The Burma Railway known as the Death Railway, the Siam–Burma Railway, the Thai–Burma Railway and similar names, was a 415-kilometre railway between Ban Pong and Thanbyuzayat, built by the Empire of Japan in 1943 to support its forces in the Burma campaign of World War II. This railway completed the rail link between Bangkok and Rangoon, Burma; the name used by the Japanese Government is Thai–Men-Rensetsu-Tetsudou, which means Thailand-Myanmar-Link-Railway. The line was closed in 1947, but the section between Nong Pla Duk and Nam Tok was reopened ten years later. Between 180,000 and 250,000 Southeast Asian civilian labourers and about 61,000 Allied prisoners of war were subjected to forced labour during its construction. About 90,000 civilian labourers and more than 12,000 Allied prisoners died. A railway route between Burma and Thailand, crossing Three Pagodas Pass and following the valley of the Kwhae Noi river in Thailand, had been surveyed by the British government of Burma as early as 1885, but the proposed course of the line – through hilly jungle terrain divided by many rivers – was considered too difficult to undertake.
In early 1942, Japanese forces invaded Burma and seized control of the colony from the United Kingdom. To supply their forces in Burma, the Japanese depended upon the sea, bringing supplies and troops to Burma around the Malay peninsula and through the Strait of Malacca and the Andaman Sea; this route was vulnerable to attack by Allied submarines after the Japanese defeat at the Battle of Midway in June 1942. To avoid a hazardous 2,000-mile sea journey around the Malay peninsula, a railway from Bangkok to Rangoon seemed a feasible alternative; the Japanese began this project in June 1942. The project aimed to connect Ban Pong in Thailand with Thanbyuzayat in Burma, linking up with existing railways at both places, its route was through Three Pagodas Pass on the border of Burma. 69 miles of the railway were in Burma and the remaining 189 miles were in Thailand. The movement of POWs northward from Changi Prison in Singapore and other prison camps in Southeast Asia began in May 1942. After preliminary work of airfields and infrastructure, construction of the railway began in Burma on 15 September 1942 and in Thailand in November.
The projected completion date was December 1943. Most of the construction materials, including tracks and sleepers, were brought from dismantled branches of Malaya's Federated Malay States Railway network and the East Indies' various rail networks; the railway was completed ahead of schedule. On 17 October 1943, construction gangs originating in Burma working south met up with construction gangs originating in Thailand working north; the two sections of the line met at kilometre 263, about 18 km south of the Three Pagodas Pass at Konkuita. As an American engineer said after viewing the project, "What makes this an engineering feat is the totality of it, the accumulation of factors; the total length of miles, the total number of bridges — over 600, including six to eight long-span bridges — the total number of people who were involved, the short time in which they managed to accomplish it, the extreme conditions they accomplished it under. They had little transportation to get stuff to and from the workers, they had no medication, they couldn’t get food let alone materials, they had no tools to work with except for basic things like spades and hammers, they worked in difficult conditions — in the jungle with its heat and humidity.
All of that makes this railway an extraordinary accomplishment."The Japanese Army transported 500,000 tonnes of freight over the railway before it fell into allied hands. The British 36th Division used it to carry 66,000 passengers and 14,485 imperial tons of freight between August and October 1944; the line was closed in 1947, but the section between Nong Pla Duk and Nam Tok was reopened ten years in 1957. On 16 January 1946, the British ordered Japanese POWs to remove a four kilometre stretch of rail between Nikki and Sonkrai; the railway link between Thailand and Burma was to be separated again for protecting British interests in Singapore. After that, the Burma section of the railway was sequentially removed, the rails were gathered in Mawlamyaing, the roadbed was returned to the jungle; the British government sold the railway and related materials to the Thai government for 50 million baht. Japanese soldiers, 12,000 of them, including 800 Koreans, were employed on the railway as engineers and supervisors of the POW and rōmusha labourers.
