University Heights City School District. Cleveland Heights High School was founded in 1901; the current student population is more than 1800, with 18 students per full-time teacher. The student body is African-American, with 77 percent identifying themselves as such, Caucasian and Asian minorities. Heights athletic teams play in Division I; the school is known for its strong music departments, including the Vocal Music Department which includes A Cappella, Men's and Women's Barbershop and Men and Women's choruses. The Heights Gospel Choir was founded in 1974, remains active as an extracurricular ensemble; the Instrumental Music Department consists of the Heights High Symphony, Symphonic Winds, Symphonic Band, Concert Band, Concert Orchestra, Marching Band, Jazz Lab, Jazz Band. During the 1960 and 1970s, Heights High's music programs were nationally recognized, with the Choir and Orchestra considered among the best in the country.
For a number of years, world-renowned musicians performed with the Orchestra. The Heights Band & Orchestra Parents organization and Heights Choir Parents Organization played a major role in promoting music and making Heights High synonymous with the highest quality music; the Heights High Symphony, Symphonic Winds and Jazz Ensemble competed in the 2007 Heritage Festival in Chicago, culminating with an award ceremony at Medieval Times where the Symphony Orchestra, as well as the Jazz Ensemble, received Gold ratings. The life stories of 48 graduates of Cleveland Heights High School are featured in the book Every Tiger Has a Tale, written by Gary Stromberg, a 1968 graduate of the school. In 1991, the school won the 23rd National High School chess tournament; the team consisted of Joshua Jex, Ari Singer and Wenning Xing. Xing tied for the second place individual spot with a score of 6.0 out of seven, Waitzkin took first place with 6.5 out of seven. Cleveland Heights High School was featured in the 2006 movie The Oh in Ohio, featuring Mischa Barton and Danny DeVito.
The cafeteria and pool are recognizable, along with other spots frequented by Heights High students such as Coventry Village. Seventeen magazine did a featured spread on the senior class in 1975. Baseball — 1947 Basketball — 1997 Hockey — 1987 Swimming — 1932, 1933, 1934, 1965 Wrestling — 1976 Track and field — 1941, 1982, 2008 Girls' track and field — 1990, 1991, 1992, 1995 Girls' lacrosse — 2006 Ice hockey — 1973, 1977 Boys' lacrosse — 1995 D III Gina Abercrombie-Winstanley'76, former U. S. Ambassador to Republic of Malta Barry Cofield'02, NFL player for Washington Redskins Chuck Cooper'72, Tony Award-winning actor Charles Dolan'45, founder of Cablevision and HBO Bob Faught, professional basketball player Eric Fingerhut'77, former member of United States House of Representatives James Fox,'65 James Gang founder drummer and organist Shelton Gibson'13, NFL player for Philadelphia Eagles Donald A. Glaser'44, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Darrell Issa'72, current member of U. S. House of Representatives Jason Kelce'06, NFL player for Philadelphia Eagles Travis Kelce'08, NFL player for Kansas City Chiefs Ron Klein'75, former member of U.
S. House of Representatives Michael Krasny and radio host Peter Kuper'76, artist Steven C. LaTourette'72, former member of U. S. House of Representatives Clea Lewis'83, actor Peter B. Lewis'51, CEO of Progressive Insurance Daniel Sachs'86, CEO of DSC Products Thomas Mack'62, former NFL player for Los Angeles Rams, member of Pro Football Hall of Fame Mike McGruder, NFL player for New England Patriots, played in Super Bowl XXXI Leza McVey'26, artist Harvey Sachs'64, writer Moe Savransky'48, Major League Baseball pitcher Milton Shapp'29, former Governor of Pennsylvania John A. Shaud'51, retired four-star general, United States Air Force Larry Shyatt'69, basketball coach Steve Szilagyi'70, novelist Mel Tucker, Georgia Bulldogs defensive coordinator Bert L. Wolstein'45, real estate developer and philanthropist Bobby Worth'29, songwriter Sean Young'77, Blade Runner, No Way Out Cleveland Heights High School website Cleveland Heights-University Heights School District website
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education at a college or university. These institutions offer degrees at various levels including bachelor's, master’s and doctorates alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees; the most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries lower qualifications are titled degrees while in others a higher-level first degree is more usual. The doctorate appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach at a medieval university, its roots can be traced to the early church when the term "doctor" referred to the Apostles, church fathers and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible. The right to grant a licentia docendi was reserved to the church which required the applicant to pass a test, to take oath of allegiance and pay a fee; the Third Council of the Lateran of 1179 guaranteed the access – now free of charge – of all able applicants, who were, still tested for aptitude by the ecclesiastic scholastic.
