Ronald Wilson Reagan was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989 and became a influential voice of modern conservatism. Prior to his presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 to 1975. Reagan was raised in a low-income family in small towns of northern Illinois, he graduated from Eureka College in 1932 and worked as a sports commentator on several regional radio stations. After moving to California in 1937, he found work as an actor and starred in a few major productions. Reagan was twice elected president of the Screen Actors Guild—the labor union for actors—where he worked to root out Communist influence. In the 1950s, he moved into television and was a motivational speaker at General Electric factories, during which time he became a conservative. Reagan was a Democrat until 1962. In 1964, Reagan's speech "A Time for Choosing" supported Barry Goldwater's foundering presidential campaign and earned him national attention as a new conservative spokesman.
Building a network of supporters, Reagan was elected governor of California in 1966. As governor, Reagan raised taxes, turned a state budget deficit to a surplus, challenged the protesters at the University of California, ordered in National Guard troops during a period of protest movements in 1969, was re-elected in 1970, he twice ran unsuccessfully for the Republican presidential nomination, in 1968 and 1976. In 1980, Reagan won the Republican presidential nomination and defeated the incumbent president, Jimmy Carter. At 69 years, 349 days of age at the time of his first inauguration, Reagan was the oldest person to assume the U. S. presidency, a distinction he held until 2017, when Donald Trump was inaugurated at age 70 years, 220 days. Reagan faced former vice president Walter Mondale when he ran for re-election in 1984 and defeated him, winning the most electoral votes of any U. S. president, 525, or 97.6% of the 538 votes in the Electoral College. It was the second-most lopsided presidential election in modern U.
S. history after Franklin D. Roosevelt's 1936 victory over Alfred M. Landon, in which he won 98.5% or 523 of the 531 electoral votes. Soon after taking office as president, Reagan began implementing sweeping new political and economic initiatives, his supply-side economic policies, dubbed "Reaganomics", advocated tax rate reduction to spur economic growth, economic deregulation, reduction in government spending. In his first term, he survived an assassination attempt, spurred the War on Drugs, invaded Grenada, fought public sector labor unions. Over his two terms, the economy saw a reduction of inflation from 12.5% to 4.4% and an average real GDP annual growth of 3.4%. Reagan enacted cuts in domestic discretionary spending, cut taxes, increased military spending, which contributed to increased federal debt overall. Foreign affairs dominated his second term, including the end of the Cold War, the bombing of Libya, the Iran–Iraq War, the Iran–Contra affair. In June 1987, four years after he publicly described the Soviet Union as an "evil empire", Reagan challenged Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev to "tear down this wall!", during a speech at the Brandenburg Gate.
He transitioned Cold War policy from détente to rollback by escalating an arms race with the USSR while engaging in talks with Gorbachev. The talks culminated in the INF Treaty. Reagan began his presidency during the decline of the Soviet Union, which collapsed nearly three years after he left office; when Reagan left office in 1989, he held an approval rating of 68%, matching those of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Bill Clinton, as the highest ratings for departing presidents in the modern era, he was the first president since Dwight D. Eisenhower to serve two full terms after the five prior presidents did not. Although he had planned an active post-presidency, Reagan disclosed in November 1994 that he had been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease earlier that year. Afterward, his informal public appearances became more infrequent, he died at home on June 5, 2004. His tenure constituted a realignment toward conservative policies in the United States, he is an icon among conservatives. Evaluations of his presidency among historians and the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents.
Ronald Wilson Reagan was born on February 6, 1911, in an apartment on the second floor of a commercial building in Tampico, Illinois. He was the younger son of Jack Reagan. Jack was a salesman and storyteller whose grandparents were Irish Catholic emigrants from County Tipperary, while Nelle was of English and Scottish descent. Reagan's older brother, Neil Reagan, became an advertising executive. Reagan's father nicknamed his son "Dutch", due to his "fat little Dutchman"–like appearance and "Dutchboy" haircut. Reagan's family lived in several towns and cities in Illinois, including Monmouth and Chicago. In 1919, they returned to Tampico and lived above the H. C. Pitney Variety Store until settling in Dixon, Illinois. After his election as president, Reagan lived in the upstairs White House private quarters, he would quip that he was "living above the store again". Ronald Reagan wrote that his mother "always expected to find the best in people and did." She attended the Disciples of Christ church and was active, influential, within it.