Although working conditions were far better for the Japanese than the POWs and rōmusha workers, about 1,000 of them died during construction. Many remember Japanese soldiers as being cruel and indifferent to the fate of Allied prisoners of war and the Asian rōmusha. Many men in the railway workforce bore the brunt of uncaring guards. Cruelty could take different forms, from extreme violence and torture to minor acts of physical punishment and neglect; the number of Southeast Asian workers recruited or impressed to work on the Burma railway has been estimated to have been more than 180,000 Southeast Asian civilian labourers. Javanese, Malayan Tamils of Indian origin, Chinese and other Southeast Asians, forcibly drafted by the Imperial Japanese Army to work on the railway, died in its construction. During the initial stages of the construction of the railway and Thais were employed in their respective countries, but Thai workers, in particular, were to abscond from the project and the number of Burmese workers recruited
The Corps of Royal Engineers just called the Royal Engineers, known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. It provides military engineering and other technical support to the British Armed Forces and is headed by the Chief Royal Engineer; the Regimental Headquarters and the Royal School of Military Engineering are in Chatham in Kent, England. The corps is divided into several regiments, barracked at various places in the United Kingdom and around the world; the Royal Engineers trace their origins back to the military engineers brought to England by William the Conqueror Bishop Gundulf of Rochester Cathedral, claim over 900 years of unbroken service to the crown. Engineers have always served in the armies of the Crown. In Woolwich in 1716, the Board formed the Royal Regiment of Artillery and established a Corps of Engineers, consisting of commissioned officers; the manual work was done by the Artificer Companies, made up of contracted civilian artisans and labourers. In 1772, a Soldier Artificer Company was established for service in Gibraltar, the first instance of non-commissioned military engineers.
In 1787, the Corps of Engineers was granted the Royal prefix and adopted its current name and in the same year a Corps of Royal Military Artificers was formed, consisting of non-commissioned officers and privates, to be led by the RE. Ten years the Gibraltar company, which had remained separate, was absorbed and in 1812 the name was changed to the Corps of Royal Sappers and Miners; the Corps has no battle honours. In 1832, the regimental motto, Ubique' &'Quo Fas Et Gloria Ducunt, was granted; the motto signified that the Corps had seen action in all the major conflicts of the British Army and all of the minor ones as well. In 1855 the Board of Ordnance was abolished and authority over the Royal Engineers, Royal Sappers and Miners and Royal Artillery was transferred to the Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, thus uniting them with the rest of the Army; the following year, the Royal Engineers and Royal Sappers and Miners became a unified corps as the Corps of Royal Engineers and their headquarters were moved from the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, to Chatham, Kent.
The re-organisation of the British military that began in the mid-Nineteenth Century and stretched over several decades included the reconstitution of the Militia, the raising of the Volunteer Force, the ever-closer organisation of the part-time forces with the regular army. The old Militia had been an infantry force, other than the occasional employment of Militiamen to man artillery defences and other roles on an emergency basis; this changed with the conversion of some units to artillery roles. Militia and Volunteer Engineering companies were created, beginning with the conversion of the militia of Anglesey and Monmouthshire to engineers in 1877; the Militia and Volunteer Force engineers supported the regular Royal Engineers in a variety of roles, including operating the boats required to tend the submarine mine defences that protected harbours in Britain and its empire. These included a submarine mining militia company, authorised for Bermuda in 1892, but never raised, the Bermuda Volunteer Engineers that wore Royal Engineers uniforms and replaced the regular Royal Engineers companies withdrawn from the Bermuda Garrison in 1928.
The various part-time reserve forces were amalgamated into the Territorial Force in 1908, retitled the Territorial Army after the First World War, the Army Reserve in 2014. In 1911 the Corps formed the first flying unit of the British Armed Forces; the Air Battalion was the forerunner of the Royal Flying Royal Air Force. In 1915, in response to German mining of British trenches under the static siege conditions of the First World War, the corps formed its own tunnelling companies. Manned by experienced coal miners from across the country, they operated with great success until 1917, when after the fixed positions broke, they built deep dugouts such as the Vampire dugout to protect troops from heavy shelling. Before the Second World War, Royal Engineers recruits were required to be at least 5 feet 4 inches tall, they enlisted for six years with the colours and a further six years with the reserve or four years and eight years. Unlike most corps and regiments, in which the upper age limit was 25, men could enlist in the Royal Engineers up to 35 years of age.