This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and the emancipating universities, but was granted by the Pope to the University of Paris in 1231 where it became a universal license to teach. However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bachelor's degree, it was reduced to an intermediate step to the Magister and doctorate, both of which now became the exclusive qualification for teaching. At the University, doctoral training was a form of apprenticeship to a guild; the traditional term of study before new teachers were admitted to the guild of "Master of Arts", seven years, was the same as the term of apprenticeship for other occupations. The terms "master" and "doctor" were synonymous, but over time the doctorate came to be regarded as a higher qualification than the master degree. Today the terms "master", "Doctor" and "Professor" signify different levels of academic achievement, but in the Medieval university they were equivalent terms, the use of them in the degree name being a matter of custom at a university..
The earliest doctoral degrees reflected the historical separation of all higher University study into these three fields. Over time, the D. D. has become less common outside theology and is now used for honorary degrees, with the title "Doctor of Theology" being used more for earned degrees. Studies outside theology and medicine were called "philosophy", due to the Renaissance conviction that real knowledge could be derived from empirical observation; the degree title of Doctor of Philosophy is a much time and was not introduced in England before 1900. Studies in what once was called philosophy are now classified as humanities; the University of Bologna in Italy, regarded as the oldest university in Europe, was the first institution to confer the degree of Doctor in Civil Law in the late 12th century. The University of Paris used the term "master" for its graduates, a practice adopted by the English universities of Oxford and Cambridge, as well as the ancient Scottish universities of St Andrews, Glasgow and Edinburgh.
In the medieval European universities, candidates who had completed three or four years of study in the prescribed texts of the trivium and the quadrivium, together known as the Liberal Arts and who had passed examinations held by their master, would be admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Arts, from the Latin baccalaureus, a term used of a squire to a knight. Further study and in particular successful participation in and moderating of disputations would earn one the Master of Arts degree, from the Latin magister, "master", entitling one to teach these subjects. Masters of Arts were eligible to enter study under the "higher faculties" of Law, Medicine or Theology and earn first a bachelor's and master or doctor's degrees in these subjects, thus a degree was only a step on the way to becoming a qualified master – hence the English word "graduate", based on the Latin gradus. The naming of degrees became linked with the subjects studied. Scholars in the faculties of arts or grammar became known as "master", but those in theology and law were known as "doctor".
As study in the arts or in grammar was a necessary prerequisite to study in subjects such as theology and law, the degree of doctor assumed a higher status than the master degree. This led to the modern hierarchy in which the Doctor of Philosophy, which in its present form as a degree based on research and dissertation is a development from 18th- and 19th-century German universities, is a more advanced degree than the Master of Arts; the practice of using the term doctor for PhDs developed within German universities and spread across the academic world. The French terminology is tied to the original meanings of the terms; the baccalauréat is conferred upon French students who have completed the
Cleveland is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, the county seat of Cuyahoga County. The city proper has a population of 385,525, making it the 51st-largest city in the United States, the second-largest city in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is ranked as the 32nd-largest metropolitan area in the U. S. with 2,055,612 people in 2016. The city anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, which had a population of 3,515,646 in 2010 and is ranked 15th in the United States; the city is located on the southern shore of Lake Erie 60 miles west of the Ohio-Pennsylvania state border. It was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, it became a manufacturing center due to its location on both the river and the lake shore, as well as being connected to numerous canals and railroad lines. Cleveland's economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services and biomedicals. Cleveland is home to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland residents are called "Clevelanders".