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Chanoknan Ruamsap is a Thai pro-democracy activist. She is taking political refuge in the Republic of Korea after the Thailand government issued a notice of prosecution against her on the charge of insulting the monarchy by sharing a BBC article about the country's new king."The BBC article was published shortly after King Maha Vajiralongkorn ascended the throne in December 2016 following the death of his father, King Bhumibol Adulyadej, who died that October aged 88," as per the report of Reuters. While sharing the BBC article, she wrote: "If you dare write, I dare share.”Chanoknan has been charged with the lese-majeste, known as the world's toughest law. As per the law, those offending the Royal family shall face a sentence of up to 15 years in prison. Another activist, Jatipat "Pai Dao Din" who had earlier shared the article was arrested on similar charges and he is now imprisoned in Khon Kaen. Out of more than 3,000 Facebook users who shared the article, Pai is the first while Chanoknan is the second person charged with the same offence
John Roy Lynch was an African-American Republican politician, writer and military officer. Born into slavery in Louisiana, he became free in 1863 under the Emancipation Proclamation, his father was an Irish immigrant and his parents had a common-law marriage. After serving for several years in the state legislature, in 1873 Lynch was elected as the first African-American Speaker of the Mississippi House of Representatives. During Reconstruction after the American Civil War, he was among the first generation of African Americans from the South elected to the U. S. House of Representatives, serving from 1873 to 1877 and again in the 1880s. Faced with increasing restrictions in Mississippi, Lynch studied law, passed the bar, returned to Washington, DC to set up a practice. After Democrats regained power in the state legislature following Reconstruction, in 1890 they disfranchised most blacks in the state by a new constitution that raised barriers to voter registration. In his 50s, Lynch studied law.
Seeing the effects of disenfranchisement, Lynch left the state and returned to Washington, DC to practice law. He served in the United States Army during the Spanish–American War and for a decade into the early 1900s, achieving the rank of major. After retiring, Lynch moved to Chicago, where he lived for more than two decades. After his military service, Lynch was active in law and real estate in Chicago. Beginning in 1877, when Reconstruction ended with the federal government withdrawing its troops from the South, Lynch wrote and published four books: these analyzed the political situation in the South during and after Reconstruction, he is best known for The Facts of Reconstruction. It is available online at the Gutenberg Project. In it, he argued against the prevailing view of the Dunning School, conservative white historians who downplayed African-American contributions and the achievements of the Reconstruction era. Lynch emphasized how significant was the ratification of the 14th and 15th Amendments to the Constitution, which granted full citizenship to all persons without restriction of race or color, suffrage to minority males.
John R. Lynch was born into slavery in 1847 on Tacony Plantation near Vidalia, Concordia Parish, Louisiana, he was the third son of his mother Catherine White, enslaved. She had four boys in total. Born in Virginia, she was of mixed race, as were both of her parents and Elizabeth White. Under slavery law, the children of slave mothers were slaves, regardless of paternity. John's father Patrick Lynch was the overseer on the plantation. A young immigrant, Patrick Lynch had come to the United States with his family from Ireland, they settled in Ohio. As young men and his older brother Edward Lynch moved South. There he fell in love with Catherine and they became a couple, living together as man and wife. To protect his family, Patrick Lynch planned to buy Catherine and their mixed-race sons from the Tacony Plantation owner. Before the transaction was completed, a new owner bought the plantation and hired a different manager. Lynch could no longer afford to post the $1,000 bond required by the legislature for each person in his family in order to free them.
In addition, he would have to submit a request for these manumissions to an Emancipation Court. Lynch planned to move with his family to New Orleans, where his brother Edward lived, try to save money there to secure his family's freedom, he thought the city would be a good place to live, as he had learned that it had a large population of free people of color. Many had achieved economic status. Lynch died in 1849 of illness before carrying out his plan. Before his death, Patrick Lynch arranged for his friend, William G. Deal, to take title of Catherine and John, with the understanding that this was a legality to protect the family, who continued to work at Tacony plantation, but after a time, Deal sold them to a planter in Natchez, Mississippi. When she met Davis, Catherine was shocked to learn of the sale, she told him her family's story. Davis offered to keep her and her two sons with her, to have her work in his household, he allowed her to hire out and save some of the money she earned. He kept his word, but Catherine and her two sons did not gain freedom until 1863, under the Emancipation Proclamation.
Because of an argument with Mrs. Davis, the boy John Lynch had been sent to field labor on the plantation, he was 16 when his family gained freedom. Lynch worked with elements of the Union Army in the Natchez area. After the Civil War ended in 1865, a friend of his father's arranged for him to work for a photographer. Lynch took on increased responsibilities until he managed its finances, he built a successful business in Natchez. Wanting to continue his education, Lynch attended. Lynch read in books and newspapers during lulls in his business day; as Lynch's business was near a white school, the young man eavesdropped on lessons through the open windows. Lynch's leadership abilities were r