They trained at the Royal Engineers Depot in the RE Mounted Depot at Aldershot. During the 1980s, the Royal Engineers formed the vital component of at least three Engineer Brigades - 12 Engineer Brigade. After the Falklands War, 37 Engineer Regiment was active from August 1982 until 14 March 1985; the Royal Engineers Museum is in Gillingham in Kent. Britain having acquired an Empire, it fell to the Royal Engineers to conduct some of the most significant "civil" engineering schemes around the world; some examples of great works of the era of empire can be found in A. J. Smithers's book Honourable Conquests; the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, commanded by Richard Clement Moody, was responsible for the foundation and settlement of British Columbia as the Colony of British Columbia. The Royal Albert Hall is one of the UK's most treasured and distinctive buildings, recognisable the world over. Since its opening by Queen Victoria in 1871, the world's leading artists from every kind of performance genre have appeared on its stage.
Each year it
Satire is a genre of literature, sometimes graphic and performing arts, in which vices, follies and shortcomings are held up to ridicule, ideally with the intent of shaming individuals, government, or society itself into improvement. Although satire is meant to be humorous, its greater purpose is constructive social criticism, using wit to draw attention to both particular and wider issues in society. A feature of satire is strong irony or sarcasm—"in satire, irony is militant"—but parody, exaggeration, comparison and double entendre are all used in satirical speech and writing; this "militant" irony or sarcasm professes to approve of the things the satirist wishes to attack. Satire is nowadays found in many artistic forms of expression, including internet memes, plays, television shows, media such as lyrics; the word satire comes from the subsequent phrase lanx satura. Satur meant "full" but the juxtaposition with lanx shifted the meaning to "miscellany or medley": the expression lanx satura means "a full dish of various kinds of fruits".
The word satura as used by Quintilian, was used to denote only Roman verse satire, a strict genre that imposed hexameter form, a narrower genre than what would be intended as satire. Quintilian famously said that satura, a satire in hexameter verses, was a literary genre of wholly Roman origin, he was aware of and commented on Greek satire, but at the time did not label it as such, although today the origin of satire is considered to be Aristophanes' Old Comedy. The first critic to use the term "satire" in the modern broader sense was Apuleius. To Quintilian, the satire was a strict literary form, but the term soon escaped from the original narrow definition. Robert Elliott writes: As soon as a noun enters the domain of metaphor, as one modern scholar has pointed out, it clamours for extension; the odd result is. By about the 4th century AD the writer of satires came to be known as satyricus. Subsequent orthographic modifications obscured the Latin origin of the word satire: satura becomes satyra, in England, by the 16th century, it was written'satyre.'
The word satire derives from satura, its origin was not influenced by the Greek mythological figure of the satyr. In the 17th century, philologist Isaac Casaubon was the first to dispute the etymology of satire from satyr, contrary to the belief up to that time. Laughter is not an essential component of satire. Conversely, not all humour on such topics as politics, religion or art is "satirical" when it uses the satirical tools of irony and burlesque. Light-hearted satire has a serious "after-taste": the organizers of the Ig Nobel Prize describe this as "first make people laugh, make them think". Satire and irony in some cases have been regarded as the most effective source to understand a society, the oldest form of social study, they provide the keenest insights into a group's collective psyche, reveal its deepest values and tastes, the society's structures of power. Some authors have regarded satire as superior to non-comic and non-artistic disciplines like history or anthropology. In a prominent example from ancient Greece, philosopher Plato, when asked by a friend for a book to understand Athenian society, referred him to the plays of Aristophanes.
Satire has satisfied the popular need to debunk and ridicule the leading figures in politics, economy and other prominent realms of power. Satire confronts public discourse and the collective imaginary, playing as a public opinion counterweight to power, by challenging leaders and authorities. For instance, it forces administrations to amend or establish their policies. Satire's job is to expose problems and contradictions, it's not obligated to solve them. Karl Kraus set in the history of satire a prominent example of a satirist role as confronting public discourse. For its nature and social role, satire has enjoyed in many societies a special freedom license to mock prominent individuals and institutions; the satiric impulse, its ritualized expressions, carry out the function of resolving social tension. Institutions like the ritual clowns, by giving expression to the antisocial tendencies, represent a safety valve which re-establishes equilibrium and health in the collective imaginary, which are jeopardized by the repressive aspects of society.
The state of political satire in a given society reflects the tolerance or intolerance that characterizes it, the state of civil liberties and human rights. Under totalitarian regimes any criticism of a political system, satire, is suppressed. A typical example is the Soviet Union where the dissidents, such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Andrei Sakharov were under strong pressure from the government. While satire of everyday life in the USSR was allowed, the most prominent satirist being Arkady Raikin, political satire existed in the form of anecdotes that made fun of Soviet political leaders Brezhnev, famous for his narrow-mindedness and love for awards and decorations. Satire is a diverse genre, complex to classif
Hellfire Pass is the name of a railway cutting on the former Burma Railway in Thailand, built with forced labour during the Second World War, in part by Allied prisoners of war. The pass is noted for the harsh conditions and heavy loss of life suffered by its labourers during construction. Hellfire Pass is so called because the sight of emaciated prisoners labouring at night by torchlight was said to resemble a scene from Hell. Hellfire Pass in the Tenasserim Hills was a difficult section of the line to build, it was the largest rock cutting on the railway, coupled with its general remoteness and the lack of proper construction tools during building. A tunnel would have been possible to build instead of a cutting, but this could only be constructed at the two ends at any one time, whereas the cutting could be constructed at all points despite the excess effort required by the POWs; the Australian, British and other allied Prisoners of War were required by the Japanese to work 18 hours a day to complete the cutting.
Sixty-nine men were beaten to death by Japanese guards in the six weeks it took to build the cutting, many more died from cholera, dysentery and exhaustion. However, the majority of deaths occurred amongst labourers whom the Japanese enticed to come to help build the line with false promises of good jobs; these labourers Malayans, suffered the same as the POWs at the hands of the Japanese. The Japanese kept no records of these deaths; the railway was never built to a level of lasting permanence and was bombed by the Royal Air Force during the Burma Campaign. After the war, all but the present section was closed and the line is now only in service between Bangkok and Nam Tok Sai Yok Noi. There are no longer any trains running on this stretch of the line; the nearest railway station is at Nam Tok Sai Yok Noi, where trains of the State Railway of Thailand can be taken for a trip over the Whampo Viaduct and across the bridge over the River Kwai to Kanchanaburi, the nearest major town and tourist base.
Visitors to the museum base themselves in Kanchanaburi. The Hellfire Pass Memorial Museum and the preservation of the Hellfire Pass itself had its origins in 1983 when former Prisoner of War J. G. Morris toured the area in Thailand and resolved to convince the Australian Government that portions of the Thai-Burma Death Railway should be preserved as an historical site; as a result of his efforts, the Snowy Mountains Engineering Corporation was commissioned in 1984 to make a survey of the railway to choose a suitable site. Jim Appleby, a SMEC engineer at the Khao Laem dam-site on the upper Kwai Noi, did much of the ground work and passed his reports to the Australian-Thai Chamber of Commerce in 1985; the first Dawn Service was held at the Hellfire Pass on Anzac Day, 1990, the preservation and museum developed through efforts by both the Thai and Australian governments. The museum is co-sponsored by the Royal Thai Armed Forces Development Command and the Australian government at the site to commemorate the suffering of those involved in the construction of the railway.
It was built by the Office of Australian War Graves and opened by the Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard. As a part of the museum experience, it is possible to walk through the cutting itself and along a section of the former railway track bed. An audio tour including recorded memories of surviving POWs is available at the museum. In 2006, proposals to create a railway network linking eight south-east Asia countries would see a railway link restored between Thailand and Myanmar, it is not clear if this would follow the original Death Railway route through Hellfire Pass, since this route was built and to low standard of curves and gradients. The Japanese Thrust — Australia in the War of 1939–1945, Lionel Wigmore, AWM, Canberra, 1957. Authenticated Records from Japanese POW camps along the Thai-Burmese railway 1942–45, second floor, Research library, Thai-Burma Railway Centre, Thailand, 2008. Prisoners of the Japanese - POWs of World War II in the Pacific, Gavan Daws
H. M. S. Pinafore, it opened at the Opera Comique in London, on 25 May 1878 and ran for 571 performances, the second-longest run of any musical theatre piece up to that time. H. M. S. Pinafore was Gilbert and Sullivan's fourth operatic collaboration and their first international sensation; the story takes place aboard the ship HMS Pinafore. The captain's daughter, Josephine, is in love with a lower-class sailor, Ralph Rackstraw, although her father intends her to marry Sir Joseph Porter, the First Lord of the Admiralty, she abides by her father's wishes at first, but Sir Joseph's advocacy of the equality of humankind encourages Ralph and Josephine to overturn conventional social order. They declare their love for each other and plan to elope; the captain discovers this plan, but, as in many of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, a surprise disclosure changes things near the end of the story. Drawing on several of his earlier "Bab Ballad" poems, Gilbert imbued this plot with mirth and silliness; the opera's humour focuses on love between members of different social classes and lampoons the British class system in general.
Pinafore pokes good-natured fun at patriotism, party politics, the Royal Navy, the rise of unqualified people to positions of authority. The title of the piece comically applies the name of a garment for girls and women, a pinafore, to the fearsome symbol of a warship. Pinafore's extraordinary popularity in Britain and elsewhere was followed by the similar success of a series of Gilbert and Sullivan works, including The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado, their works known as the Savoy operas, dominated the musical stage on both sides of the Atlantic for more than a decade and continue to be performed today. The structure and style of these operas Pinafore, were much copied and contributed to the development of modern musical theatre. In 1875, Richard D'Oyly Carte, managing the Royalty Theatre for Selina Dolaro, brought Gilbert and Sullivan together to write their second show, a one-act opera entitled Trial by Jury; this proved a success, in 1876 D'Oyly Carte assembled a group of financial backers to establish the Comedy Opera Company, devoted to the production and promotion of family-friendly English comic opera.
With this theatre company, Carte had the financial resources, after many failed attempts, to produce a new full-length Gilbert and Sullivan opera. This next opera was The Sorcerer, which opened in November 1877, it too was successful. Sheet music from the show sold well, street musicians played the melodies. Instead of writing a piece for production by a theatre proprietor, as was usual in Victorian theatres, Gilbert and Carte produced the show with their own financial support, they were therefore able to choose their own cast of performers, rather than being obliged to use the actors engaged at the theatre. They chose talented actors, most of whom were not well-known stars and did not command high fees, to whom they could teach a more naturalistic style of performance than was used at the time, they tailored their work to the particular abilities of these performers. The skill with which Gilbert and Sullivan used their performers had an effect on the audience. For until no living soul had seen upon the stage such weird, yet intensely human beings....
Conjured into existence a hitherto unknown comic world of sheer delight." The success of The Sorcerer paved the way for another collaboration by Sullivan. Carte agreed on terms for a new opera with the Comedy Opera Company, Gilbert began work on H. M. S. Pinafore before the end of 1877. Gilbert's father had been a naval surgeon, the nautical theme of the opera appealed to him, he drew on several of his earlier "Bab Ballad" poems, including "Captain Reece" and "General John". Some of the characters have prototypes in the ballads: Dick Deadeye is based on a character in "Woman's Gratitude". On 27 December 1877, while Sullivan was on holiday on the French Riviera, Gilbert sent him a plot sketch accompanied by the following note: I have little doubt whatever but that you will be pleased with it.... There is a good deal of fun in it. Among other things a song for the First Lord – tracing his career as office-boy... clerk, junior partner and First Lord of Britain's Navy.... Of course there will be no personality in this – the fact that the First Lord in the Opera is a Radical of the most pronounced type will do away with any suspicion that W. H. Smith is intended.
Despite Gilbert's disclaimer, audiences and the Prime Minister identified Sir Joseph Porter with W. H. Smith, a politician, appointed First Lord of the Admiralty despite having neither military nor nautical experience. Sullivan was delighted with the sketch, Gilbert read a first draft of the plot to Carte in mid-January. Following the example of his mentor, T. W. Robertson, Gilbert strove to ensure that the costumes and sets were as realistic as possible; when preparing the sets for H. M. S. Pinafore and Sullivan visited Portsmouth in Ap
Hanover or Hannover is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 inhabitants make it the thirteenth-largest city of Germany, as well as the third-largest city of Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen; the city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, is the largest city of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund and Bremen. Before it became the capital of Lower Saxony in 1946, Hanover was the capital of the Principality of Calenberg, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover, the Province of Hanover of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Province of Hanover of the Free State of Prussia, of the State of Hanover. From 1714 to 1837, Hanover was by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The city is a major crossing point of railway lines and highways, connecting European main lines in both the east-west and north-south directions. Hannover Airport lies north of the city, in Langenhagen, is Germany's ninth-busiest airport; the city's most notable institutions of higher education are the Hannover Medical School with its university hospital, the University of Hanover. The Hanover fairground, due to numerous extensions for the Expo 2000, is the largest in the world. Hanover hosts annual commercial trade fairs such as the Hanover Fair and up to 2018 the CeBIT; the IAA Commercial Vehicles show takes place every two years. It is the world's leading trade show for transport and mobility; every year Hanover hosts the Schützenfest Hannover, the world's largest marksmen's festival, the Oktoberfest Hannover. "Hanover" is the traditional English spelling. The German spelling is becoming more popular in English; the English pronunciation, with stress on the first syllable, is applied to both the German and English spellings, different from German pronunciation, with stress on the second syllable and a long second vowel.
The traditional English spelling is still used in historical contexts when referring to the British House of Hanover. Hanover was founded in medieval times on the east bank of the River Leine, its original name Honovere may mean "high bank". Hanover was a small village of ferrymen and fishermen that became a comparatively large town in the 13th century, receiving town privileges in 1241, due to its position at a natural crossroads; as overland travel was difficult, its position on the upper navigable reaches of the river helped it to grow by increasing trade. It was connected to the Hanseatic League city of Bremen by the Leine, was situated near the southern edge of the wide North German Plain and north-west of the Harz mountains, so that east-west traffic such as mule trains passed through it. Hanover was thus a gateway to the Rhine and Saar river valleys, their industrial areas which grew up to the southwest and the plains regions to the east and north, for overland traffic skirting the Harz between the Low Countries and Saxony or Thuringia.
In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover were built, as well as a city wall with three city gates. The beginning of industrialization in Germany led to trade in iron and silver from the northern Harz Mountains, which increased the city's importance. In 1636 George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruler of the Brunswick-Lüneburg principality of Calenberg, moved his residence to Hanover; the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg was elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor to the rank of Prince-Elector in 1692, this elevation was confirmed by the Imperial Diet in 1708. Thus the principality was upgraded to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover after Calenberg's capital, its Electors become monarchs of Great Britain. The first of these was George I Louis, who acceded to the British throne in 1714; the last British monarch who reigned in Hanover was William IV. Semi-Salic law, which required succession by the male line if possible, forbade the accession of Queen Victoria in Hanover.
As a male-line descendant of George I, Queen Victoria was herself a member of the House of Hanover. Her descendants, bore her husband's titular name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were concurrently Electoral Princes of Hanover. During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover, the monarchs visited the city. In fact, during the reigns of the final three joint rulers, there was only one short visit, by George IV in 1821. From 1816 to 1837 Viceroy Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover. During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Hastenbeck was fought near the city on 26 July 1757; the French army defeated the Hanoverian Army of Observation, leading to the city's occupation as part of the Invasion of Hanover. It was recaptured by Anglo-German forces led by Ferdinand of Brunswick the following year. After Napoleon imposed the Conv