The city has many nicknames, the oldest of which in contemporary use being "The Forest City". Cleveland was named on July 22, 1796, when surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city, they named it "Cleaveland" after General Moses Cleaveland. Cleaveland oversaw design of the plan for what would become the modern downtown area, centered on Public Square, before returning home, never again to visit Ohio; the first settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks of the Cuyahoga River. The Village of Cleaveland was incorporated on December 23, 1814. In spite of the nearby swampy lowlands and harsh winters, its waterfront location proved to be an advantage, giving access to Great Lakes trade; the area began rapid growth after the 1832 completion of the Erie Canal. This key link between the Ohio River and the Great Lakes connected the city to the Atlantic Ocean via the Erie Canal and Hudson River, via the St. Lawrence Seaway.
Its products could reach markets on the Gulf of Mexico via the Mississippi River. Growth continued with added railroad links. Cleveland incorporated as a city in 1836. In 1836, the city located only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, nearly erupted into open warfare with neighboring Ohio City over a bridge connecting the two. Ohio City remained an independent municipality until its annexation by Cleveland in 1854; the city's prime geographic location as a transportation hub on the Great Lakes has played an important role in its development as a commercial center. Cleveland serves as a destination for iron ore shipped from Minnesota, along with coal transported by rail. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland. In 1885, he moved its headquarters to New York City, which had become a center of finance and business. Cleveland emerged in the early 20th century as an important American manufacturing center, its businesses included automotive companies such as Peerless, People's, Jordan and Winton, maker of the first car driven across the U.
S. Other manufacturers located in Cleveland produced steam-powered cars, which included White and Gaeth, as well as the electric car company Baker; because of its significant growth, Cleveland was known as the "Sixth City" of the US during this period. By 1920, due in large part to the city's economic prosperity, Cleveland became the nation's fifth-largest city; the city counted Progressive Era politicians such as the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson among its leaders, its industrial jobs had attracted waves of European immigrants from southern and eastern Europe, as well as both black and white migrants from the rural South. In commemoration of the centennial of Cleveland's incorporation as a city, the Great Lakes Exposition debuted in June 1936 along the Lake Erie shore north of downtown. Conceived as a way to energize the city after the Great Depression, it drew four million visitors in its first season, seven million by the end of its second and final season in September 1937; the exposition was housed on grounds that are now used by the Great Lakes Science Center, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, Burke Lakefront Airport, among others.
Following World War II, Cleveland continued to enjoy a prosperous economy. In sports, the Indians won the 1948 World Series, the hockey team, the Barons, became champions of the American Hockey League, the Browns dominated professional football in the 1950s; as a result, along with track and boxing champions produced, Cleveland was dubbed "City of Champions" in sports at this time. Businesses proclaimed that Cleveland was the "best location in the nation". In 1940, non-Hispanic whites represented 90.2% of Cleveland's population. Wealthy patrons supported development of the city's cultural institutions, such as the art museum and orchestra; the city's population reached its peak of 914,808, in 1949 Cleveland was named an All-America City for the first time. By the 1960s, the economy slowed, residents sought new housing in the suburbs, reflecting the national trends of suburban growth following the subsidized highways. In the 1950s and 1960s, African Americans worked in numerous cities to gain constitutional rights and relief from racial discrimination.
As change lagged despite federal laws to enforce rights and racial unrest occurred in Cleveland and numerous other industrial cities. In Cleveland, the Hough Riots erupted from July 18 to 23, 1966; the Glenville Shootout took place from July 23 to 25, 1968. In November 1967, Cleveland became the first major American city to elect a black mayor, Carl Stokes. Industrial restructuring in the railroad and steel industries, resulted in the loss of numerous
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem